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BLD 507

Technical Communication

Scientific method of conducting a Research

1. Definition of a Problem
2. Background
a. Research Problem
b. Questions/Hypothesis
3. Research Design
a. Instrument-Data Collection
4. Analysis-Findings & Interpretation
5. Conclusion-Recommendation.
6. References
7. Writing Report

1. Formulating a Problem

The problem of a research tells us what you intend to research into, you should be clear/specific. The
way you formulate the problem will dictate the design, measurement procedures, sample/sampling etc.
It then has to be examined carefully, thoughtfully.

Statement of the problem Identifies gaps between in an issue to be addressed between the current
state and the desired state. A good statement of research problem should tell of the Ideas, Realities,

To come up with a statement of research, a review is important and also, Identification of Variables.


To review Literature, go through the existing literature to acquaint with available body of knowledge.
Literature Review is time consuming, daunting, frustrating and rewarding. By reviewing literature, you’ll

1. Understand theoretical roots

2. Change your ideas
3. Focused proposing
4. Enhance your Methodology
5. Broaden your knowledge
6. Contextualize your findings.

2. Research Design
Conceptualize. Here, you will find answers to your questions. It sets out specific details of your enquiry
such as:

1. Logistical arrangements
2. Measurements procedures
3. Population,
4. Sample size,
5. Sampling strategy.

All these will affect the quality if your findings and conclusions. A faulty design wastes resources.

Population - Entirety

It Is the entirety of elements having at least a common feature, a large group.


A study sample is a group of individual that actually participate in your study. The accuracy has
to do with the way of selecting your sample. You must minimize the gap between your
population and the sample.

Sample Frame: A sample frame did not participate

Sampling: The method of selecting a representative sample.

The underlying premise in sampling is a that a a relatively small sample, if selected in a manner,
that they genuinely, represent the study population can provide with a sufficiently high degree
of probability-a fair, true reflection of the population that is to be studied.

Sampling Types: There are 3 types of sampling techniques;

1. Random/Probability
2. NonRandom/Non Probability
3. Mixed

In your R&D, you’ll have decided the method/procedure to collect your data, (Question, Interview,
focus, observation, etc.)

Sample Units refers to the number of units in a frame.


Broader group your c to generalize the results/findings of the study.

CS those that have built

Those that are yet to build

Clients/Home owners : Buildings Constructed from 2010 – 2018

Female = Sample unit.

3. Instrument:
Developing Research Instrument: Any means of collecting information for your study. E. G
observation forms, specimens, questionnaires, interview, schedules. It guides the construction
of a question. It is the first practical step to conducting/carrying out a study,
1. Qualitative; Questionnaires
2. Qualitative
The data you collect can either be (primary or secondary data).

4. Collecting Data

Haven formulated a problem, diving a study design, constructing a research instrument, selecting a
sample, you then collect data from C. You’ll draw inferences and conclusion for your study. In your RD
you would have stated the method you want to use to collect your date (Question, Interview,
Observation, experiment, focus group, etc.)

5. Analysis, Findings, interpreting data.

You think of two main items
1. The Type of information
a. Descriptive or
b. Inferential (Quantitative and Qualitative)
2. The way you communicate your findings to take note of the variables, and the statistical
procedures (repression/Crosstabs)

6. Writing the Report.

This is the last and most difficult. A report on;

1. Qualitative
2. How you did it?
3. What you have discovered
4. What is your conclusion
5. Use Academic stylus Research Language
7. References.
There are different methods
1. APA
2. Havard
3. Chicago, etc.