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# ASSIGNMENT No 01

Topic:
Power factor and current distribution measurement of

Submitted By:
Name: Hafeez Ullah
Roll No: 17074422-008

Course :
Power Energy and Managment
Course Code:
EE-602
Power Factor:
Power factor can be defined in various ways

## 1. It is the ratio of Active power over reactive power.

2. It is the ratio of resistance over impedance.
3. It is the angle between voltage and current.

Concept of power factor originated from the need to quantify how effecintly load utilizes
current that it draws from AC System.

## Current Distortion/ Power factor in non-sinusoids load cases

Consider a non-sinusoidal situation where network voltages and current contains harmonics
while some harmonics are caused by system non linarites such as transformer saturation
most harmonics are produced by power electronics load such as VFDs diodes and rectifier
bridges. The significant harmonics above the fundamental ( i.e first harmonics are usually
the 3rd , 5th, 7th and multiple of 50/60HZ so that the frequencies of interest in harmonics
studies are in low auditable range

## Power factor Measurement for single phase residential Load.

Power factor and current Distortion measurments for some common single phase residential
loads,where it is seen that their current distortion levels tends to fall into the following these
categories.

## 1. Low ( THD1<= 20%)

2. Medium ( 20% <=THD <= 50%)
3. High ( THD> 50%)

Some domestic load and their respective power factor and THD are given in table

## S.NO Load Type PF (disp) THD(Total P( Dist) PF (True)

Harmonic
Distortion)
1 Ceiling Fan 0.99 1.8 1 0.99
2 Refrigerator 0.875 18.4 0.991 0.867
3 Microwave oven 0.998 18.2 0.984 0.982
4 Vacuum Cleaner 0.951 26.0 0.968 0.921
5 Flauricent Lamp 0.956 39.5 0.930 0.889
6 Television 0.988 121.0 0.637 0.629
7 Compact Fluorescent 0.89 155.0 0.54 0.541
Lamp
8 Computer and printers 0.999 140.0 0.581 0.580
b) Energy losses in case of distorted power factor due to harmonics.

In recent years the use of nonlinear electronic load such as compact floauricent lamps,
computers, television etc has increased significantly. Nonlinear load injects harmonic current
into the distribution system, when a combination of linear and non linear load is fed from a
sinusoidal supply the total supply voltage cause power quality problem and effect the
performance of consumer connected load to the distribution network.

## Power losses in distributed feeder

Losses due to transmission lines impedance for the simulated power network can be upto
18% of the total feeder power and this amount of loss means a considerable cost for
distribution network cannot be neglected

Share the nonlinear loads and their harmonics in causing loss of power in distribution system
for residential loads, total harmonic distortion of the simulated power distribution feeder with
the loads can be considered to be 50%, this means that 20% of losses in feeder caused by
harmonics in the feeder.