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1. Write the difference between a genotypic and a phenotypic representation. Give an example.

2. Give an example of combinatorial problem. What is the most difficult in solving these problems?
3. Discuss about exploration and exploitation in EA
4. Write the difference between Classical gradient based algorithms and Evolutionary algorithms
5. List few Stopping criterion used in evolutionary algorithms
6. Explain the role of parameters of genetic algorithm that control mutation and crossover.
7. Present methods for Parent Selection.
8. Give brief definitions of various types of Evolutionary Algorithms.
9. Write short essay on the role of Fitness Function.
10. Present any application of your choice of any evolutionary algorithm
11. Discuss the issue “phenotype versus genotype” in applying an evolutionary algorithm to any
design problem, for instance in logic design.
12. Discuss types of crossover operations and their advantages/disadvantages
13. The concept of fitness landscape.
14. Operations in Genetic Programming.
15. Describe the steps involved in Evolutionary Algorithms with neat flow diagram
16. Describe your choice of representation, fitness and the operators (selection, crossover and
mutation) that you would use for 8 Queens Problem
17. Given the following parents, P1 and P2, and the template T

P1 A B C D E F G H I J
P2 E F J H B C I A D G
T 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1
Show how the following crossover operators work : uniform crossover, order-based crossover
18. Discuss various selection strategies used in evolutionary algorithms with suitable examples
19. Suppose a genetic algorithm uses chromosomes of the form x = abcdefgh with a fixed length of
eight genes. Each gene can be any digit between 0 and 9. Let the fitness of individual x be
calculated as:

f(x) = (a + b) − (c + d) + (e + f) − (g + h) , and let the initial population consist of four individuals

with the following chromosomes:
x1 = 6 5 4 1 3 5 3 2
x2 = 8 7 1 2 6 6 0 1
x3 = 2 3 9 2 1 2 8 5
x4 = 4 1 8 5 2 0 9 4
 Evaluate the fitness of each individual, showing all your workings, and arrange them in
order with the fittest first and the least fit last.
 Cross the fittest two individuals using one–point crossover at the middle point.
 Cross the second and third fittest individuals using a two–point crossover (points b and
 Cross the first and third fittest individuals (ranked 1st and 3rd) using a uniform
 Suppose the new population consists of the six offspring individuals received by the
crossover operations in the above question. Evaluate the fitness of the new population,
showing all your workings. Has the overall fitness improved?
 By looking at the fitness function and considering that genes can only be digits between
0 and 9 find the chromosome representing the optimal solution (i.e. with the maximum
fitness). Find the value of the maximum fitness.
20. Assume the following function

f(x) = x3 - 60 * x2 + 900 * x +100

where x is constrained as 0 to 31. We wish to maximize f(x) (the optimal is x=10). Using a binary
representation we can represent x using five binary digits.
 Given the following four chromosomes give the values for x and f(x).
Chromosome Binary String
P1 11100
P2 01111
P3 10111
P4 00100
 If P3 and P2 are chosen as parents and we apply one point crossover show the resulting
children, C1 and C2. Use a crossover point of 1 (where 0 is to the very left of the
 Do the same using P4 and P2 with a crossover point of 2 and create C3 and C4.
 Calculate the value of x and f(x) for C1..C4.
 Assume the initial population was x={17, 21, 4 and 28}. Using one-point crossover, what
is the probability of finding the optimal solution? Explain your reasons.
21. The following problem indicates a matrix of the flight crew scheduling problem

Let 𝑥1,…, 𝑥5 denote binary decision variables of this problem that determine the
selected crew. Moreover let 𝐴i,j denote the constant binary matrix of possible flight crews,
given in the picture above. The costs can be denoted with 𝑐1,…, 𝑐6
1. Formulate an objective function and constraint(s) for finding the optimal combination of
flight crews.
2. Provide one example of a feasible and one example of an infeasible solution.
3. Apart from combinatorial problems, often numerical problems are solved using Genetic
Algorithms. How can a number between 0 and 1 be represented by binary code? How can it
be represented by Gray code? Describe the genotype-phenotype mapping!
22. Consider the problem of finding the shortest route through several cities, such that each city is
visited only once and in the end return to the starting city (the Travelling Salesman problem).
Suppose that in order to solve this problem we use a genetic algorithm, in which genes
represent links between pairs of cities. For example, a link between London and Paris is
represented by a single gene ‘LP’. Let also assume that the direction in which we travel is not
important, so that LP = PL.
 How many genes will be used in a chromosome of each individual if the number of cities
is 10?
 How many genes will be in the alphabet of the algorithm?
23. Show a Simple Genetic Algorithm run for the first four generations which solves the following
optimization problem: Big Rectangles: Find the x and y co-ordinates of a rectangle of maximum
area, where x and y are integers in the range 0 through 12.
 Use p_c =.9, p_m=.1 and a population size of 4. Be sure to show all your random
choices. Describe your representation and fitness functions thoroughly.