Anda di halaman 1dari 64

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Powder Coating Plant


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c  c c c )c c  c c JJ$c
" cë2:2cc c cc ccc
c c c :<3c %c c c  c c c  -
% c   c c %-$c c  c
c c+cë2;;ccc %ccc
cc%$c
% c c %c  c c c )c c
c c c  c c %c   c
  cc cëcccc$c
cc c cccccccccc
%c  c
ccc c %c c
$c
Êcc%c ccccccc c
%c c % c c c -..$c
 c c c
-+$c"c c cc%c  cc ccc
c  ccccc% c$c
c

c



 cc 
  c
c
1.) ‘ased on working principle:
c %c cccccccc
cc  cc+ccc  cc c
c c8c
Class 18c c c  c c c c %c c
cë%%c  c cc,cc$c
Class 28c c c c %c   c c c
, c , c c  %c c c c c c c
%c +c c   c $c %c c  c  c
c  c  c c  c  c c  c
7c $cc ccJc.cccc
cc cc  c cJc:ccc
%cc)c  ccccc c-$c
Class 38c c  c c c  c c c   c
c c   c c c c $c c
 c  c %c  c c c  %c c %c   c
 c)c cccc %cc ccc
cc $c
2.) ‘ased on chemical compound
a.) Halocarbon compounds8c & c   c c
c c c $c c  c  c   c c  c
 c c ( ( c(cc" ($c
cc)ccc cccccc
cc+$c

-::-----JJ<cc c c c -:.-----JJ..
-:<-----JJ<c c c c -.:-----J&J.c c
c c c c c c c c c c c c
b.) Azeotropes8c "7c c + c c c
)ccc cc c cc  cc
%cc+c % c$c
  cc
-/33cc + cc2<$=Ecc-:.cc.0$.Ecc-:/.$c
c.) Hydrocarbon8c &% c c c c c c
 cc c$c
&c c % c$c&%c  $c
  ccc
-/3ccccccccccccccccccccccc
cccccc-:23ccccccccccccccccccccccc cc
c -.<3cccccccccccccccccccccc ccc-033ccccccccccccccccccccccc c
d.) Inorganic:
c c% c
$$ccc
-2:2c c c (&<cc c -2;;c c c J.c
c -2:=c c c &.cc c -2.1c c c "c
c -20;c c c .c
e.) Unsaturated O.C.:
%cc%c c$Jc
$$c c
-::.3c c J.&J<c c c -::<3c c J.&.J.c
c -::/3c c J.&;c c c -:.23c c J<&0c

3.) based on safety:


a.) Toxicity classification

cccc)c ccc+%8c
uc Jc"cccc)c+%ccc
ccccccc cc;33c
 4c
uc Jc cccc)ccccc
+%ccc )c;33c $c

b.) Flammability classification
ccccc ccc
  %8c
uc Class 1cccccc)c c
c)ccccc.:FJcc:3:c4c
uc Class 2ccccc)c  %c
 cc cc3$:3c9 <cc.:FJcc:3:cccc
cc cccc:1c594c
uc Class 3ccccc%c  cc
c %cc)c  %c ccccc c
c3$:3c9 <cc.:FJcc:3:cccccc c
ccc cc:1c59$c
c.) Mixtures


+  c)c7cc7 c)c  %c


9c+%cc)c %cccc
 cc c cc ccc
%c cc ccc)ccc
$c
$$c;3;"ccc":c

c
c
c
*
 c  
ccc c

  c


a.) Thermodynamics:
1. ‘oiling point :c cc c ccc( cc)c
 cc)c c$c
2. Freezing point:c 7c c  c c c
  $c
3. Evaporating Pressure8c c c c c%c
 c c cc cc  cc
c$cc
4. Condensing pressure8ccJc c c c)cc
c c $c
5. Latent heat of vaporization8c c !c c c 7c
 c c  c c c c c c
$c cccc c cc$c
6. Critical temperature and pressure:c  c c
   cc%ccc $c
ccccccc%ccë c c
c) c c+c)c $c
7. Compression Ratio8cJ cc c cc cc
 c)cccc $c
8. Coefficient of performance8ccJcc cc
 cccJccc$c
9. Conductivity8c J %c  c c %c c c 7c c
cccc $c
10. Specific heat8ccc c cc cc $c

b.) Chemical properties:


1. Chemical stability and inertness:cc c  cc
 cc cc ccc cc% 7$c
-:.c cc//3c
J.c cc:333c
.c cc:0/3c
c c c$cc cc$c
2. Action on rubber or plastic8cccccc
% c)c cccc % c%c cc
c %c$c
3. Flammability8c ! c )c c c c .1;$.c c
c c %c   $c c c .c c c
$c
4. Effect of refrigerant on oil8c c c  c c c
)c c  c c )c c c c  c
c ccccccc $c

5. Effect of refrigerants on commodity8c c  %c c c


ccc cc c$ccccc
%c ccAc$c
-:.c c cccc %c
-2:2c c cc %c
6. Toxicityc "c +c c c c )c c   c c
 c cc cccccc $c
c
   
 g 8c
1. Smell: "ccc c% cccc
c c$c
2. Viscosity8c c  c c c  c c   c c c c
 ccc% c c $c
3. Dielectrical strength8c ccc c c
)c c c  c c  c  c  c c
 c ccc ccc$c
c
d.) Safety criteria:
:$c+%c
.$c  %c
<$c"ccc
;$c cc+c  c
c
e.) Economic criteria:
:$cJccc
.$cccc
<$ccc
;$c" %cc %c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
($!(''%*cp$( ,%!%c $(!p"%c
c

Jc  c c c c % c c c  c


c c  c c c  %c  c  c c c
c c J.c c c .c c $c Jc  c c
cccccccccccc cccccc  ccccccccc
J.ccc.cccccccccc)ccccccccc$c
cc + c)c%cc cc  c%c
ccc cc ccccccc
c  c c c )$c c c c c c c c ccc
 ccc%cccccc ccccccccc ccc
ccc %cccc ccccccccccccccccccccc
ccccccccc ccc cccccc cccc
 cJ.c$cc
c
c c c %c c c  c c
c %ccc ccccccccccccccccc
$ccc cccccccccccc cccccc cccGccc
c  c c c Gc c c c c c H c c c ccc
 cccGcccccccccccc)ccc c %cccccccc
c c c c % $c c c c HGc c c c c c )c c c c c c c  ccccc
cccccc cccccccH Gcccccc)cccccc
 c c c c c c  c c c  c c c c c c )c c c c c c  ccc
)c c c  c c c c c   %$c % c %c c
c)c 7c c%cc cc.c ccc
cccccccccJ.cccccccc)cccccccc ccc ccc
 ccc ccccccc ccc c
%ccc $cc
  cc  c
p c
J"c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c  c c c c c c c c c   ccc
 c c c c c c   c c c %c c c c c
  c c c c )c c c c c )c %c )%c c
)$cc ccc%cccc.ccJ.cc
cc ccccc)c cc8cc
ccccc$cccccc
ccccc $cc cccc
ccccc$cccccccccc
ccccc$ccc  cc
ccccc$cccc  %ccccccc
ccccc$ccccccc c cc
ccccc$cc)cc ccc
ccccc$cccc%ccccc
c
ccccccccccccccccccccc)ccc cccccc
cccccJ.ccccccc.cc+ccc
c c c c %c c c )c %c c  $c c
cccc cJ"cc c 7cc
)8cc
ccccc:$c c "c  c c c c  c )c c
 c c  c + c  c %c c
+cc c- cc- ccc
ccccc.$cc"c ccccc%cc   c cc
ccc.c)cc% c)cc c%cc
ccc%  cc
ccccc<$cc"ccc+ccccccccc ccc)ccccccccc ccc
  ccccccccc cccccccccccc%cc
ccccc;$cccccc+c cc c cc
c c J.c c c c 7% c c c  c
 cc
ccccc/$c c "c c  %c c  c  c c  c c c
 %cccc
ccccc0$cc "c  c c c c % c  c c  c J c c ccc
c cccc%c %cccc
ccccc2$c c "c  c c c % c )c c  c
c %cc $cc
ccccc=$c c  c %c  c  c c c   ccc
 c % c ) c )c c c c c  c c
%c cc
ccccc1$cc
 cc c  cc c c)c. cc
J.c cc
cccc:3$c"cccccccc c)cc
c c  c c c c c c c c c c
ccccc  c$cc
Fruits and Vegetables Storage under CA
c %cc cc cc%cccc
c c)ccc+cccccc  c%$c
" c c  c . c c  c c J.c c c
$ccc
cccccc1/Eccccccccc%cccccccccccc
ccc$cccccc  ccc cccc ccc
%c c c c  c c c c  c c
c  c c c c c c c c c c
 c )c  c $c c c c c c cccc
  cccc cccccccccccccc  ccccccccc
 % c  c c  c  $c (c c
 c c c c c   c c  ccc
ccc ccc ccc ccc ccccccccccccccc
cccccccccc  cc$cc
c
 c+ ccJ"c cc ccc c:cc
.$cc
c
Icc c:c
:$ccc cJ"c cc %cc%c$cc
.$cc-cc%$cc
<$cc')cccccc ccc %ccccccJ. cccccc)ccc.$ccc ccc
  cccccc%ccc ccc c ccccc
$cc
;$c -c c % c c c  c c c Jc c
 $cc
/$c c #c c c %c c J"c 4c  c
cc  ccc )$c
c

Species Temper. RH (%) O2(%) CO2(%) Time


°C
":c 29:.c 13c .-<c <-c:3c .c c

J%.c 3c 1/c <-c:3c :3-c:.c <3c%c

')<c 3c 1=c .c ;-/c 2c c

(;c -3$/93c 1/c .c /c /3c%c

Species Temper. RH (%) O2(%) CO2(%) Time


°C
;c -3$/93c 1/c .c ;-/c ;3c%c

 /c 3c 1/c .c /c ;/c%c

 c:$cJc ccc c  ccë c  % c


$$ c:1=/cc

cc
c

Species Temper. O2 (%) CO2 (%) Time


°C
" c :-;c :3-:0c :3-:;c :3-:/c%c
"c 3-c:c .-;c .-<c .3-./c%c
c 3c .-<c /-c:3c :3c%c
J c 3c .-<c ;-/c <-;c c
J )c 3c <-;c /-2c ;3-/3c%c
J  c :.c :-;c 3c .3c%c
c -:c <c /c 2c c
c c 2c <-;c ;-/c :3c%c
!c 3c .-;c /-c:3c /c c
c 3c :-.c 3-:c 1c c
 c .c <-;c .-<c <3-;3c%c

 c .$c Jc  c c c  c  c c ë c
 % c$$ c:1=/cc

Atmosphere Conditioning
c  c c .c c c c c  c c c
%c c %c c c  c  c c %c .c
 cc %ccc %cc$ccc cc
 c c .c)c c c %c c c c c )c
:/-./c % c )c c )c c c c c c c c $ccc
6c c c c c c - c c c % c c c c c c  c c c .c c c c ccc
 cccccccccc0-=Ec)c.;cccc  c
)c c c c c c c c c c c
$cc
c  c c .c c c c c %c c c  c c
c c   c )c c /FJ$c &) c )c c
 c %c c c  c c c c c  c c c c c
 c %+ c )c )c c c c   c c
c c c %c c  c  c c )c c  c
cc ccc$cc
ccc cccccccccccc ccccccccc cccccc
c c c %c c c  c c c c c c %c c c  c c c %c %$c
)c c c c c c c  c  c  c c
 $cc
c c  c c .c c c c  c c  c
%c cccë %c) cc)%c c%  cc
%c c  c (.c !)c .c )c c %c c
c  c c %c c c - c
 c c  c  c c c  c  c
c c c  c c  c c c $c (c
c %c c c c  c c c
c% $cc
c
c
c
(cc cc cc %cc

c
(cc% c c  ccc
pc   c!c
A gas tight room is an obvious prerequisite for achieving a good
controlled atmosphere. Thus it is necessary to make room walls
gas -tight. In order to ensure that the walls were gas tight to CA
storage they were lined with sheets of galvanized steel.
Doors may be mounted on a sliding rail, as pictured to the left.
Or, they may be mounted to open vertically on overhead rails, as
pictured to the right.

The bottoms and tops of the steel sheets were embedded in


mastic (a kind of mortar composed of finely ground limestone,
sand, litherage and linseed oil) and, where sheets abutted on the
walls and ceiling, a coating of mastic was also applied. Modern
controlled atmospheres stores are made from metal-faced
insulated panels (usually polyurethane foam) , which are
fitted together with gas tight-patented locking devices. The joints
between panels are usually taped with gas tight tape or painted
with flexible plastic paint to ensure that they are gas tight.
Major areas of the store where leaks can occur are the doors.
Having rubber gaskets around the perimeter, which correspond
to another rubber gasket around the doorjamb or frame so that
when the door is closed the two meet to seal the door, usually seal
these.
Sealed CA rooms go through many pressure changes during the
storage season. There is a danger of damaging the walls or ceiling
of the rooms if proper measures are not taken to absorb the
pressure changes. Pressure/vacuum relief valve is a simple
solution to the problem. ›ith this valve mounted externally to a
4" pipe penetrating one wall of the room, a non-threatening
pressure level can be kept in the room. ›here there is a pressure
difference between the store air and the outside air there can be
a difficulty in retaining the store in completely gas tight condition.
Stores are therefore fitted with pressure release valves, but these
can make the maintenance of the precise gas level difficult,
especially the O2 level in the ultra low O2 store.

c
 cccc ccc c+c cc cccc
"c +c c %c c c c c c c  c c
  c c  c $c c c c c c c c c c c c c ccc
ccc%ccccccccccccccc ccccccccc
)cccc ccccccccc$ccccccccccccccc ccc
ccccccccc)ccc  %ccc ccc
c c )c c c c c c c  c c c )c
)c cc ccccc$ccccccccccccccc+ccc
ccc ccc ccc ccc cccccccccccccccc
c cccc ccc c+c cc
c c c  c c c $c 6c c c
ccÊ-)c+%cëÊ!ccc  cc ccc
cccccccc)cccccccccc %$ccc cc c c
c  c )c c 9c c c c c c c
J"c ccc  c cc) ccc
+%cccc $cc

Temperature Control
c c)%ccc  cc cccc
 c c c c c c c %c c c  c c c ccc
ccc cccccccccccc  cccccc
cccccccccccccccccc$cccccJ"cccc
c c c c c %c c c   c c c c c )c c c c c c c c c c c c )c
  $c cccccccc ccccccccc
ccc ccccccJ"ccc$c  cccccc
cccccc %cccccccccccccccccc
c c c c c c $c " c c   c c
 c $c c c c  c c c 4c c
 c c c c c c c c $c "c
  c   c% cc  %ccc
 %cccc  c$ccc cccJ"c
cccccccccc  cccccccc%cc ccccccc3ccc
FJccccccc)cccccccccc)cccccc  cc
  c)c $c" cJ"ccc %cccc
% c )c c c c c c :c % c c  c c c
%cccccc c%$cc


Humidity Control

ccc cccccc  ccc)ccccccccccccJ"ccc


 ccc cccccccccccc % c%cccccc
cccccc cccccc  cccccccccccc  ccc
ccccccccccc$cc  ccc  c
%c c c c c c c c c c c cccc
  ccccccccccc%cccccccccccccc
 cccccccccccc$ccccc  cc
)c  c c c c c   c c )c )c
ccc$cc cc  c cc
cc ccc % c)ccc ccccccccc
ccccccccc  ccc %ccc-$cccccc
c c c c c c  c c c c c   c
 c ccccccc  $cc
"c )c c c  %c c c c c c ccc
c c  c c c  c )c c c c  ccc
cccccc $c cc
c  c )c )c c c c c %c c c
%cc$cc
"c  c)ccc %c)cc ccc
%c ccccccccc ccccccc  ccc
ccccccccc)ccccccccc$cccccc cc
c c c c c %c c )c c c
cc ccccc)cccc)cc7$c
cccc ccc)ccc)ccccc
c  c)cc cccc %ccc$cc
c

Gas Control
c ccc cJ"ccc%c%cc
J.c c .c c c c c c c c %c c  c
c c c c c c c c %$c c %c c c c c c c
 c)c + cc)c cc$cc
c

c
c
 c  c c %7c  c c  c +%c ë3-
./Ecc c+cë3-c:3Ecc%c%7$cc
c c c %c %7c c   %c c c  c
%c c c c $c c c  c )cccc
)c%cc ccc c cccc
c %c  c % c c c %$c c
 c  c c 3$.c  c c c c  c %c
 c c c  c c c  c %c c
 c  c c ')c   c c c c c c )c
ccc c  $cc
c c %c c c % c c J"c  $c J ccc
+c c c c c c +%c c c c c c c c c c c
  cccc)ccc cccc
)c %c c  c  c c $c c c  c c
cc c cc  ccc  cc c
$c cc% cc+c c0cc0.c $cc
c  c c c c  c c %c c c
  cc $cc
c

c
cc% cc

c
)c  c %9 c c c c +%c c
 c + c c c c J"c c c c c $c c  ccc
cccc)ccccccccc 8cccccccccc  ccccccc
c c )c +%c c )4c c c   c c
c  c )c +%c c  c c c  c c c )ccc
 ccc+cccccc4cccccc  cccccc ccc
)ccc ccc+cccc4cccccc  c
ccJ.cc)c c+cc)$cc
ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc

Scrubbers
c  c c c c + c c c c  c
c  cccc ccccccccc  ccc
%c c c c c c c c c c c c  c c c c c c  c c c ccc
%c c   c +c J.c $c c c  c c c c c c %ccc
cccccccccccc  ccc 8cJë&.c ccc
(& c c &. c c c 7 c c c c c c $c c c %c c c ccc
c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c  c c c ë$$c
 cc% cccccccccccc cccccccccccc
 cccc  ccc$ccc ccc cccccc
cccccc %cccccc ccc $ccc c ccc
)cccccc%cccccc  cccccc ccccccccc+cccccc
J.ccc c )% ccccccc )c
 c ccc c  $cc
 c c c c !Jc c c c c
 c J c #+c "%7c c %c c c
 c c c  c $c  c  c c c J.cc
 cc c)c%c%c)c cc
c %c c c  c c %c c c + $c c %c
c c c  c c c c c  c  c  c c c
cccc + $cc
c

| Œcccc

c c c c c   cc


c 
c  c c
 c 
c c 
 c c c c c 
 cc  cc 
cc  c
cccc
c 
c

c cc

Carbon dioxide and Oxygen Damage


J"ccccc cc.ccc )c:E cc
c ccJ.c c cccc)cc
 c cccccc%c$cc
"c c J.c c )c .c %c  c   %c c
  $ccccccJ. c)cc c cc c
c  cc )c ccc c$cc
? %c c c c c c c cccc
 c c  4c  c c c c
%ccc c cccc  cc
c J.c c c c c c   c  c  c c
 $cc
 c+ ccJ"c %cc ccc c<$cc
c

Crop and CO2 CO2 injury O2 O2 injury


cultivars injury symptoms injury symptoms
level level
" cccccccc J<Ec c K:Ec "c
c )c c
 c
" c c J/Ec J.c %c K.Ec "c
c
" c c J:$/Ec J.c %c K:$/Ec  cc
"c J/Ec !cc K:Ec - c
 c
c J2Ec c c K:Ec )ccc c
c c
c
J c J:3Ec #cccc K./Ec - c
cc
c
c J2Ec - c K//Ec - c
c
J%c J<3Ec ) c K:Ec cc c
c - c

c J:3Ec c K.Ec c
c
 c<$c + ccJ"c %cë c c"$' c:11=cc

c
pc*%%'(,%$c
c
c c  c %c  c c  c c c c c c
c c   c c  c c c %c c
c ccc)c+ccc ccc cc
)c  c    c c c )c   c c c c $c
 c  c )c .c c J. c c %c  ccc
 c)cc   cë.c::-c:0E4cccJ.c/-c:3E ccc
 c c %c  c c c  c )c  c
c c .c c J. c  c %c c c c
c ë.c c .-<E4c J.c c .-/E$c
c % c )c .c c
J.ccë%c:-c:$/Ecc3-:Ec)c$cc
ccccc cc.c cJ.cccc
  c c c c  c c %c %c c  c
c c c +c c c c c c   c c c c
cccccc-cÊ!cëÊccc)ccc+%ccc% $c
ccccÊ!cc %cccccc)cccccc
  cc.ccccc  %ccc %c
 ccccccccc cccccccccccc $ccc
cccccccccJ" ccccccc $c&c
J.c c  c ë:3-:/Ec c :3-c :/c %c c c .c c
cc cccccccJ"c$cc
 c c c  c c c c c c c c c J"c c c ccc
c c c % c c c J" c c c c c c )c c c .c c c J.c c c c
c  c c c c  %c  c
 c c c c  cc %c  c c c
  c c )c c  c  c )c -c J.cc
cc)c%$cc
pc$!p ,(!$c
c
"c c c c c c c c c c c c   c c c c c c c c c  c c c ccc
 ccccccccc %cccccccëc$c
Jcccc ccccccc
c c cc %c%cccccc  cccccc
c c c  $c J"c c c c c  c c  c c c ccc
 cccccccccccccccc cc cccccc
-cc$cccccccccc
cc %c)ccccc cc c%c% c
ccccc/ <c9cc  c c c% cc c
)c: <c$cc% c cccc ccc
cccc8cc
ccccc:$c c c c c  c c c c  c c
c)cccccc ccc cc
ccccc.$c c c
 c %c c c c c c c %c
cc
ccccc<$c c c c c c c c c c c %c
)c  c c c c c  c %c c )c  c
%cc
c
cc cccccccc
 cccc.)cc c ccJ.$c
ccccc c c ccc%c
ccccc c)cc cc $cc
c
c  c )c c  c % c c J.c c
c %cccccccccc
c cc.c$cccc c %ccc
c  c c  c   c c  c c c %  c c c
 cc  c/-0c $cc)cc ccc+%ccc
 c c  c )c c %c  c )c c
 ccc$cc
c
c c c c c c .c c c c
c  c c c c J.c $c c  c c
)c c   c %c c c )c c c c  c )c
c)cc cccc)cc c
c   cccc c$ccccccccc
ccc  ccccc ccc cccc)cc%ccc
) c c :33c FJc c c c c J.c c c %$c c
% ccccccc  c)c)c
c c c   c c )c   c c c c c
  $cccc cc %cc ccc
 c  c c  c c c c )c c c  cc
)$c c "c   c c cc c c c c  c   c
ccc %ccc)cccccc ccc)cccccccccccc
c c c c $c c c c c c +%c  c c
 c %c c c J.c  c c c c
%cc cccc c)cc cc
cc  $cc
c
!%è%!%% c
c

  c"$'$cc:11=$cJc" cccc ccc


c?  cJ" c cÊ'$cc
 % c $$ c :1=/ c Jc  c c c c c " c
c"$cc$c c! c()c>$cc
 c $' c :1=1 c c c c %c c  c
 c  c $cc
c Jc % c $c 6 c  c
)))$$ cc
c