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CHAPTER 2: BASIC CONCEPT OF TRANSFORMER DESIGN

In this chapter, an overview of design procedure of a transformer has been


presented. It describes how the selection of different values of design parameters
affects the transformer design and its performance. MATLAB programs have been
developed to investigate the effect of varying the flux density, current density and
the ratio of flux/ ampere-turn (‫ )ܭ‬on transformer main dimensions and its
performance.

2.1 Effect of Varying Design Input Parameters on the Performance of


Transformers
The basic concept of transformer design starts with the selection of number of turns
in a transformer and it is related with the equation ‫ܧ‬௧ = ‫( ܳ√ܭ‬76). Here ‫ ܭ‬is
constant and its value is given by the guidelines in (77), ܳ is the kVA rating of
transformer and ‫ܧ‬௧ is volt/turn.

2.1.1 Effect of Varying ۹


The values of ‫ ܭ‬for different types of core and shell type transformers are tabulated
in Table 2.1 (77)

Table 2.1 Value of constant ࡷ for Different Types of Transformers


Transformer Type ۹
Single phase shell type 1.0 to 1.2
Single phase core type 0.75 to 0.85
Three phase shell type 1.3
Three phase core type (distribution) 0.32 to 0.47
Three phase core type (power) 0.6 to 0.7

A MATLAB program has been developed to demonstrate the effect of varying ‫ ܭ‬on
the performance of transformer. The effect of variation of ‫ ܭ‬on no-load losses, load
losses, efficiency and percentage impedance for a 100 kVA 11/0.433 kV distribution
transformer is shown in Figure 2.1 to 2.4.
Variation of no-load losses with K
350

340

No load losses (W) 330

320

310

300

290

280

270
0.34 0.36 0.38 0.4 0.42 0.44 0.46 0.48
Value of K

Figure 2.1 Variation off No-Load Losses with K


In Figure 2.1, we see that as ‫ ܭ‬increases, no-load losses also increase. This is
due to the fact with increase in ‫ܭ‬, volt per turn ‫ܧ‬௧ also increases, which results in
increased iron area. Increased iron area results in increased iron weight. Iron
loss which depend on iron weight, therefore increases, which is reflected in
Figure 2.1.

2050
Variation of load losses with K

2000
Load losses (W)

1950

1900

1850

1800

1750

1700

1650
0.34 0.36 0.38 0.4 0.42 0.44 0.46 0.48
Value of K

Figure 2.2 Variation of Load Losses with K


Figure 2.2 shows that as ‫ ܭ‬increases, load losses reduce. With increase in ‫ܭ‬, iron
area increases, these results in larger length of the mean turn of winding, this in turn
has the effect of increasing the resistance. However, with increased ‫ܧ‬௧ , the number
of turns reduce, which has the effect of decreasing the resistance. The decrease of
resistance with increased ‫ܧ‬௧ , offsets the increase in resistance due to larger length
of mean turn. Therefore, overall resistance decreases, which results in less I2R
losses. Therefore, it can be concluded that load losses decrease with increase in ‫ܭ‬.

Variation of efficiency with K


1

0.995

0.99

0.985
Efficiency (p.u.)

0.98

0.975

0.97

0.965

0.96

0.955

0.95
0.34 0.36 0.38 0.4 0.42 0.44 0.46
Value of K

Figure 2.3 Variation Of Efficiency With K

As discussed earlier, iron losses increase with increase in ‫ܭ‬, while load losses
decrease with increase in ‫ܭ‬. However, the decrease in copper losses is much more
than the increase in iron losses. As a result, efficiency increases with increase in ‫ܭ‬,
which is shown in Figure 2.3.
Variation of Percentage Impedance with K
10

Percentage Impedance
7

0
0.34 0.36 0.38 0.4 0.42 0.44 0.46
Value of K

Figure 2.4 Variation of Percentage Impedance with K

In Figure 2.4, we see that as ‫ ܭ‬increases, the percentage impedance of the winding
reduces. With increase in ‫ܭ‬, ‫ܧ‬௧ increases as a result of which number of turns
reduces which in turn reduces the total resistance as well as radial build of HV and
LV winding. The percentage reactance, which depends on radial build of winding,
therefore reduces.

2.1.2 Effect of Varying Flux Density


The value of flux density to be chosen depends on the service conditions and type
of the transformer. The distribution transformer has to be designed for a high all day
efficiency, and therefore the value of flux density should be low to keep down the
iron losses. In the case of power transformers, load losses are to be kept low, as
the average load on these transformers is higher as compared to distribution
transformers. The usual values of maximum flux density ‫ ݉ܤ‬for transformers using
CRGO material are given in Table 2.2 (76).
Table 2.2 Choice of Flux Density for Different Types of Transformers

Transformer Type Flux density (۰‫ ) ܕ‬in Tesla


For transformers upto 132 kV 1.55
For 275 kV transformers 1.6
For 400 kV and generator transformers 1.7 to 1.75

However, in modern distribution transformers, the value of flux density upto 1.7
Wb/m2 is permitted (77). A MATLAB program has been developed to demonstrate
the effect of varying flux density on the performance of transformer, and the results
for 100 kVA 11/0.433 kV transformer are shown in Figure 2.5 to Figure 2.8.

Variation of No-load losses with flux density


260

250

240
No-load losses (W)

230

220

210

200

190

180

170
1.35 1.4 1.45 1.5 1.55 1.6 1.65 1.7
Flux density (T)

Figure 2.5 Variation of No-Load Losses with Flux Density

Iron losses include hysteresis and eddy current loss. Hysteresis loss and eddy
ଵ.଺
current loss both depend on flux density. Hysteresis loss is proportional to ‫ܤ‬௠ ,

while eddy current loss is proportional to ‫ܤ‬௠ . Therefore, iron loss increase with
increase in flux density which is depicted in Figure 2.5.
Variation of load losses with flux density
2450

2400
Load losses (W)

2350

2300
1.35 1.4 1.45 1.5 1.55 1.6 1.65 1.7
Flux density (T)

Figure 2.6 Variation of Load Losses with Flux Density


Figure 2.6 shows that as flux density increases, load loss or copper loss decrease.
This is because with an increase in flux density, core diameter decreases, which in
turn reduces the length of the mean turn of winding. This results in a reduction of
load losses.

Variation of Percentage Impedance with flux density


10

9.5
Percentage Impedance

8.5

7.5

6.5

5.5

5
1.34 1.36 1.38 1.4 1.42 1.44 1.46 1.48
Flux density (T)

Figure 2.7 Variation of Percentage Impedance with Flux Density


As shown in Figure 2.7, with an increase in flux density, due to the reduction of
length of mean turn and due to reduction in the radial build of LV and HV winding,
percentage impedance decreases.

Figure 2.8 shows that with an increase in flux density, core diameter decreases
which results in reduction of core weight. Therefore, it can be concluded that core
weight and hence core material cost reduces with increase in flux density.

Variation of core weight with flux density


235

230

225

220
Core weight (kg)

215

210

205

200

195

190

185
1.35 1.4 1.45 1.5 1.55 1.6 1.65 1.7
Flux density (T)

Figure 2.8 Variation of Core Weight with Flux Density

2.1.3 Effect of Varying Current Density


A simple MATLAB program has also been developed to observe the effect of
varying the current density on the performance of a transformer, and the results
obtained are shown in Figure 2.9 to Figure 2.13.
Variation of load losses with current density
2100

2050

2000
Load losses (W)

1950

1900

1850

1800
2.75 2.8 2.85 2.9 2.95 3 3.05 3.1 3.15 3.2 3.25
2
Current density (A/mm )

Figure 2.9 Variation of Load Losses with Current Density

As shown in Figure 2.9, with an increase in current density, the cross-sectional area
of the conductor reduces (for rated values of HV and LV currents) which results in
increased resistance of the conductor. Increased resistance results in increased I2R
loss. Therefore load losses or copper loss increase with an increase in current
density. However, at a particular value of current density (i.e. 2.95 A/mm2) it is
possible to adjust the HV winding in less number of layers. (This is due to reduction
in cross-sectional area of the conductor). Therefore, copper losses reduce slightly
as the length of mean turn slightly reduces, and then again, an increase is seen in
load losses with an increase in current density.

Figure 2.10 shows that with increase in current density, cross-sectional area is
reduced, (assuming rated LV and HV currents) which results in increased
resistance. Therefore, percentage resistance increases with increase in current
density.
Variation of percentage resistance with current density
2

1.9

1.8
Percentage resistance
1.7

1.6

1.5

1.4

1.3

1.2

1.1

1
2.75 2.8 2.85 2.9 2.95 3 3.05 3.1 3.15 3.2 3.25
2
Current density (A/mm )

Figure 2.10 Variation of Percentage Resistance with Current Density

Variation of percentage reactance with current density is shown in Figure 2.11. It


has been found that percentage reactance remains nearly constant with increase in
current density as the radial build of winding remains unchanged. However, at a
current density of 2.95 A/mm2, it is possible to adjust the winding in less number of
layers which reduces the radial build of winding. Percentage reactance is directly
proportional to the radial build of HV and LV winding. Hence, discontinuity is seen in
the graph of percentage reactance v/s current density, whenever a change in the
number of layers is encountered. This phenomenon is depicted in Figure 2.11.

As percentage impedance also depends on percentage reactance, the same


phenomenon is also observed in the graph of percentage impedance v/s current
density in Figure 2.12.
Variation of percentage reactance with current density
10

9.5

9
Percentage reactance
8.5

7.5

6.5

5.5

5
2.75 2.8 2.85 2.9 2.95 3 3.05 3.1 3.15 3.2 3.25
2
Current density(A/mm )

Figure 2.11 Variation of Percentage Reactance with Current Density


Variation of percentage impedance with current density
10

9.5

9
Percentage impedance

8.5

7.5

6.5

5.5

5
2.75 2.8 2.85 2.9 2.95 3 3.05 2 3.1 3.15 3.2 3.25
Current density (A/mm )

Figure 2.12 Variation of Percentage Impedance with Current Density


Figure 2.12 shows that initially percentage impedance remains nearly constant
when a number of winding layers does not change. However, when it is possible to
adjust the winding in less number of layers, percentage impedance reduces.
Variation of efficiency with current density
1

0.995

0.99

0.985
Efficiency (p.u.)

0.98

0.975

0.97

0.965

0.96

0.955

0.95
2.75 2.8 2.85 2.9 2.95 3 3.05 3.1 3.15 3.2 3.25
2
Current density (A/mm )

Figure 2.13 Variation of Efficiency with Current Density


Percentage resistance increases with increase in current density. This results in
increased load loss. Therefore, efficiency decreases with increase in current
density, which is reflected in Figure 2.13.

2.4 Conclusion
In this chapter, a variation of different design parameters on the performance
of a transformer has been investigated. From the above results, it is found that no
load losses increase as ‫ ܭ‬and maximum flux density ‫ܤ‬௠ increase, however load
losses, and percentage impedance, along with copper weight decrease with the
increase in ‫ܤ‬௠ and ‫ܭ‬.
It is also concluded that with an increase in current density, load losses and
percentage resistance increase; however percentage impedance reduces along
with slight reduction in efficiency.