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ASME 193 and 193M

Alloy steel and SS bolting for high temp/high pr. And other
special purpose apps

- For pressure vessels, flanges, fittings for high temp/high pr.


- Bars/wires – hot wrought, may be processed by centreless grinding/cold working.
- Austenitic SS may be carbide solution treated / with strain hardening
- For lower range of high temperature A354 must be considered.
- For low temp apps, specs mast be from A320/A320M.

General requirements and ordering info


Order shall include

- Heat treated condition


o Carbide solution treated (class 1)
o Carbide solution treated after finishing (class 1A)
o Austenitic SS (Class 1B)
o Carbide solution treated Nitrogen bearing SS (class 1C)
o Carbide solution treated by cooling rapidly from rolling temp (class 1D)
o Carbide solution treated and strain hardened (class 2/2B/2C)
- Description of items required (bars, bolts, studs etc)
- Nuts (if required) (from 13.1)
- Supplementary requirements
- Coatings – they are prohibited unless specified by purchaser

Common requirements
Confirm to A962/A962M

Include test methods, finish, thread dimensions, macrotech (alloy steel only),
marking, certification, optional requirements.

Manufacture (process)

-Steel must be produced by open hearth, basic oxygen, electric furnace or vacuum
induction melting

- quality A1962/A962M
Heat treatment

Ferritic Steels

- Allowed to cool to temp below cooling transformation range immediately after


rolling or forging
- Then uniformly reheated to proper temperature to refine a grain (quenching
Charge)
- Quenched in a liquid medium under substantially uniform conditions for each
charge and tempered.

- Intentional addition of Bi, Se, Te, Pb isn’t permitted.


- For bar size over 90 mm carbon content may be 0.5 % max
- For B7M grade, min 0.28 % C is required
- Brinell hardness shall be over 200 HBW (93 HRB)
- For ¾ in size and smaller max 241 HBW (100 HRB) ….. For M20 and smaller
- 1 ½ inch and over, core properties are lower than surface ….. For M38 and over

- Water quenching is prohibited for any ferritic grade when heat treatment is
performed after heading/threading
- Except when permitted below for B6X, cold drawn material must be stress relieved
- Min stress relieve temp shall be 55 c below tempering temp
- B6 and B6X shall be held at tempering temp for min 1 hr
- Cold working after heat treatment is permitted for B6X provided that final
hardness meets requirements
- B7 and B7M shall be heat treated by quenching in a liquid medium and tempering
- B7 may be heat treated by the furnace, induction, electrical resistance method.
- B16 may be heated to 1000-1700 c and then oil quenched.
- All austenite ss must be carbide treated

Mechanical properties

- Tensile properties
o Full size fasteners may be wedge tensile tested
o Full size specimen results will prevail over tensile specimen test
- Hardness requirements
o B7M – max 235 HBW or 99 HRB
o Min 200 HBW or 93 HRB
o Electromagnetic testing can be used over mechanical testing if sampling is
done adequately
o Test to be performed on the end

Workmanship, Finish and appearance


- Points shall be flat and chamfered or rounded at option
- Point length shall be more than one or more than two complete threads
- Unless otherwise specified bolt heads shall be in accordance with ASME B 18.2.1
- Unless otherwise specified heavy hex heads (1/8 “ larger width than normal hex)
shall be used for nominal body diameters of 30 mm or less.

Retests
Twice the original number of tests performed, and each component should pass the
conformation.

Test Specimens
- Number of tests
o For heat treated bars, one tension test for each diameter of each heat lot
o No fewer than test performed for 9000 kg lot or less.
o Every additional 4500 kg requires one additional tensile test
o Specimens for which length is 3 times more than diameter or more must be
full specimen tested.
o Wedge testing shall be limited to socket head cap screw, hex, sq., 12 pt.
flange
- Nuts
o A194
- Certification
o Specs as mentioned in A962
o Also include chemical analysis, macrotech examination, mech testing done
and heat process employed.

Appendix 1

Strain hardening of austenitic steels


Strain hardening is the increase in strength and hardness that results from plastic
deformation below the recrystallization temperature(cold work)

Done by reducing oversized bars to smaller final shape

Limited by total amount of c/s, die angle, bar size.

SMALLER THE BAR , GREATER THE PENETRATION OF STRAIN HARDENING.

HENCE THE STUD IS MOST LIKELY TO BE STRONGER THAN A BOLT.

Appendix 2

Use of coating above approx. ½ the melting point of coating is not recommended

Unless consideration of solid and liquid metal embrittlement is considered.

Zinc melts at 415 c, hence app is limited at 210 c.

Cadmium melts at 320 c, hence the app is limited at 160 c.