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Analytic and Synthetic Methods We have seen that in its early stages, most mathematics originates in ideas and

concepts associated with physical form and shape. It is then presented as a systematic abstract structure in
logico-deductive form. The ability to understand and work out a rigorous deductive structure using logic or
reasoning is of great importance.

Analysis and synthesis are methods which use reasoning and arguments to discover relationships. Synthetic
Euclidean geometry is a good model of a deductive structure and is favourable to the learning of reasoning and to
the development of precision of thought. In any proposition we have (i) a hypothesis, which day be the
information given in the proposition or a set of axioms, definitions, principles or relationships which have been
proved earlier, and (ii) a conclusion, that is, the result to be proved or arrived at. Study the example given below

Example: Prove that the sum of the three angles of a triangle is two right angles.

Here, the hypothesis is "a triangle (or the three angles of a triangle)" and the knowledge of result related to
angles such as alternate angles, corresponding angles and the angle pairs which add up to two right angles (linear
pair), etc., which are relationsldefinitions I already proved prior to proving the given proposition.

The conc'lusion is "the sum of the three angles is two right angles".

In analysis we start from the conclusion and break it up into simpler arguments establishing connections with the
relationships assumed in the hypothesis. In so doing, we find the missing logical connections and formulate a
pattern for the proof, This pattern, when retraced from hypothesis to conclusion, gives the synthetic proof.

Approaches and Techniques of Teaching Mathematics

Split to simpler steps and establish logical connections (Analysis)

Express the pattern in deductive form (Synthesis)

Step 1: Let ABC be the triangle with angles 1,2, and 3.

To prove: L 1 +L2 + L 3 = 2 right angles.
Step 2: We knowthat a linear pair measures 1 right angles.
Can ke get a linear pair in fig. 2 ?
Yes, but how? By producing the base BC to E.
Now L 3 and L 4 form a linear pair so
To prove: L1 + L 2 + L 3 = L 3 + L 4

Step 3: Can we prove L 1 + L 2 = L4?

We can at least cut an angle equal to L 2 from L 4 if we draw a line CD parallel to BA
(Corresponding angles are equal).
.'. L 2 = LOCE
Construction: Draw CD || BA

Now can we show L1 to be equal to LACD?

Yes, This is true because L1 and LACD are alternate angles. Hence the result. We can see how through arguments
in step 2 and step 3 we arrive at constructions which help in

developing the logical connections between the conclusion and the hypothesis.

The same sequence when written from the hyposthesis to the conclusion gives the synthetic


Given: ABC is a triangle.

To pmke: LA + LB + LC = 2 right angles.

Construciton: Draw CD 11 BA and extend BC to E (Fig. 2.4)

Proof: AB || CD (Const.) and BE meets them

.'. LABC = LDCE (corresponding angles). . . . . . ..(i)

Again AB 1 I CD and AC meets, thein

.'. LBAC = LACD (alternate angles) . . . ....... . .. (ii)

Adding (i) and (ii) : LABC + LBAC = LDCE + LACD

Add LACB to both the sides

LABC + LBAC + LBCA = LDCE + LACD + LACB = 2 right angles.

Analytic Method Synthetic Method
1. It proceeds from the conclusion to the hypothesis. 1. It proceeds from the hypothesis to the conclusion.
2. It involves breaking up the conclusion into simpler 2. It involves writing out the steps in the proof in
steps and setting up relationships with what is given proper sequence using accepted deductive reasoning.
or known. It applies intuition and inductive
3. It is a method of discovery. The solution or proof is 3. It is a method11 pf presenting facts already
arrived at through systematic reasoning. discovered in a logical format.
4. It takes care of psychological considerations, self- 4. It does not care for psychological principles. It is a
learning, active participation of students, organized logical method and encourages memorization of steps
thinking and reasoning power. It builds up a scientific in proof.
attitude, originality and creativity among the students.
5. The teacher acts as a guide and plans situations for 5. The teacher acts as a superior and explains the
discovery learning by students. rationale of the proof.

Conclusion: Since analysis is a lengthy method, it needs the help of Synthesis for the removal of doubts. Synthesis
is the complement of the analysis method. both the method are interdependent. Teachers should offer help for
the analytic form of the solution and that synthetic work should be left for the students.