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22960-3PS-PL-003 Plant Layout and Piping Design QUESTIONARY

Q1 What should be the design temp. for steamtraced piping ?

A1 Fluid temp. or 11oc below saturation temp. of tracing steam,whichever is greater.

Q2 To reduce the thermal expansions and absorb excess stresses what should be used in pipe routing ?

A2 Expansion loops.
Q3 What should be the min. clearance between bare pipes or insulated pipes ?
A3 100 mm
Q4 Pipe supports from below or hanging from above ,which is prefered ?
A4 Pipe supports from below .
Q5 What is the min. size of the pipe for providing shoes for insulation ?
A5 minimum 2" diameter.
Q6 If multiple pipelines running below road or rail lines then how piping to be crossed ?
A6 Either sleeved or through culverts.
Q7 Can block valves be placed upstream on steam and boiler feed water service relief valves ?
Q8 For 2500 lb rating pressure service which type of valving is required ?
A8 Double block and bleed valves.
Q9 Guid and line stops are provided at the discharge of each relief valve. Why ?
A9 To withstand the relief valve reaction forces.
Q10 Drip legs are provided on all steamlines at all low points and dead ends. Why ?
A10 For complete condensate removal.
Q11 Why steamtraps are used at low points of steamelines ?

A11 For discharging high pressure steam to low pressure steam or to condensate system for condensate recovery.

Q12 Why and where are steamout connections used ?

A12 For purging of vessels and pipelines containg hydrocarbons or hazardious fluids except crygenic and LPG.

Q13 In P & ID how are the process lines (to be steamtraced) indicated ?
A13 By dotted lines.
Q14 For which pipe line steamtracing required ?
Above the ground level the liquid pipe lines which subjected to freezing and if the liquid cannot circulated,
steamtracing is required.
Q15 For nitrogen which piping are used ?
A15 Hard piping.
Q16 In steam piping from where the branch connections are made from header ?
A16 From the top of the header.
In cooling water system from where the branch connections for 2" dia. Or below from large diameter header
line ?
A17 From the top of the header.
Q18 Where should the control valve to be located ?
A18 At grade or on conveniently accessible platforms.
Q19 What should be the min.pipe size for providing strong backs for external level instruments ?
A19 minimum 2" diameter.
Q20 From where should the orifice taps be taken for horizontal flow of steam,gas and liquid ?
A20 For gas- vertically upward, steame- horizontal or 45o upward, liquid- horizontal or 45o downward
Q21 Which type of welding to be done for pipe nipples in orifice flanges ?
A21 Seal welding
Q22 How the piping in column to be located about the column ?
A22 Radially to the column.
What should be the min. clearance between vertical column piping and column/vessel ? (between outside of
colum and back side of pipe)
A23 300mm for non-insulated vessel/column and 150mm for insulated one
Q24 Should the valve or flanges of column/vessel bottom piping be inside the skirt ?
A24 NO
Q25 What should be the prefered distance between the centerline of manhole to platform level ?
A25 min. 610 mm and max. 1070 mm from bottom of manhole to plateform level.
Q26 Generally where should the davit of vertical column/vessel located ?
A26 At the top of column/vessel.
What should be the gap between the drain point of vessel/column to the drain hub of underground system and
why ?
A27 50 mm and for plain/clear visible.
Q28 While doing exchenger piping what should be taken care always ?
A28 Easy removal of tube bundle for maintenance with out any restriction or obstacle.
Q29 Which type of reducer prefered for horizontal pump suction nozzle piping ?
A29 Eccentric type reducer with flat on top.
Q30 Which type of valve is prefered on pump discharge piping before first block valve ?
A30 Check valve.
If a positive displacement pump is not equipped with a built-in-relief valve, then what has to be considered while
piping design ?
A relief valve has to be installed in the discharge piping between the pump nozzle and first block valve and same
has to be discharged in to pump suction line.
Q32 what are the shapes of the units in plant layout generally ?
A32 Rectangular shapes of max. 183 X 92 in meters.
Q33 Where does the flare generally locate in a plant unit ?
A33 Up wind of the process plant.
Q34 Where should the pump locate ?
A34 Close to the associated equipment to minimise lenth of suction pipe line.
Q35 Where should the compressors generally locate with respect to heaters ?
A35 Downwind from heater and adjacent to road.
Q36 What should be the min. distance between centrifugal and reciprocating compressor ?
A36 min. 7.6 mtrs
Q37 What should be the min. space between spheres and tanks ?
A37 30 mtrs
Piperack Design QUESTIONARY
Q1 What are tha primary data required for the detailed development of a piperack design ?
A1 1.specification,2.project design data,3.plot plan,4.flow diagrams
Q2 What are the classification of the pipelines in the pipe rack ?
A2 1.process lines,2.utility lines,3.relief-line headers,4.steamline headers
Q3 Why a pocketed relief-line is more expensive ?
A3 Because an extra condensate pot is required with its associated instruments,valves and pumps.
Q4 Where should the relief-line header be kept in the pipe rack generally ?
To avoid pockets,generally relief-line header should be at higher elevation i.e. above the main pipe rack on a tee
support attached to extended rack column.
Q5 What is the classification of utility lines in the pipe rack ?
1.utility headers serving equipments in the whole plant,2.utility lines either individually serving one or two
equipment items or a group of similar equipment.
Q6 Why the branch connections are generally taken from the top of the steam header ?
A6 To avoid excessive condensate drain-age to the equipment.
Q7 What are spandrels ?
A7 Spandrels are horizontal structural members located along the longitudinal centre line of the pipe rack.
Q8 Why are spandrels used ?
A8 Spandrels are used for structural stability, pipe supports or intermediate pipe bents.
Q9 Where a doubling the column spacing required ?
A9 To cross roadways or underground obstructions.
Q10 How much space should left while designing a pipe rack for future expansion ?
A10 min 20%
Q11 Why the flanges of two adjacent pipelines are staggered in a pipe rack ?
A11 For easy pipe routing, optimising rack width and to avoid clash of pipe lines
Q12 What is the general sequence of pipelines on one level pipe rack ?
Regardless of service, heavy pipe lines are placed over or near the supporting columns,all process lines and
relief-lines are placed next to the heavy lines and in the central position all the utility lines are run.
Q13 Why hot lines on a rack are grouped togather ?
A13 As they required expansion loops and easy to design a common support for all.
Q14 For two level pipe rack how the pipelines are accommodated ?
Generally all process lines on bottom bank and all relief-lines,utility lines along with electrical and instrument
cable trays are on top bank.
Q15 What is the minimum clearance required below the pipe rack ?
A15 minimum 3.5 mtrs.
Q16 What is the preferable location for a pipeline having orifice flanges on a pipe rack ?
Nearer to the edge of the pipe rack with orifice flanges close to a rack column for easy access with portable
Q17 The lines are not located over the centre line of the column of a rack. Why ?
A17 The column can be extended for future rack expansion.
Q18 Where should the shut-off valves be located in a rack generally ?
The shut-off valves at utility headers are located inside rack area in the horizontal position,directly above the
header,if room permits.
Q19 Where are the control valves usually located ?
A19 Below pipe rack, nearer to steel columns for convenient support.
Q20 How the growth of a utility header can ce determined ?
A20 Growth of a utility header = coefficient of expansion x length of the line
Q21 Up to what level of a pipe rack the fire proofing has to be done ?
For a normal pipe rack , if hydrocarbon are prevalent then fire proofing has to be done up to the level below the
A21 lower rack support beam and if air cooler or other equipments are located above piperack then the fireproofing is
to be extended up to the eq
Q22 What should be the allowance for fire proofing ?
A22 Allowance needed as much as 4 '' (100mm) of fire proofing.
Q23 What are the consideration for a turning in pipe rack ?
For a flat turn the line sequence on the leftside of the rack remains same.If the line sequence has to change
then the elevation has to change for a 90o turn.
What has to consider to avoid the clash of pipe lines coming from opposite direction and normal to a main pipe
rack ?
A24 The secondary rack has to shift by one bay of main pipe rack.
Q1 What is a drum ?
Drum is a cylinderical hallow steel vessel usedin process plants as an intermediate containers. Ex.
Reflux,surge,suction etc.
Q2 What are the categories of drums ?
A2 1.Horizontally mounted, 2.Vertically mounted.
Q3 What is a deaerator ?
A3 Deaerator is usually an integral part of steam drum.
Q4 Where drums are generally located ?
A4 Normally located with in the process unit either adjacent to related equipment or as a standalone operation.
Q5 Where generally flashdrum and deaerator are located ?
A5 Above the piperack.
Q6 By which the elevation of a drum is dictated ?
A6 Drum elevation is dictated by NPSH.
Q7 Where generally chemical collection drums are located ?
A7 Below ground in a concrete pit.
Q8 How vertical drums are supported ?
Large vertical drums are supported by skirts,small vertical drums are supported by legs and by lugs if elevated
with in the structure.
Q9 How horizontal drums are supported ?

A9 Horizontal drums are supported by saddles from concrete piers or steel frames if elevated with in the structure.

Q10 What has to be considered while locating the drums furnished with mixer ?
A10 Removal space should be provided for future maintenance.
Q11 While design piping of a drum what has to be considered ?
A11 1.Drum location with respect to equipment,2.nozzle location/orientation, 3.platform arrangement etc.
Q12 For a low elevated drum, where to route the discharge piping of a relief valve open to atmosphere ?
A12 To be routed to a safe and convenient location.
Q13 How to avoid the pressure drop of inlet piping of relief valve ?
A13 The inlet piping has to be routed as short as possible.
Q14 What has to be taken care while designing platform arrangement for a drum ?
A14 Easy access for level, pressure, temp. gauges and valves,level controllers,swithes etc.
Heat Exchanger Piping QUESTIONARY

Q1 What are the different types of heat exchanger according to their functions ?
1.exchangers, 2.coolers, 3.subcoolers,4.chillers, 5.heaters, 6.reboilers, 7.waste heat boiler, 8.steam
Q2 What are the different types of heat exchanger according to their construction ?
A2 and tube,2.plate exchanger,3.spiral heat exchanger,4.double pipe exchanger ,5.air cooler exchangers
Q3 How to locate an exchanger w.r.t. the equipments associated to a system ?
The location should be choosen with a view towards reducing the amount of piping required to connect the
system,easy access for operation,maintenance,escape route.
Q4 What is the preferable position of spiral and plate exchangers ?
It is preferable to position the spiral and plate exchangers in single insteade of serise and parallel for easy
operation,maintenance,escape route.
Q5 Where should the condensate pot located for a steamoperated exchanger ?
To keep the elevation of the condensate pot as low as possible the heat exchanger, should be located at
grade level in horizontal position if plant operation permits.
Q6 Why a certain amount of clear space is maintained for air coolers ?
A6 As per the air drawing capability of the air cooler and to ensure the performance of the air cooler.
Q7 How to utilise the free space on the both sides of a shell and tube exchanger ?
A7 It can be used by placing the contols and supports for pipng.
Q8 Where the controls are placed for the spiral and plate exchanger ?
Controls for a spiral exchanger are placed at the ends unit, clear of the cover plate swing area and at the front
and on one side for the plate exchangers
Q9 What should be the clearance for piping (BOP) grade level ?
For normal piping the gap shoould be 300mm and if a drain point is there then the gap should be 100mm from
the drain plug to grade level.
Q10 What is the min headroom required ?
A10 2.2 mtrs.
What is the recommended height of the top of a stacked exchanger with out having additional permanent
platform ?
A11 max. 3.7 mtrs
Q12 What is the tolerance for a concrete which supports the exchangers by poured and anchor bolted ?
A12 Tolerance is 1/4".
Q13 What is the tolerance for each individual flanged joints of a piping?
A13 Tolerance is 1/16".
Air Cooler Piping QUESTIONARY

Q1 How air coolers are different from exchangers ?

A1 The cooling medium used in air cooler is circulating air instead of liquid.
Q2 List some parts of an air cooler system ?
1.Fin tube bundle with headers on both sides,supported to horizontally by a steel frame of structure,2. dampers,
3. baffles,4. by passes and 5.heating coils
Q3 What are the type of air coolers ?
A3 1. forced draft type, 2. induced draft type.
Q4 How a forced draft type air cooler is different from an induced draft type ?
In forced draft type air cooler,the tube bundles located on the discharge side but in induced draft type it is on
suction side.
Q5 Why forced draft type air coolers are prefered mostly for cooling liquids (not very hot)?
Forced draft units are easier to manufacture and maintain, the tube bundles are mounted on the top side of the
plenum, so it can be removed and replaced.
Q6 Why forced draft type air coolers are not prefered for very hot process fluids ?
A6 As the fan is exposing to a very hot exhaust air.
Q7 How the nozzles are arranged for air coolers in odd pass ?
For odd pass arrangement the inlet nozzles are mounted on the top of the header box, the outlet nozzles are at
the opposite end and mounted on the bottom of the header box.
Q8 How the nozzles are arranged for air coolers in even pass ?
For even pass arrangement the inlet nozzles are mounted on the top of the header box, the outlet nozzles are
mounted on the bottom of the header box but in the same side as inlet.
Q9 When does spilt header box employed in air coolers ?
When the temp. difference between inlet and outlet of multipass bundle exceed 200oF (110oC),along with U-
tube construction,split header box are employed.
Q10 To protect the process tube bundle against freeze up,what are provided ?
A10 Heating coils with single pass covering entire width of process bundle.
Q11 Where the air coolers are generally installed ?
A11 Above the pipe rack.
Q12 Why a platform with clear headroom is required below the air coolers ?
A12 For maintenance of drivers i.e. motor,shaft,belt,fan,blades etc.
Q13 How to calculate the total weight of an air cooler ?
Total weight of an air cooler is the sum of the weight of (tube bundle filled with water,plenum
Q14 What are the priliminary piping load considered for piping ?
A14 1.Vertical,2.Horizontal,3.Transverse
Q15 Why dose the piping of an air cooler not allowed over the tube bundle ?
A15 It must required clear space for future maintenance.
Q16 How to route the piping of an air cooler specified for condensing fractionating tower overhead ?

A16 It must be routed in such a manner that to avoid the liquid pocket formation in between the equipment nozzles.

Q17 What will happen if a liquid pocket formed it the pipeline connecting from a column over head to air cooler ?
The liquid pocket will accumulate and slug the cooler resulting in possible damage to the cell and cooler
Q18 How to route the condensate liquid vapour line from the cooler outlet to accumulator ?
A18 The piping must be routed flowdown or horizontal to the accumulator.
Q19 What is cascade piping ?
Q20 For more than six inlet nozzles, how to design a single process line header for an air cooler ?
A20 The single process line must split to feed two headers capable up to six nozzles each side.
Q21 Why should a stop to be provided in the common header axis at the point where it bifurcates ?
A21 To allow uniform expansion on both side of the header.
Q22 What are the basic informations required for stress analysis for air coolers ?
1.weight of equipment, 2.weight of equipment filled with water,3.fixed and free end of the header
box,4.displacement at the free end of the header box,5.GA of the air cooler.
Q23 What is stress modelling ?
Q24 What are the load cases ?
Fired Heater Piping QUESTIONARY

Q1 What is a fired heater ?

Fired heater raises the temp. of the gas or the hydrocarbon liquid to meet specific process needs with physical
and chemical changes also.
Q2 What are the basic parts of a fired heater ?
A2 1.radiant coils/tube section, 2.burner section, 3.convection section, 4.stack, 5.insulations
Q3 What are the types of fired heaters ?
A3 type, 2.circular type, 3.pyrolysis, 4.reformer.
Q4 How the coils are mounted in the radian section of box or circular type fired heater ?
In box type the coils are mounted in a row of horizontally or verticaclly but in circular type they are mounted
helically or vertically.
Q5 Why the product tubes are located at the centre of the radiant section of pyrolysis heater ?
A5 Becouse of a relative short residence time, high heat transfer rate with equal temp. distribution.
Q6 Through which the pre-heated process fluid flows in to the reformer fire heater ?
A6 Through catalytic filled tubes.
Q7 What is blowdown steam ?
A7 It is used for cleaning or removal of products for the inlet piping in the event of fire .