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Event title

Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

Experiences in stress
measurements and the application
in Panel Caving mining projects

Patricio Cavieres
Codelco Chile – El Teniente Division
Chile

www.acg.uwa.edu.au 4 June 2014 | InterContinental Santiago Hotel, Chile


Event title
Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

Contents
 First words …
 Stress measurements methods at El Teniente Mine
 Deep and/or far‐point stress measurements methods
 Stress measurements vs Numerical Modelling
 Stress measurements at differents Engineering phases
in Panel Caving (PC) mining methods
 Conclusions, Closing words & Discussion …

www.acg.uwa.edu.au 4 June 2014 | InterContinental Santiago Hotel, Chile


Event title
First Words … Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

 Introduction
 Scalar vs Vector vs Tensor
 Uncertantities in the stress measurements (Geo4)
 Errors in stress measurements
 Can I follow this presentation …?

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www.acg.uwa.edu.au 4 June 2014 | InterContinental Santiago Hotel, Chile
Event title
Introduction Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

 This presentation resumes my experiences (including


the lessons learned) in stress measurements and its
relationship with Project Mining in Panel Caving
method.
 To present the advantages and disadvantages for
differents stress measurements methodologies.
 To discuss about the standarization of the stress 
measurements for the cycle of the Panel Caving
mining projects … Scoping, Prefeasibility, Feasibility
and Detail Engineering & Construction.

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www.acg.uwa.edu.au 4 June 2014 | InterContinental Santiago Hotel, Chile
Event title
Stress: Scalar vs Vector vs Tensor
Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

 Scalar: it is a number (magnitude)


 Vector: scalar plus aplicattion point & direction (Si)
 Tensor: 3 vectors, perpendicular each other (S1, S2, S3)

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Event title
Uncertantities in the stress … GEO
Stress Measurement 4
and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

 GEOlogy … types of lithologies, faults


 GEOthecnics … GEOlogy plus Numbers (ff, UCS, etc.)
 GEOmetry … shape & dimensions, locations
 GEOmechanics … stresses (it is only one example)

www.acg.uwa.edu.au
www.acg.uwa.edu.au 4 June 2014 | InterContinental Santiago Hotel, Chile
Event title
Uncertantities in the stress … GEO
Stress Measurement 4
and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

 GEOlogy … types of lithologies, faults

200E

400E

600E

800E

1000E

1200E

1400E

1600E

1800E

2000E
00E
200W
 Location 2000N 2000N

800N 1800N

 Shape 600N 1600N

 Dimensions
400N 1400N

200N 1200N

A N1
FALL

000N 1000N

AC
FALL

800N 800N

G
FALLA

600N 600N

400N 400N

FA
LL
BA
200N 200N

A P
FALL

00N 00N

S
A
LL
FA 1
R
200S SU 200S
N
TE
L LA
FA

400S 400S

600S 600S

800S 800S
00E

00E

00E

00E

00E

00E
00W

00E

0E

0E

0E
0E

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www.acg.uwa.edu.au 4 June 2014 | InterContinental Santiago Hotel, Chile
Event title
Uncertantities in the stress … GEO
Stress Measurement 4
and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

 GEOthecnics … GEOlogy plus Numbers (ff, UCS, etc.)


 Values of the properties (unique value, average
& deviation, …)
 Type of assays … for example, how to get the
fault properties … it is not easy

www.acg.uwa.edu.au
www.acg.uwa.edu.au 4 June 2014 | InterContinental Santiago Hotel, Chile
Event title
Uncertantities in the stress … GEO
Stress Measurement 4
and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

 GEOmetry … shape & dimensions, locations


 Cave back: conceptual model
 How can we check it? … the “geometric blindness”

Ángulo Subsidencia
Subsidence angle

NarizNose

Extraction
Ángulo angle
Extracción

30%
30% of extraction Losa
Beam
Extracción
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Event title
Uncertantities in the stress … GEO
Stress Measurement 4
and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

 GEOmechanics … stresses (it is only one example)


 Many stress measurements from differents sites
 Analysis for each site: number of overcorings
(tests)
 Selection of the sites: which criteria?. Pre‐mining
sites?. Are you sure …?.
 Use of unique value vs average & deviation
 Stresses changes … because of cavities changes … 
because of the time drawn on

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Stress measurements Stress measurements
Event
until year 1992 title
Stress Measurement between
and Stress Modelling years for
– Implications 1993 and Workshop
Extraction 1997

Cavity at year 1990 Cavity at year 1995

Stress measurements Stress measurements


between years 1998 and 2002 between years 2003 and 2007

Cavity at year 2000 Cavity at year 2005


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www.acg.uwa.edu.au 4 June 2014 | InterContinental Santiago Hotel, Chile
Event title
Errors in stress measurements
Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

 Amadei & Stephansson, 1997 (“Rock stress and its
measurements”, Preface):
 +/‐ 10 to 20%: error in magnitude
 +/‐ 10 to 20°: error in orientation
 In “CHILE” rock mass

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www.acg.uwa.edu.au 4 June 2014 | InterContinental Santiago Hotel, Chile
Event title
Can I follow this presentation …?
Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

 But, the rock mass is not “CHILE” …


 What could be the error? … At least over 20% / 20°
 Because of the uncertantities and the errors … are we
going to the unknown …?

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www.acg.uwa.edu.au 4 June 2014 | InterContinental Santiago Hotel, Chile
Event title
Stress measurementes at
Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

El Teniente Mine

 Timeline in El Teniente Mine’s stress measurements


 Stress measurements methods at El Teniente Mine
 Similarities and differences
 Advantages and disadvantages
 Lessons learned 

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Event title
Timeline in El Teniente’s stress …
Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

 Year 1972: first stress measurements at El Teniente 


Mine. USBM overcoring methodology (Guajardo, P.; 
1987).
 Until 1988: USBM methodology.
 Since year 1988 until 1990: CSIR Doorstoper
overcoring methodology.
 Since year 1990 until today: CSIRO Hollow Inclusion
(HI) overcoring methodology.
 Years 2005 and 2007: first deep and/or far‐point
stress measurements methods by Acoustic Emision / 
Oriented core methodology. 
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Event title
Stress measurementes methods …
Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

 All of them are overcoring methodologies

 USBM  CSIR Doorstoper  CSIRO HI

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Event title
Similarities and differences
Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

 USBM & Doorstoper use 2D cells (stresses coming from 1 


DDH)
 USBM & Doorstoper requiere 3 non‐parallel DDHs to get
the 3D stresses
 USBM & HI require 2 DDH diameters (1,5 & 6 inches)
 Doorstoper & HI use no recoverable cells (epoxy glue)
 Doorstoper & HI use calibrated cells from the factory
 Only Doorstoper requires 1 DDH diameter (2‐3/8 inches)
 Only HI gets both elastic properties from a biaxial 
chamber
 Only HI requires 1 DDH to get the 3D stresses (3D cell)
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www.acg.uwa.edu.au 4 June 2014 | InterContinental Santiago Hotel, Chile
Event title
Advantages and disadvantages
Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

 If we expect disking … use Doorstopper


 If we use HI … there are two factories (warning)
 Only Doorstoper requires 1 DDH and uses a fast epoxy
glue … but uses a 2D cell
 Only HI uses a 3D cell, as conclusions needs only 1 DDH
 2 differents DDH diameters requires more diamond
drilling machine tools (USBM & HI: 1,5 & 6 inches)
 1 DDH (HI) implies less time than the 3 DDHs (USBM & 
Doorstoper), because of the length of drilling and the
change of orientation in the diamond drilling machine

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Event title
Lessons learned Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

 Verify the references: axis (X, Y, Z) and orientation


(azimuth & plunge) of the mine coordinates
 Verify the perpendicularity between S1, S2, S3
 Verify that S1 > S2 > S3
 Verify the calculus methodology utilized … this is part
of the tracking of the obtained results
 Verify the calibration of the biaxial chamber
 Verify the communication or protocol between the
operational and the calculation people … not always
are the same people … some times is the reason for
errors
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www.acg.uwa.edu.au 4 June 2014 | InterContinental Santiago Hotel, Chile
Event title
Deep and/or far-point stress
Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

measurements methods (year 2005)

 Deep and/or far‐point stress measurements methods


 Borre Probe, DCCBO, Acoustic Emision, HF
 Similarities and differences
 Advantages and disadvantages
 Why AE was selected?
 Lessons learned

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www.acg.uwa.edu.au 4 June 2014 | InterContinental Santiago Hotel, Chile
Event title
Deep and/or far-point stress …
Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

 4 Deep and/or far‐point stress measurements methods


were explored from the technical point of view:

 Borre Probe (BP)
 Downward Compact Conical‐ended Borehole
Overcoring (DCCBO)
 Acoustic Emision (AE)
 Hydraulic Fracturing (HF)

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Event title
BP methodology Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

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Event title
DCCBO methodology Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

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Event title
AE methodology Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

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Event title
HF methodology Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

www.acg.uwa.edu.au
www.acg.uwa.edu.au 4 June 2014 | InterContinental Santiago Hotel, Chile
Event title
Similarities and differences
Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

 The BP, AE and HF work very well in down drillholes


 The BP, DCCBO and AE are 3D stress measurements
methodologies
 The BP, DCCBO and HF need to capture information
directly at the sites … generally by a datalogger
 The AE is a subproduct from a geotechnical core … in 
this case is an oriented core
 All of them need only one DDH (diamond drillhole)
 Only BP needs 2 drillhole diameters

www.acg.uwa.edu.au
www.acg.uwa.edu.au 4 June 2014 | InterContinental Santiago Hotel, Chile
Event title
Advantages and disadvantages
Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

 The BP, DCCBO & HF requires a special equipment and 


expert professionals people at the site, both issues
makes complex the work in an underground mine 
because of any operational contingency or eventuality
 The DCCBO does not have enough experiencie in 
inclined down drillholes
 The AE,  is the least invasive and less interference … 
this is very important in an underground mine
 Because of HF is a 2D stress measurements
methodology … it is not convenient to apply in 
irregular terrestrial surfaces (like the mountains)
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www.acg.uwa.edu.au 4 June 2014 | InterContinental Santiago Hotel, Chile
Event title
Why AE was selected?
Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

 It is the least invasive and less interference


 It does not require a special equipment and expert
professionals people at the site
 There are at least two companies that make the AE 
stress meaurements

Year 2005, first campaign

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Event title
Lessons learned Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

 Make a HI stress measuremenst to check the results


from AE (oriented core technique)
 Make the AE stress measurements at least in two
differents laboratories … send the same samples
(cores), get both results and check each other
 Verify the calculus methodology utilized in the
laboratory … this is part of the tracking of the
obtained results
 Verify the communication or protocol between the
site / field and the laboratory people … not always are 
the same … some time is the reason for errors
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Event title
Stress Measurements vs
Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

Numerical Modelling
 How many stress measurements are need?
 Where should be located?
 Stress measurements sites vs Numerical Modelling
 Uncertantities and errors … Geo4 once again
 Errors in Numerical Modelling
 How can we improve the Stress Numerical Model?
 Montecarlo simulation vs Rosenblueth method
 Lessons learned

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www.acg.uwa.edu.au 4 June 2014 | InterContinental Santiago Hotel, Chile
Event title
How many stress measurements …?
Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

 There is no a unique criteria to define the required


number of stress measurements … at least I dont know
 Generally, the number of stress measurements depend
on the teamwork criteria that is working about …
 Some times, the number of stress measurements
depend on the Project budget … the “terrible scissors”
 In other opportunities … the number of stress 
measurements are restricted because of operational
reasons (for example … interferences)

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www.acg.uwa.edu.au 4 June 2014 | InterContinental Santiago Hotel, Chile
Event title
Where should be located?
Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

 There is no a unique criteria to define the locations of 


the stress measurements … at least I dont know
 Generally, the locations of stress measurements depend
on the teamwork criteria that is working about …
 The results from numerical modelling … some times 
defines the locations of the stress measurements … 
depend on the “hot spots”
 In other opportunities, the locations of stress 
measurements are restricted because of operational
reasons (for example … interferences)

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www.acg.uwa.edu.au 4 June 2014 | InterContinental Santiago Hotel, Chile
Event title
Stress sites vs Numerical Modelling
Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

 In‐Situ Stress measurements vs Numerical Model:


 Error formula (Itasca & El Teniente Codelco, 1990)
 Generaly the error, at the best, is over 35%
 The “perversion” … while more in‐situ stress 
meaurements bigger is the error … if we have only
one stress measurements the error could be zero!

  model insitu
(  ) 2

 insitu
( ) 2

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Event title and Stress Modelling – Implications4for Extraction Workshop
Uncertantities and errors … GEO
Stress Measurement

 GEOlogy … limitations in the input of types of 


lithologies, faults
 GEOthecnics … limitations in the input of the
properties
 GEOmetry … limitations in the geometry construction
 GEOmechanics … confusion in the input of the
stresses … for example: referencial axis, orientation
 Remember … the numerical models allow only simple 
numbers

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Event title
Errors in Numerical Modelling
Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

 GEOmetry … shape & dimensions, locations


 Remember … stresses changes … because of cavities
changes … because of the time drawn on

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www.acg.uwa.edu.au 4 June 2014 | InterContinental Santiago Hotel, Chile
Event title
How can we improve the Stress …?
Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

 The Stress Numerical Model can be improve by: 


 Calibrate & validate the model using the pre‐
mining and induced stress measurements
 Select the “clean” stress measurements … if you
have sites near to the litologies contacts or faults … 
and the model are no able to input them … the
interpretation of the results is too complex
 Try to duplicate the most real geometry of the
problem … 2D is necessary in simple geometries … 
3D is more recommendable in complex geometries
 Make no deterministic analysis … 
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Event title
Montecarlo vs Rosenblueth …
Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

 No deterministic numerical modelling (orientation


example)

S1

 Montecarlo  Rosenblueth
S2
(1000 iterations) (13 scenaries)

S3

Cuello D. et al, 2010

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Event title
Montecarlo vs Rosenblueth … Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

 Input & Output from Rosenblueth analysis


Scenary Sxx Syy Szz Sxy Sxz Syz
Base 34,81 37,23 25,45 -1,08 -4,36 -0,53
Sxx + 43,87 37,23 25,45 -1,08 -4,36 -0,53
Sxx - 25,75 37,23 25,45 -1,08 -4,36 -0,53
  ( mod el insitu )2
Syy +
Syy -
34,81
34,81
46,21
28,25
25,45
25,45
-1,08
-1,08
-4,36
-4,36
-0,53
-0,53
 ( insitu ) 2

Szz + 34,81 37,23 30,60 -1,08 -4,36 -0,53


Szz - 34,81 37,23 20,30 -1,08 -4,36 -0,53
Sxy + 34,81 37,23 25,45 6,17 -4,36 -0,53
Sxy - 34,81 37,23 25,45 -8,33 -4,36 -0,53 Average
Sxz + 34,81 37,23 25,45 -1,08 -1,81 -0,53 Scenary Site 1 Site 2 Site 3 Site 4
error
Sxz - 34,81 37,23 25,45 -1,08 -6,91 -0,53 Base 21% 47% 48% 48% 41%
Syz + 34,81 37,23 25,45 -1,08 -4,36 7,69 Sxx+ 39% 57% 38% 48% 46%
Syz - 34,81 37,23 25,45 -1,08 -4,36 -8,75 Sxx- 27% 50% 46% 51% 44%
Values in MPa Syy+ 28% 51% 46% 52% 44%
Syy- 35% 49% 38% 48% 43%
Szz+ 22% 39% 50% 41% 38%
Szz- 24% 49% 48% 50% 43%
Sxy+ 42% 39% 44% 46% 43%
Sxy- 18% 48% 49% 48% 41%
Sxz+ 27% 50% 47% 52% 44%
Sxz- 23% 41% 44% 42% 38%
Syz+ 24% 30% 53% 32% 35%
Cuello D. et al, 2010 Syz- 29% 50% 48% 49% 44%

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www.acg.uwa.edu.au 4 June 2014 | InterContinental Santiago Hotel, Chile
Event title
Lessons learned Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

 We apply the maximum effort in order to have a good 
precision in the Stress Numerical Model … but the 
uncertainties & errors do not help us to get it.

 We can resume the previously paragraph in one of the 
Murphy’s Law:
“Rule for precision: 
Measure with a micrometer … 
Mark with a chalk ... 
Cut with an axe” 

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Event title
Stress measurements at differents
Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

Engineering phases in PC methods


 Engineering phases in PC methods and its relationship
with the stress Numerical Model
 It is good to copy from the Mine Planning practices
 How much should be the investment in the stress 
measurements?
 How many stress measurements are suggested?
 Which stress measurements methods are suggested?
 Lessons learned

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Event title
Engineering phases in PC methods …
Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

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Event title
Engineering phases in PC methods …
Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

 Scoping: lithostatic weigth (Sz) & Kx (Sx) / Ky (Sy), 


conceptual model (if you have it)
 Prefeasibility: is there access? … at least one stress 
masurement (conventional or deep‐far point)
 Feasibility: idem to PFS … some times there is at least
one access (early developments)
 Detail Engineering and Construction: there are many
access … define the number and locations of the
stress measurements by some criteria

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Event title
It is good to copy from the Mine Planning …
Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

 Finishing the Prefeasibility Study PC Mining Project

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Event title
It is good to copy from the Mine Planning …
Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

 Finishing the Feasibility Study PC Mining Project

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Event title
It is good to copy from the Mine Planning …
Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

 Mine Operation

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Event title
How much should be the investment …?
Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

 One example … the Geological exploration

 DDH separation (mesh) <= 50 m
 Distance between grade assays = 6 m
 DDH Cost = 250 – 350 USD/m 
 How much money is …?

 One stress measurement = USD 40.000 (HI 


methodology reference)
 The stress meauserements are an investment … 
not an expense
www.acg.uwa.edu.au
www.acg.uwa.edu.au 4 June 2014 | InterContinental Santiago Hotel, Chile
Event title
How many stress measurements …?
Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

 Following the example: the footprint is 200 x 600 m


 DDHs each 50 m for reserves calculation, means 5 x 13 
DDHs = 65 DDHs inside the footprint
 Each DDH is 100 m long
 The DDH cost is about USD 300
 Total cost = 65 x 100 x 300 = MUSD 2 aprox.
 Each HI stress measurements cost about kUSD 40
 At identical budget from the Mine Planning point of 
view, number of stress measuremets should be equal
to MUSD 2 / kUSD 40 = 50! … but, the experience
shows that this number is maximum 5 (if we are lucky)
www.acg.uwa.edu.au
www.acg.uwa.edu.au 4 June 2014 | InterContinental Santiago Hotel, Chile
Event title
Which stress measurements methods …?
Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

 There is no a unique criteria to define the stress 


measurements methodology for the differents Projects
engineering phases… at least I dont know
 Generally, the stress measurements methodology
depend on the teamwork criteria that is working about

 Some times, the stress measurements methodology
depend on the Project budget … the “terrible scissors”
 In other opportunities … the stress measurements
methodologies are restricted because of operational
reasons (for example … interferences)
www.acg.uwa.edu.au
www.acg.uwa.edu.au 4 June 2014 | InterContinental Santiago Hotel, Chile
Event title
Lessons learned Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

 There is no a unique criteria to define the investment, 


number, location and methodology of the stress 
measurements for the differents Mining Projects
engineering phases… then, we have a good job to do 
about this topic
 The stress meauserements is an investment … not an
expense ... an error in the estimation of the stresses
could have a worst consequence for a Mining Project …
 The improvement of the communication between the
field people and the laboratory / office people … 
mitigate the errors in the results from the stress 
measurements
www.acg.uwa.edu.au
www.acg.uwa.edu.au 4 June 2014 | InterContinental Santiago Hotel, Chile
Event title
Conclusions, Closing Words &
Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

Discussions
 Generally, the people work at the field have differents
skills the people work at the laboratory / office … I 
suggest a good communication between them … to
mitigate errors in the results from stress measurements
 There is no an unique criteria to define the investment, 
number, location and methodology of the stress 
measurements in a Project … then, this topic is open
 What could be the worst consequence if we take a bad
decision from the Stress Numerical Model? … then, I 
insist … the stress meauserements are an investment … 
not an expense
www.acg.uwa.edu.au
www.acg.uwa.edu.au 4 June 2014 | InterContinental Santiago Hotel, Chile
Event title
Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

“The stress is the soul of the rock mass

You can not see it ...

You can not touch it ...

But, you can feel it”

I think so ... P. Cavieres
www.acg.uwa.edu.au 4 June 2014 | InterContinental Santiago Hotel, Chile
Event title
Stress Measurement and Stress Modelling – Implications for Extraction Workshop

Thanks a lot … any question?

The discussion is open …

www.acg.uwa.edu.au 4 June 2014 | InterContinental Santiago Hotel, Chile