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l.ibrary !,If Cfln Caing-in-Puhlicatifln l)aI

Br;mdt. Dame! A.
MeJ.1.!lurgy fundamentals {Daniel A. Brandt, Janus C W.!.rner
Indude Indc"
IBN 1-590711-145-6

I Irun----l\1ctallrngy 2. Srccl-MdaUurgy. 1 W.mJer. ]anus C.

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.' " , Introduction

\1etallurgy Fundamentals provides instruction

ilnd information on the basic principles of tdescriptions
han highly theoretical teand
rms. In manypractical
cases, diagrexamples
ams are used insteadareof lengtgiven
hy wurd
metal urgy. A knowledge of these principles is invaluable to any person who plans to deal
with metals as a future vocation.
instead of abstract theories.
A section on nonferrous metallurgy has
Metallurgy Fundame1ltals emphaizes the been added for this edition of Metallurgy
Fundamentals. This new section discusses thE'
actical aspects of metal uItrgy.explains
It explores the behaviwhyor of metcertain
als subjectedmaterial
to metal urgical processes used to create nonferrous metals
and their alloys. Aluminum, copper, magne-
properties are desired and how thc1::' proper- ties are attained. sium, zinc, and other nonferrous metals aTe
Metallurgy Fundamentals describes com- Metallurgy Fundamentals is written for
mon industrial processes, so that you can those who want to learn the "basics," for
idently discuss theinprocessidear,
ng of metsimple
als with othersterms
in the field. These pr o
for easier
cesses ar e those who want to explore the behavior of
metals, and for those who want rl broad
knowledge of the entire field of metallurgy.
Metallurgy Fundamentals speaks to the
reader in down-ta-earth language, rather

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Electrical Properties 60
Section One Magnetic Propertie" 61
Thermal Pmperhes 61
Introduction to Metallurgy CompaTlson Charts of Metal
Chapter 1 Properties 65
Practical A pp lica tions of
Metallurgy 9 Section Three
Metallurgy and Metallurgists 9
Practical Examples of Metallurgy in Modem
Ferrous Metallurgy
Ind1.l:.try 10 Chapter 5
Why Study Metallurgy? 12 What is Steel? 69

Composihon of Steel 69
Chapter 2 Steel Numbering SysteC1l 69
Metallurgical and Chemical Comparing Steel and Iron 70
Alloying Elements 71
Terminology 13 Types of Steel 72
Basic Structure of Matter 13 Cast Iron Sl

Applying Chernical1erm!'; to Steel 19 Wrought Iron 86

Section Two Chapter 6

Manufacture of Iron and
Properties of Metals Steel fl9
Chapter 3
Hardness 21 TheSteel-MakingPIOL'eSS 89
Iron Ore 91
What is Hardness? 21 Blast Furnace 93
Hardnt. Testing Methods 23 Steel-Making Furnace:. YH
COffipiiring Hardne<;s Testing Methods 40 Procsing the Ingots 105
Continuous Casting 111
Manufacture of Cast Iron 113
Chapter 4 Pollution Control 117
Material Properties 47
Mechamcal PropertIes 47
Chemicall'roperties 59
Contents 5

, hapter 7 Chapter ]3
, rystal Structure 119 Isothermal Transformation

Space Lattice 120 Diagrams 187

Transformation Temperature,> 123 Introduction to I,>othennal Transformation
Cr\"'stal Growth 124
Dia.grmns 187
Using 1- T Diagrams 190
, hapter 8 IndustrialI-T Diagrams 195
.ilure and Deformation Plotting I-T Diagrams 1'71
Comparin Isothermal Transformations 198
Metal 129
Dcl"ormation 129 Chapter 14
Ductility and Brittleness 129 Tempering 209
Work Hardening 135
Introduction to Tempering ZQQ
Special Types of Tempering 211
. hapter 9 Comparmg Heat-Treating Methods 216
on-Carbon Phase Diagram ]37
Structural Forms of Steel 137 Chapter 15
Iron-Carbon P:hac Diagram BY Surface Hardening 214
Tmlperature Change and Medwnical
Properties 147 Introduchon to Surface Hardening 219
Ba..ic Surface-Hardening Methods 221
Surface-Hardening Processes 222
Lhapter 10
\.ficro,tructural Analysis 153 Section Four
MIcroscOpIC Appearances 153
Sample Preparntiun Procedure 158 Nonferrous Metallurgy
Chapter 16
Chapter 11 Processing Nonferrous
Heat Treating and Quenching 163 Metals 235

Heat Treatmg 163 introduction to Nonlerrous Metallurgy 235

Quenching 163 Atomk Structure of Metals 236
Quenching Medium.. and Techniques 167 1\.lIo}ing 23R
iammary of Quenching Methods 169 Cold Working 23q
Practical Technique:" Used in QUPllrhing 171 Precipitation Hardening 242

'J1apter 12 Chapter17
nnealing and Normali7ing 177 Aluminum and Aluminum
Overview of Annealing and 177 Alloys 249
Purposes for Annealing and Normalizing 178 Introduction 24Y
hpes of Annealing 179 1.lanufactunng Aluminum 24q
.. DIU1alizing 183 Alumlnum and Alumlnurn Alloy
L.JIII.paring Annealing, Noltllollizing, and Classifications 25]
Quenching 184
6 Contents

Tin 273
Applications of Aluminum 252
Changing the Properties of Aluminum 2Sl Nickel and Nickel Alloys 277
Titanium 278
Gold 280
Chapter 18 Intermetallic Compounds 283
Copper, Bronze, and Brass 259
Manufacture of Copper 259 Glosary 285
Copper and Copper Alloy DesignatIons 26]
Changing the Properties of Copper 26] Index 295

Chapter 19
Magnesium, Zinc, Tin, and
Speciality Metals 267
Magnesium 267
Zinc 269

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IvIagnificatiol1 is used to view the structure of many types of materials. The illustration on the left is a
ferrite structure with some pt--arlite. TIle imag has been magnified 700X. The illustration orl the right is
also a ferrite-pearlite structure. It has also been magnified 700X. (Struers, 111C.)

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vessel illustrated here is cabable of producing 300 tons of sled if! al1/..IlIt 40 minutes. (Belllief/em Steel

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1 \.. I ( ( I · 4:,.
of Metallurgy
4fta studying this chapter, you will be able to: Metallurgy involvcs all metals, Figure 1- L
o Define metaHurgy. Ferrous metallurgy is the study of metals that
o Explain what a metallurgist docs. use iron as their basic ingredient. Nonferrous
o Describe how metallurgy knowledge can metallurgy is thc study of metals that do not
be used to solve industrial problems. use iron as a principal alIoyinF; element (such
o State why the study of metallurgy can be as aluminum, titanium, and copper).
a \/aluable asset. [ron and steel are the main focus of fer-
rous metallurgy (stcel is made primarily from
iron). Other types of metals are added to iron
letallurgy and to achieve the mechanical properties needed
\1etallurgists for a particular application. See Figure 1-2.
Predicting the internal behavior of iron
The dictioHdry defines metallurgy as "the
science that explains methods of refining and and steel during heating, quenching, an-
extracting metals from their ores and prepar- nealing, tempering, and other heat-treating
mg them." Today, the subject of metallurgy processes is an exciting challenge. The steel
digs deeper into the heart of metals than that undergoes interesting changes and you-as
definition describes. Metallurgy is more than a metallurgist-can predict the changes that
mining the refinement and extraction of will occur based on the composition of the
steel and the heat-treahnents to which it is
metals from their ores. Metallurgy is the bcl-
I!IIC€ that explains the properties, behavior, subjected. The examination and knowledge
of this predictable behavior of iron and steel
.-.d internal structure of metals. Metallurgy
is one of the major thrusts of this text.
also teaches Us that properties of metals can
be changed using various treatments. This al-
lows us to tailor a metal'!. propcrties to its
specific use. Mt'tals
The study of metallurgy actually explores
what makes metals behave the way they do.
This exploring is donc by metallurgists, scien- ferrous Nonf<mo
tisls who probe dceply inside the internal
5Iructure of metal. They seek to understand
why the metal changes its structure as it
heated and cooled under many different Figure 1-1. Metals arc classified as frrrous and
nonferrous. Iron and steel are both ferrous metal.

10 Section One Inhoducbon to Metallurgy

I Carbon., t I Phosphoru
Ih- lMan1

Steel .,;;
Figure 1-2. Many alloys are added to Iron to
produce steel.
Practical Examples of Figure 1-3. Excessil't',l'Ctly of gear tf.'l't11 can OCCllY
Metallurgy in Modern
if proper metnl urgical proces es are not used. (The Falk Corporation, subsidiary of Sundstml d
The way in which metallurgisb work is
shown in the following examples of spo.---ific in-
dustrial problems. All metallurgical proces...<:es
discussed in thee examples wilJ be explained
in thi text.
a large, thin disc. See Figure 1-4. The slots had to be machined to dimensional toler-
ances closer than :!::O.OO1" (:!::O.025 mm). After
these slots were cut, the disc was installed in
Practical Example 1 a business machine and adiuted until it ran
Problem: A gear in a machine that ran
continuously was subjected to large forces. As perfectly. However, problems developed after these
result, thetogearmake
teeth worethe
See Figureit1-3would
. If a hard, stresist
rong materithis
al wen' machines were shipped to customers. The disc twisted and distorted after being used
type of wear. However, most hard and strong materials are also brit le and crack under onlV\lhile
y two months. The machining of the slots had created internal stresses in the disc.
the disc was in use, these strees grad-
repeated shock forces. ually rcIaxed and caused the disc to hvist
Solution: To solve this problem, a metal-

lurgical process known as "case hardening" was ucd. Case 1111rdenil g produces a hard sur- slightly_ This distortion caused friction be- tween the disc and another part, which
caused the machine to bincL
Solution: This problem was solved by
face on the metal part while the interior core remains rdatively soft and ductile \ workable,
not brittle). a metal urgical process knO\IVTI as process anncaling. Process annealing is a heat-treating
process that caQ"€S the metal to relax, remov-
Practical Example 2 ing internal stresses. In this "disc" applica-
Problem: In iI particular manufacturing
operation, five irregular slots were cut into tion, pTOL"'eSS annealing caused the disc to dis- tort before leaving the factory_ Following this
Chapter 1 Pracbcal Applicati()ns of Metallutgy 11

that the cutting tool was going through a

process known as tempering without the ma-
chine operator knowing it. Sce Figure 1-6.
Tt'l1lpl'rillg is a reheating of metal to
slightly soften it. Tempering is usually a hclp-
ful metallurgical process performed to make
the Illf"tal more stress-free, distortion-free,
and crack-frce. However, in the ca<>e of this
cuttcr, the unintentional tempering was de-
stroying it.

hgure 1-4. Internal stn'S..c; causelt distortIOn of Practical Example 4

6isdisc until pTVl'ess annealing was used. Problem: The cutting blade shown in
Figure 1-7 is as sharp as a razor blade. In addi-

maxing action, a hght machining cut was

taken to eliminate the few thousandths of
ion, it must be veryapplication.
hard and strong in orderThe
to cut chemiproblem
cally treated paperoccurred
in a particular
inch distortion. Then, the machine was when the blade did not make dean, smooth
shipped, free of internal stresses that could cuts

have caused distortion at the customer site. olution: It was discovered that a metal-
lurgical process called water quenching was
Practical Example 3 used to harden and strengthen the blade.
Water quenching, however, also caused dis-
Problem: The cutting tool shown in tortion that prevented the blade from cut-
Figure ]-5 must be very hard. If it is hCiTd, ting cleanly in this application. To solve this
properly ground, and sharpened, it will cut
metal cleanly and accurately. However, after
.a period of use, this cutting tool did not re-
main sharp. It wore away excessively fast. 1ben, it did not cut wen. ..,.

Solution: Again, a knowledge of metal-

lurgy was used to solve the problem. A met- - 'f
Mlurgical microscopic examination shuwed #

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Figure 1-5. This cuthng toolr5 used on a latlre.

Figure 1-6. When temperil g of a cutting tool takes place duril g a cuttmg operation, excessive
'l1'('ar of the tool call result.
12 Section One Introduction to Metallurgy

Iron has been used for more than 5000

years. The tips of spears and other weapons
were heat-treated and hardened by metaHur-
gical processes long before the word "meta]-
lurgy" existed. Apparently, some important
metallurgical methods were stumbled onto
accidentally and used long before people
knew why they worked.
Today, techno]ogy marches forward_ Our
mass of knowledge has doub]ed in less than
50 years_ More than 90° u of the scientists who
Figure 1-7. Air quenching produces a hard, have ever Jived are still alive today. It is a cer-
sharp cutting blade. The blade will distort (twist tainty, then, that succesful studl;:'nt of meta]-
slightly out of shape) if water quenching is used. ]urgy will find new horizons ahead in their

problem, a metalJurgical process called air

quenching was substituted for water quench-
ing. In addition., the metallurgist changed the Test Your Knowledge
material to a higher alloy tool steel. With these Write your ansu'e1S on a separate sJurl of paper.
changes, the newly manufactured blades are Do not write in this book.
now making keen and accurate cuts. 1. What are some things that can be learned
from a tudy uf metallurgy?
2. What meta] is the main ingredient in steel?
Why Study Metallurgy? 3 Why are other metals added to stee]?
Modern industry is dependent on a 4. Meta]s can be divided into two general
knowledge of metaIJurgy. Nearly every kind categories. Name the hvo categories_
of manufacturing today is affected by the be- 5. What metallurgical process was used to
havior of metals and alloys. Therefore, anyone solve the problem that involved shock
who plans a future career in modem industry forces and wear in Practical Example 1?
will find a working knowledge of metallurgical 6. What type of prob]em did the metallurgical
processing to be a valuable asset. process known as "process annealing"
Engineers, technicians, designers, drafters, solve in Practical Example 2?
tool and die makers, and machinists need 7. What is tempering?
skills in selecting materials and heat-treating 8 Is tempering generally a helpful metallur-
processes. Even production managers and glCal process or does it usually present se
purchasing people can benefit from an un- rious problems?
derstanding of terms such as ductility, hard- Q. When the metaJlurgical proces<; known as
ness, normalizing, and surface hardening. "water quenching" caused too much dis-
Repair workers, service personnel, and trou- tortion, what other metallurgica] process
bleshooters who diagnose causes of equip- was used to solve this problem in Practi-
ment failures should be trained to recognize ca] Example 4?
the causes of cracks and excessive wear. They 10. How would a know]edge of metallurgy
need to know how to examine a material benefit an engineer?
to see whether it has become too hard and 11. How would a know]edge ot metallurgy
brittle. benefit a troubleshooter?
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'" Metallurgical
2 1 . f.j and Chemical
V, _ 1 I'f..
.4ftn studying tllis chtlpter, you will be able to: Atoms
o State the meaning of basic metallurgy In ancient times, philosophers thought that
o Explain how chemistry is related to
f you tooktrue.
a piece ofThey
metal andthought
cut it in half, botthat
h piece woulif you
d stil becutthe sameit inmetahalf
l. This
o Define chemical terms such as element,
compound, solution, and atom
o Describe metals and aHoys.
again, you would stil have the same metal. This was true. They also thought that if you
kept cutting it into smaller and smaller pieces,
There are many chemical and metaHur- you could keep this up forever and still have
the same metal no matter how small those
sieaI terms in the study of metal urgy. Before you get your mind and fingers into the physi- pieces became. This was false. A metal can be cut into smaHer and smaller pieces. These
you must undcrstand what j!-. zoing on inside the metal-in fact, inside the pieces may be so small that a microscope is re-
quired to see them. Eventually, this process
Studying the activity inside the metal can reaches a limit. This limit is the atom.
An atom is the smallest part of an element
be extremely interesting. For example, iron . td carbon are found inside every piece of that retains all the properties uf the element.
steeL The carbon is dissolved inside the iron_ If an atom is divided, the new pieces do not
Understanding the nature of this dissolving have the same propertie as the original ma-
.-:lion betvveen iron and carbon is basic to the terial The word atom means "indivisible."
'IIP1erstanding of metallurgy. According to theory, an atom is made up
of three types of particles, each having a dif-
ferent electrical charge. Protons have a positive
Basic Structure of Matter
In order to understand metallurgy, you charge, neutrons have a neutral charge, and electrons have a negative charge. Uncharged
must begin by understanding the basic chem- atoms have an equal number of protons and
ical components of all matter. Protons, neu- electrons, so their charges cancel. Atoms with
trons, and electrons form atoms, which are an unequal number of protons and electrons
the smallest particles that retain the proper- are called ions
ties of an element. Elements combine to form The protons and neutrons form the nu-
OJD1pounds. Elements and compounds form cleu of the atom, around which the electrons
5Olution and mixtures, which constitute orbit. See Figure 2-1. There may be severa]
most of the substances we come in contact rings of electrons, with a specific number in
",ith in our dai1y lives. each ring. The first ring contains up to hvo
14 Section One Introduction to Metallurg)

0.- number is the number of protons in the ele-

0. -a
ment's atoms_ For example, the atomic num-
0. 0.
0.- ber of carbon (C) it> 6, so a carbon atom has six
0. 0.
The hydrogen atom (H) contains only one
electron. Hydrogen hCis one electron in its
<) first ring, and one proton in its nudt'U. He-
lium hCis two electrons and lithium has three
electrons_ Two electrons fill the first ring and
Q the third one is left to travel In the second

Q 0.
EI,*trons 00. 0.
ring. Diagrams of these atotm. are shown in
Figure 2-3
0.- At room temperature, most elements are
b a solid. Good examples are gold, iron., rlIld lead.
-0. a Sevcral other elements are gases, such as oxy-
gen and nitrogen. A few are normally liquids.
. Proton
o Neutron
such as bromine and mercury.
A metal is an element that has several of
o Electron
the following metallic properties:
Figure 2-1. An atom is composed of elLytrons, . Ability to conduct electricity.
. Ability to conduct heal
protons, and neutrons. The protons and neutrons
. Hardess.
form tll£ nucleus.
. High density.
electrons. The second ring contains up to . Not transparent.
eight electrons_ The third and subsequent AU metals possess some of these proper-
rings contain up to eighteen electrons. ties; many metals possest> all these properties.

Elements Molecules
An element is a pure substance composed A substance created by the chemical join-
of a single material It is as simple as a material ing of hvo or more elements is called a com-
can be. You cannot divide or separate an ele- pound. When two or more elements combine,
ment into any other type of material Whether their atoms join and form molecules of the
you heat it, freeze it, machine it, break it, com- compound. For example, oxygen atoms and
press it. or use any other normal mechanical hydrogen atoms combine to form water
procedure, an element remains the same basic molecules.
material that it was when you started. An atom is the smaUest part of an ele-
There are over 100 known and uruversally ment, and a molecule is the smallest part of a
established elements. See Figure 2-2. ]f evcry- compound. It take. two or mOre elements to
thing on earth was broken down into its sim- make a compound, and it takcs two or more
plest form, all things could be separated into atoms to make a molecule. Sce Figure 2-4_
these elements_ Some of the more common The atoms in a molecule are joined to-
elements indude oxygen., nitrogen, chlorine, gether by chemical action. The atoms borrow,
hydrogen, gold, lead, copper, iron, silver, lend, or share the electrons in their outer ring.
manganese, aluminum,. magnesium, and sulfur. In a molecule of water, Figure 2-5, oxygen
The periodic table lists the elements in the borrows the atoms of hydrogen to fill ib outer
order of their atomic numbers. The atomic ring.
Chapter 2 Metallurgical and Chemical Terminology 15

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16 Sechon One [ntroducticm to Metallurgy

Oxygen Atom
-0- 0- 0

0 E9 Q @ a a
0 0

Hydrogen Hehum Litruum

Figure 2-3. Hydrogen Illls only one electron,
helium has two electrons, and lithium IUlS thY't:'e
<) Shared
electrons. -0 electrons
.0---- if
Grains and Crystals a - a a
When a large group of atoms or molecules
get together, they form a family. These families
of atoms may be large enough to be seen by Hydrogen Hydrogen
Atum Atum
the naked eye. Such a family is known as a
"grain" or "crystal." In a grain or crystal,.:In Figure 2-5. A molecule of water is fonned by
of the atoms orient themselves in neat, or- chemical actwn between the oxygen and hydrogm
derJy formations. atoms fllat make up tll£ molecule.
Grains and crystals wilJ be covered in de-
tail in Chapter 7.
The elements in a compound are chemI-
Compounds cally jomed and, therefore, very difficult to sep-
A compound is a material composed of two arate. The elements stay permanently joined
or more chemically joined elements. A com- unless special chemical action is taken to break
pound is not just a single element. In its sim- down the compound.
plest form, it is still made up of at least two One interesting feature of a compound is
elements. See Figure 2-4. that its characteristics may be entirely differ-
ent from the elements that make it up. Iron
bond sulfide is made up of iron and sulfur. Iron is
behveen magnetic, but iron sulfide is not.
elements Water is composed of hydrogen and oxy-
gen, both of which are gases. Hydrogen and
Atom Atom
Molecule /
oxygen arc both flammable. However, when
joined together, they become water, a com-
pound that will put out fires. See Figure 2-6.


Sodium and chlorine can be chemically

combined to produce table salt. Both sodium
and chlorine are poisonous. Sodium is an
Element Element Compound innocent-looking, silvery metal that will burn
Figure 2-4. A compound is made up of at least two your hand if you touch it. Chlorine is a
diffi'll'nt elemeuts. The proper ties of the compound greenish, poisonous gas that can kill you. Yet,
may be ve'y d[fferellt thall the properties of its sept.1- when these two poisons are chemicany com-
rate elements. (Note: The shl1pl'S ltst'ti in this figure bined, they become table salt, safe material
are rot the actual Sh11pe5 of atoms and elements.) to cat.
Chapter 2 Metallurgtcal and Chmical Terminology 17
In a mixture, no component completely
- loses its own identity. Therefore, the charac-
teristics of a mixture are similar to the charac-

'.1. .', teristics of the items thCit make it up. This is another way in which a compound and a
mIxture are different.
Iron-rich vitamin tablcts contain a mix-
.J tun' of iron and other vitamins. The iron can be removd by grinding up the tablet, then
using a magnet to conect the iron particles.
Muddy water is a mixture. In this case,
a filter is not even neces ary to separate the dirt from water. Just leaving the jar of muddy
Mixture of Two Element::,


"" r'
.... Atom.. of
+ Atoms of Mixture of
Aand B
Elemf2ntA Element B

\ ---::
Mixture of an Ek'Tflcnt and a Compound
pre 2-6. Tile dWfllcteristics of a compound
br very different than tl1l' cl1aracteristics of
irtdividual element::; that form the compound. -
6o.gen and oxygcn are flammable compounds,
Iltey combine to form 1I ('J)l1tpowld (wafer)
.. +qSa
is used to extinguish fires. (Jack KInsey) Atom of Molecules uf MIxture of
ELement C CompOlUld lJ C and D

A mixture is a material composed of two Mixture of Two Compound,>
IDOre clements or compounds mixed to-
but not cheupmical yofjoinated. Aleast
mixture isty..To
. just one maelements
terial. In its simporJest com-
form, it is + L
- =
amds_ See Figure 2-7_
The difference between a mixture and a Molecules of Mok'<:ules of Mixture ot
Compound E Compound f E and F
Dpound is thare
e ea:.enot
with whichemically
ch the ele- I ! 'Its canjoined,
be eparatcd. Thewhile
s in a Figure 2-7. There are 110 dl('micallJ(mds between
tire atoms or molecules combined in a mixture.
lPments in a compuund are chemically TI1l' particles arc combined physically, but not
_ Normally, filtering can be used to sep- chemically.
te the components of a mixture.
18 SectIon OnE' Introducbon to MctallurJ;},

Magnetic Properties of Materials I )
Obtain small picce of The exact size and shape magnet (dcpendmg on which
aluminum, brass, plastic, of each piece is not impor- end of the magnet is apprudch-
gray cast iron, and '>€veral tant, as long as each piece Lng), or unaffected by the
different types of steel, per- has a flat surface (preferably magnet. Note which materi-
hap. 1018, 1045, 1095,4140, two opposite flat surfaces). als are affected by the mag-
52100, A6 tool steel, WI tool Obtain a magnet. Line net's presence.
I steel. and 302 stainless steel. the material pieces in a neat All ferrous materials will
Other similar materials may row. Slowly bring the end of be affected by the magnet, in-
be substituted if any of the magnet toward each ma- cluding cast iron and all steel
these are not available. teriallUltil it touches each samples. Aluminum, brass,
Many of these same materials piece. As the magnet nears and any other nonferrous
will be used for other Sel£- each piece, the material will materials should nut be af-
Demonstrations later in thi'> either be attracted to the fected. Plastic should not be
text. affected.
magnet, repelled by the

water stand for a period of tIme will permit Generally, the dictator material in a solu-
the items in the mixture to separate. tion is a liquid. The dissolved material gener-
The oil in your automobile engine is a mix- ally is either a liquid or a solid. Examples are
ture of petroleum and additives. These can be salt water or sugar water. After sugar is dis-
separated. Homogenized milk is a mixture of solved in water, it is difficult to recogniLe the
milk and cream These can be separated. difference between sugar water and regular
The iron and carbon atoms in steel do not
water. Water is the dictator; it has totally over-
chemically combine with each other. Com- powered the sugar.
pounds and molecules are not formed in The dictator material h. knuwn as thl;'
steel. The atoms of iron and carbon are merely solvent. The dissolved material is known as
"mixed" together and become an alloy, or the solute. Generally, there must be signifi-
solid solution.
cantly more solvent them solute in order to
perform the dissolving action.
Solutions The properties of a solution generaUy are
A solution is a special kind of mixture. A very similar to the solvent. There will be
solution is a mixture in which one substance is somp difference due to the influence of the
thoroughly di:'olved in the other. When two solute, but not a great deal.
materials combine and become a solution,
one of the two is the" dictator" and the other Solid Solutions
is "submissive." The dictator dissolves the A solid solutwn is a solution in which both
other substance. To look at a solution, you see the solvent and solute are solids. At first, this
only the dictator material, and not the dis- sounds impossibJe. How can you mix a solid
solved material. material into another solid material and cause
Chapter 2 Metallurgical and Chemical Terminology 19
and solidify, crystals are born. These terms
will occur frequently throughout the study of
i60lvmgto akeplace?Sugarcan otbedis-lYedin ce_Ifpiec sofsolidcarbonarc[Xedupwithpiec sofsolid ron,theywil
. dissolve_

The dissolving action can take place at Test Your Knowledge

ated temperatures when both soJids
Write your nnsUlers on n separate sJU'Ct of paper.
!Itandbecomeliquids.At hes highertem-ntures.irondis tJlvesmanyother lements.;pecialycarbon.[ronbecomesthesolvent.
all amounts of carbon, phosphorus, or
Do not write in tllis book.
1_ What does the word atom mean?
2. What is the smallest part of a piece of sil-
ver called that retains all the properties of
nganese become the solute.
At elevated temperatures, copper dis- silver?

s small amount s of z i n c , l e ad, t i n , or hI . Many ot h er mat e r i a l s behav e t h i s way , 3. Ust the three types of particles in an atom_ 4. How are elements arranged in the periodic
and copper are two of the most com-
... solvents. 5. List five general properties of metals.
6. What type of particle is formed when two
or more atoms are chemically bonded?
7. Name an example of a compound with
Iloys When hvo or more metals are dis olved er in a solid solution, the new material
known as an alloy_ Steel is an alloy of iron
properties that are very different than the
properties of the separate elements found
in the compound.
III carbon_ Bronze is an alloy of copper and 8. List two major differences between com-
Ikass is an alloy of copper and zinc. pounds and mixtures.
The metals that are dissolved-the 9. Name an example of a method of sepa-
rating the individual components of a
l utes-are also called alloys Of alloying 's. Thus, the word alloy has two mixture.
10. What are the two components of a solu-
ming s - 11\e dissolved metal material. ticm called?
. 11\e solid solution that is made up of
alloys and solvent. 11. How are solid solutions created? 12. Name the solvent and the main solute in
13. List the two definitions of alloy_
pplying Chemical Terms 14. Name five alloys that arE' used in various
t Steel types of steel
15. Carbon has SIX electrons_ Sketch a dia-
The chemical and metallurgical terms gram of carbon similar to Figure 2-3.
16. Fluorine has nine electrons. Sketch a dia-
lID tSteel
his chapteristhatanap eaalloy
r most ofte(solid
n in the lIdysolution).
of metal urgy are crIron
ystal, atoism, athend al- gram of fluorine_
17_ Sketch a diagram of an element that has
Iftnt., carbon is always one of the solutes_
"iany other alloys are dissolved in iron to
ake up different types of steel. Some of
more than two electron rings_ Use the periodic table (Figure 2-2) to eled the
alloys include sulfur, manganese, alu-
rom, phosphorus, molybdenum, tungsten,
;ilicon. h these atoms coiled in colonies
\ Section
Two Properties
of Metals.
,} I I rr' If
'( 1" .

.'-- 1
.' ff-.

.. ,.



'1J'-..... . 'IY.'
'1 l
11/ -""1'

, fl " ';.'"qIJ!
. .' . Hardness

studymg tIlls clmpler, you will be able to. Tile Relatiol1shlp of Hardl1ess to
Ot/ler Properties
o Explain what hardness is. . Describe how the hardncs of metal is Hardncss is important in the study of
metallurgy because it relates to several other
. Compare different hardness testing
D Discuss how each hardness testing
key propertics of metal. espccial y trcngth, brit leness, and ductility. By measuring the
method works.
hardness of a metal, you are also indirectly
measurinJ?; the strength, brittleness, and duc-
D Convert bebA'€Cn hardncss scales.
tility of the metal.
Hardness, then, is similar to a family's

{hat Is Hardness? groccry list. From the size of the list, you can estimate the <;ize of a family. From the itcms
Hardne:,s is perhaps the most important on the list, you can guess the family's financial

ty of metals youHow€\.'cr,
wil encounter durinone
g . .studygood
of metal urgdefinition
y. It i a dif icult wordof Force

nfne>s is "a measure of resistance to defor-

dJon." Another is "a measure of resistance
tration." Both of these definitions refer
the resistance of a metal surfacc to be dam-
,rd.. dented, WOrD away, or deteriorated in Hardness 15

r'! way a!> a resu]t of a force or pressure

. proportional
to size of

Therefore, to invent a means of medsuring

would orhavecutto creatinto
weight would supply the power behind
e a ma-aiDsurface.
e with a penctraAtor orlarge
pointer thforce
at wou]d / ;/ ?etmt ;

penetrator. The size of the resulting dent

penetration in the samplc would be the Figure 3-1. Hardness is proportional to size of
rasure of the haTdllcs of thl material. See penetration. The harder the material, the smaller
3-L the pmetratlOn.

22 Section Two Properties of Metals

I _

IIIndIcates mf()rmabon


._ about

- -Fa mIl V Size
. ====== - Bnttleness

.._F IF-I'l-Health
anrung 'enden,y
. ====== -Fmanlal statu
. - -SoCIal habits . -Duchlity

. I =)ty
I . === - Toughness
==::J - CTacking tendency
Figure 3-2. Hardness is a gauge for other characteristics in the same way that a family's grocery list indi-
cates family traits.

status and social habits. Similarly, hardness is Ul1its of Hardl1ess

a gauge for many other characteristics of a Time is measured in seconds or hours.

metal's family traits. See Figure 3-2. These other traits or properties wil be discussed in Weight is measured in tmits of pounds. ounces, or ldlograms. Distance can be measured. in
detail in Chapter 4, Material Properties. units of feet, miles, or meters. AU of these are
rather obvious tmits of measurement. The tmits
Measuril1g Hardl1ess of hardness, however, arc not so obvious.
Hardness is measured in many different
There are many different methods used to
measure the hardness of a metal. Some of the units. Some examples are BHN, DPH, Shore
most common methods will be discussed in
ts, Knoop units,Instead,
Rc-, and 15N. Noeach
single unitype
t is usedofunimachine
versally a the maitends
n unit of
this chapter. The two basic categories of hard- ness testing methods are penetration hard-
ness and scratch hardness.
to have its own units. Therefore. many con-
Penetration hardness is a very accurate
version charts are necessary to convert the units of one testing method to those of an-
measur i n g t e chni q ue i n whi c h pr e ci
chine is forced against the metal sample_ The
s i o n machi n e i s used. A penet r a t o r on t h i s ma- other hardness scale.

size of the resulting impression (dent) is meas- PENI:.TRATION SCRATCH

ured, and the measurement is converted to a HARDNESS

hardness number.
A scratch hardness test is very fast and

rude. The metal samplise icalculatd.
s scratched bv the edgeTheof a tosample
ol or object. No numeris caned
ical value of o . Accurate
. Past
either "hard" or "soft," depending on whether Complex Cl1eap
or not a scratch results_ Dependable . Quick
Penetration hardne testing is a rela- Tlille-consllIlUIlg i-.ay
.SJO\'I'er <)Imple
tively expensive and accurate method com-
ed to scratch harhave
dness Seesome
Figure 3-3. Mostformindustofrial compani e s concer
a penetration
n ed wi t h Figuce 3-3. There nre two categories of hardness
testing methods: penetration hardness (/ltd scrntcll
hardness tester. hardness.
Chapter 3 Hardness 23

Hardness Testing Methods

There are many different hardnesf; testing
s and many different hardness testing
dUnes. Nine of the most common one wilJ
lj)w---- Load
discussed in detail in this chapter. Each
"ihod has advantages and diadvantages Sample
ft' the other methods. Therefore, determlna-
n of which method to use or which lThlchine --..
buy depends on the individual application. Anvil-
The following ace ninc of the most coro-

. '1I:.1'I l'
JI1 hardness testing methods:
. Brinell hardness
. Vickers microhc1rdne5
. Knoop microhardncss
. Rockwel1 hardnes
. Rockwell Superficial hardness
Shore sclt:'TOSCope hardn
. Sonodur hardness
. Yohs hardness
Handwheel -, -, 1-
, . >1" ..
. File hardncss
Figure 3-4. A metal sample bemg tested on a
Brillell hardness tester. (lnstroll Corporation)
Brin£/l Hardl1ess Testil1g Method
The Brillell hardness testing met/lOd is one of
olde..t methods of hardnes testing_ A
inell hardness tester is ..hown in Fipl.[{' 3-4.
lie testing procedure is illustrated in

-.:inell hardness testing procedure

The following steps are involved in a
inell hardness test:
The metal sample is placed on the ma-
chine's anvil.
The hardened-steel penctrator (round ball)

IbyS slowlmanual
y brought into operation.
contact with the test samplThee, Ficontact
gure 3-6, eitherplessure
automatically or
between the penetrator and the sample in-
creases until a force of 3000 kilograms Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4
(3000 kg) is reached. The ban penctrator is Figure 3-5, Tile Brinell hardm.oss testing metlwd:
harder than the sample, so a round dent is Step 1-Tl1C sample 1S placed on the anvil.
Step 2-TIle 'Itnctrator contacts and indents tile
irnpr€SSCd onto the sample After the ball has made the round inden- sample. Step 3-The penetrator is relr>asl'd.
ture In the sample, it is released and the Step 4-A microscope witl1 a calibrated lens is
sample is lemoved. See Figure 3-7. llsed to mcaure the diameter of tilt' dent.
24 Section Two Properties of Metal..

4. A small microscope with a calibrated II}'

lens is brought into contact with the
sample, Figure 3-8. The diameter of the
dent is measured in millimeter. The
measurement is then converted to a
hardness value. This conversion can be
done by mearu. of the formula shown in
Figure 3-9 or, more commonly. by using
a conversion chart.
The conversion chart shmvn in Figure 3-10
'I _ Ll511n _' _.., ..
has two columns. The left column lists the di-
ameter of the indenture in millimeters. The
I' i """-'-- t,' t -:..
\'II.'II'I,.J III,
right column gives the hardness value In
units of BHN (Brinell hardness number).
These BHN values are derived from the for-
mula shown in Figure 3-9. -; ! IlSon;i'
The tungsten-carbide ball penetrator i.s T, .;-
approximately 10 millimeters (10 mm) in di-
ameter. Generally, the force used in the test is
3000 kg. Sometimes, a second BHN scale i ,

used in conjunction with a 500 kg force. This :f.

scale is used primarily for softer and thinner
Figure 3-6. The pmctmtor of {/ Brinell hardness
sample. In making the tests, loads should be
tester contacting the surface of {/ test sample.
applied against the sample for a minimum of ([nstron Corporation)
15 seconds. The sample should be rdatively
smooth, flat, clean, and horizontal.
The round ball makes a relatively large greater area of penetration, Brinell samples
impression on the sample, compared to other are generally scrapped tftcr being tested.
hardness testing methods. Many of the other Also, because of the large indenture, a Brinell
methods USe a pointed penetrator, which will hardness tester cannot be used to measure the
not deform the sample as much. Due to the hardness of very thin samples.


. . - ....... ....-

'1 -

Figure 3-7. TIu.. Brrnell penetrator places a round dcnt on thc sample. (Instnm Corporatioll)
Chapter 3 Hardness 25

I I,I,I I!I . .

II \ II!! II

r" '\


figure 3-8. A Brinell nncroscope is used 111 conjunction with the hardness tester. (Left. Instroll Corpora-
'111 Rigllt. Engim-eril1gand Scientific Equipment Ud.)

The Brinell method generally is restricted

to softer steels or other softer metals. Too
Load (kg)
BHN = Surface Area m2) much force is required on the penetrator to make a measurable dent un a very hard sur-
face. However, BrinelI is a verv ac;urate hard-
nes measuring method. for sft materials.
F Typical BHN values are shown in
Figure 3-11.
BHN nD 2 (D vOl d')

Micro/zordness Testing Methods

8HN = Brinll hardness number Sometimes, the large indentation caused
F = Force or load in kilograms by the Bnnen tt"bHng method makes the

, D = Diameter of ball penetrator in

testedsampleusel s .Ifthetestedpartistobeused,it critcalthat hesizeofindenturebeas mal aspos ibleThbisparticularly
true for thin, brittle, or small parts.
figure 3-9. This formula is used to calculate the In these applications, equipment known
Brinell hardness 1Il1lnber from the diameter of the as microhardnl'ss tt'Sters are USLx!. These testers
Jnlt it! tile sample. use smaller load and sharply pointed
penetrators, so they make very small indenta-
26 &'Ction Two Properties of Metals

There are two common methods ot micro- wire. Glass and ceramics, which might fracture
hudness testing: Vickerb micro/llIrdness testing due to large indtmtations, can be tested with a
and Knoop microhnrdn5 hllg. microhardne testing method. The hardness
Applications of these microhardness of coatings and case-hardened parts can also
testers include thin plate.'>, meta] fOlls, and fine be tested with miclOhardness testers. These
machines arc often used to test areas smaller
than the size of a crystal or grain. These testers
Brinell Hardness Number Conversions are more often found in research laboratories
Diameter Diameter than on a manufacturing production floor.
of Ball ofBall
Impression Impression Vickers Microhardness Testing Method
(mm) BHN" (mm) BHN
A Vickers hnrdness tester is shown in
2.25 745 3.60 285
Figure 3-12. The operation of this tester is
2.30 710 3.65 277 similar to the operation of the BrineU tester.
2.35 682 3.70 269 The differences between Brinell hardness
2.40 653 3]5 262 testing and Vickers hardness testing cue
245 627 3.80 255 li<>ted in Figure 3-13. The following are the
3.85 24" three main differences:

2.55 578 3.90 241 . The penetrator has a different shape.

2.60 555 3_95 2:35
. The load (force) is less.
. The methods use different uruts.
2.65 534 4.00 220
2.70 514 4.05 223
Vickers microhardness testing procedure
4.10 217
The testing procedure for Vickers micro-
2.75 495 4.15 212
hardness testing is nearly identical to the pro-
2.BO 477 4.25 203
cedure for Brine]] hardness testing. The fol-
2.85 461 4.35 192
lowing step" make up the procedure
2.90 444 4.40 1B7 1. The sample to be tested is placed on the
2.95 432 4.50 179 anvil of the tester, below a hardened teel
3.00 415 4.60 170 penetrator with a diamond point.
3.05 401 4.65 166
3.10 38B 4.BO 156 Typical BHN Values.
3.15 375 4.90 149
Cold Roned Steel (unquenche--d) ISO BHN
3.20 363 5.00 143
Quenched Steel 600 BHN
3.25 352 5.10 137
3.30 341 5.20 131 Stainless Steel (unquenchcd) 150 BHN
3.35 331 5.30 126 Cast Iron 200 BHN
3.40 321 5.40 121
Wrought Iron 100 BHN
3.45 311 5.50 116
Aluminum lOOBHN
3.50 302 5.60 112
'\nnealed Copper

45 BHN
3.55 293
Brass 12fJ BHN
*3000 kg load, 10 mm ball
Magnesiwn 60BHN
Figure 3-10. This chart am be llsed to determine
tile BrillcIl hardness nllmber based on the dUl1neter Figure 3-11. Brinell hardness vailies vary for dif-
of tI,e ,tellt. (Teledyne Vasco) ferent tyt.1f'S of metal.
Chapter 3 Hardness 27

Compansun of Brinell and Vickers

This squar-based diamond penetratOT is slowly brought into contact with the sam- Microhardness Testing

ple. The contact pres ure between the penetrator and sample is increased until \!i rl -Square
10 mm Diameter

Pendrator Ball DIamond

50 kg of force is reached. The pcnetrator is retracted and the sam- 500 kg

50 kg
ple shows a smaU, pyramidal shaped '"

Load 3000 kg
hole, Figure 3-14. The diagonal of the indentation is meas- Ullits BHN DPH

ured. The length of the diagonal is con- verted to a DPH (Diamond Pyramid Figure 3-13. A chart comparinR Brinell and
Vickers microhardness testing.
Hardness) value by use of a formula.
Figure 3-15, or a table, Figure 3-16.

_ "0



,t,:, -
,- "I.i\tl


( Figure 3-14. Magnified Vickas micrrnardncss

est samplbt.C6ll5l'
es. A- -Cast iron parthet. Tileirondent instructure
the white area is laislgerharder
limn tile dentinil ththee grayish
FtgUre 3-12. TIns Vickers IlI1rdHess tester is simi- grayish area. B- This gray iron is milch harder
to {/ Brillell hardness tester. (Engineering and than the cast iron, so the indentations are mudl
..... Iti(;c Equipment Ltd.) sl1mller. (Iron Castings SOCIety)
28 Section Two Properties of Metals

The length of the indentation diagonal

can be measured in several ways: DPH Load (kg) _
. Using a micnl&cope similar to the Brinell Surface Area (mm 2 )
. Using a calibrated micrometer barrel on
the tester, Figure 3-17A.
. Using a digital readout.
DPH 1.85 F d'
. Using computer software to display an DPH = Vickers Diamond Pyramidal
image of the indentation on a computer Hardnes:,
monitor, Figure 3-17B. F = Force or load in kilograms
The angle of the penetrator head meas- d = Diagonal length of indentation
ures approximately 136°, Figure 3-18. The in millimt:'ters
load most commonly applied is 50 kg. Some
Vickers rnicrohardness testers occasionany Figure 3-15. This formula is lISf'lt to aetermine
use either 5, 10, 20, 30, or 100 kg loads. The the DPH numl1f"r for Vickers hardness t'ting.
load is held on the sample for about 30 sec-
onds. The surface should be smooth, flat,
clean, and horizontal before testing begins.
Note that the 50 kg load is coru.iderably
less than the 3000 kg load used with BrineJl
testing. Therefore, the sample is not dam-
aged as severely as it is in the BrineU hard-
ness test.
Vickers Hardness Conversion

Diagonal Length
Advantages of Vickers microhardness testing of impression DPH""
The foHowing are some of the advantages
of the Vickers microhardness testing method 30 1030
over the Brinell hardness testing method .35 757
Vickers testing can be used on harder ma-
.40 57q
terials because the pointed penetrator can
probe into a hard surface more easily .45 45.'<
than a ball penetrator can. .50 371
Vickers testing can be used on smaHer
.55 306

. Vickers testing requires a smaller load. .00 "-'"

65 219

Knoop Microhardness Testing Method 70 18<J

The Knoop mlCfohardness testmg method 75 165
uses an even maller load than the Vickers
."0 145
testing method. A load of less than 4 kg is
used with the Knoop method. A load of 85 128

merely 25 grams (25 g) can be used for ex-

""Ba:"ed on 50 kg load
tremely small areas. Most new microhardness
testers are equipped for both Vickers and Figure 3-16. This table is 1l5t.d to determine the
Knoop testing, Figure 3-19. DPH IIl1mbt...,- for rmcrohardnl's testing.
Chapter 3 Hardness 29


", .

. --.J

;-,;- -. Figure 3-18. Tile 1JCI Cfrafor angle 15 app1tJXI- nwtely 136° for Vickers microlwrdne$s testing.
The Knoop penetrator does not have a
square base like the Vickers method. It ha" a diamond cros seL-tion known as an "elongated
pyramid." The ratio of the diagonals is 7 to 1_

', J , '!I
See Figure 3-20.
The steps involved in making a Knoop
hardness test are essentially identical to those
of the Vicker test method. With the Knoop
method, a load is applied and an indentation
is made. The indentation is measured. A for-
mula or chart is used tv convert to a Knoop
hardness value, or the value can be read

directly from a digital readout on the tester. The hardness units are simply called "units

. Advantages of Knoop microhardness testing

The following are the main advantages of

G:: Jo;:;:iJ!. iI,, . Knoop microhardness testing over the Vick- ers and Brinell teting methods:
'" 1- - /I
. Knoop testing does ssentiany no dam-
age to the specimen.
. Knoop testing can be used on very thin
fiBure 3-17. A-This tester has (1 calibrated . Knoop testing can be used on very small
.......cnm,ctcr barrel for measuring tile indentation. surface areas.
-This tester has an automatic image analysis
As in the other two methods, the surface
flip tlmt shows an enlargement of the indenta- . on a monitor. (SUN- TEK Corporatio1l and of the specimen should be smooth, flat, clean,
and horizontal before testing
stron Corporation)
30 Section Two Propertie of Metals

,.,. ."..
.J .,.,,#

- Figure 3-20. TIle KlkJOp pmetrator lJas an elon-
gated pyramid shape.

? !WE:;) -
r:-J_ .
- ".--
----- .

Figure 3-19. This microhardllf'Ss tester with

digltal output is used for Vickers and Knoop test-
ing. (lnstron Corporation)

Rockwell Hardl1ess Testil1g Method

Th Rockwell hardness testing method is the
most widely used of all metal hardness testing
methods_ The Rockwell testing metl10d elimi-
nates the effects of small surface imperfections
't- J ':-- I

by applying a preliminary load (minor load)
to the sample before the hardne<>s test is taken
_.k ..
Thus, Rockwell hardness values are very accu- rate. A Rockwell hardness tester is ;wn in
Figure 3-21.
Rockwell hardness testing procedure Figure 3-21. This Rockwell 1IardllfSS tester shows
tile RocJ.,'-ll1eIl hardness number on a display
A Rockwell hardnes test has two loading
.<>creetl. (lnstroll Corporation)
teps. A preliminary mitIOr IOl1lt is applied first.
The major lond foHows and comprises the
actual hardness test. A total of four separate
steps are involved (see figure 3-22): Because this minor load is applied before
Step 1. The sample is placed on the anvil the actual hardness measurement takes place,
Step 2. The anvil is raised manually until the the hardness value is measured slightly be-
sample contact the penetrator. The sample is low the surface of the sample instead of on
raised slightly higher until a minor load of the outside surface. This eliminates the
about 10 kg is applied, Figure 3-23. This minor adverse effects of surface scale, surface rough-
load causes the p:'netrator to penetrate slif41tly nes, and lack of flatness_ The actual hardness
into the sample.
Chapter 3 Hardness 31


ene, m ' i o
Brale fJ=,-

- JI1e'"hardne"
Anvil Step 2
n . I ! ' ' m : f ' i
I Penelration 1
""" depth due. a '
' ' value
to maJ() load Ste 3 propol1l(mal p

Step I Step 4

afterRockI:' t.ll htlrdnes.-'
pll1a.71lC1lt and mmor. tsf.b:1lld
placed on. tileload
3--l'vfn]or £lnvl.IS applled
Step 2-Sample
and scaleisisraised
read to
4--Sample is lou>ered.

iIII5l1reffient that can then bL' accurately based

h major load in step 3. A 1/8" diameter tungsten-carbide ball. A 1/16" diameter tungsten-carbide ball,
p 3. After the minor load is applied, the Figure 3-26A. A conical-shaped, diamond-point pene-
- load (60 kg. 100 kg, or 150 kg) is
tratm, Figure 3-26B.
plied by acrnating a handle or lever on the Loads of 60 kg, 100 kg, and 150 kg are
of the machine, Figure 3-24. As this used for Rocl'weJl hardness tests.
... load is applied, the penetrator moves Therefore, there are rune pobSible combina-
fPB into the sample.
The hardnf'hS valuf' is read directly from
a digital readout or from a rotary dial on
tiOil > of penetratorb and loads with the Rockwell 5}tem. Thf' Brinnell, Vickers, and
machine, Figure 3-25. No intermediate Knoop methods each generally used only one
bcalc: BHN, Vickers, and Knoop units,
aoscope or manual approximations need to
made. 1he reads in Rockwell hardness
lIEs, which are based on the depth of pene- respectively. The nine scales used in the Rockwell system are , RR' Re R D , R[' Rp
lion. The machine automatically converts the , Rw and R K . Each combination in the
Rockwell system has a uniqut' hardness
pdt reading to a Rockwell hardness value. 'P 4. Lower the bample, thus removing the
value scale The relationship between the
three penetrators, the three lUdds, and the
nine Rockwell scales is shown in Figure 3-27.
Three different penetratorb are used for Which scale would be used for the hard-
dwell testing, and three different loads are est materials? Hard materials require the
mmonly applied. The three Rockwell pene-
.---XS are: largest kilogram load and the bharpest
32 Section Cwo Properties of Metals



Figure 3-24. This schematic diagram illustrates

Figure 3-23. In a Rockwell hardness test, a minor
the operatwn of a Rockwell hardness tester.
load of about In kg is applied. (SUN- TEK
(Iustron Corporation)

penetrator. Therefore, the Rockwell C scale is corporates a closed-loop load--cell that elimi-
used for the hardest materials. nates friction in the Rockwell hardness tester.
Can you understand why the Rockwell H The penetrator and depth-measuring device
scale (R H ) is ued for the softest materials? are mounted directly on the load cell, which
This scale is so soft that it normally would not compensates for variations that may OCCur in
be used for any metals. the hardness reading. The friction caused by
For tesbng steel, the two scales most often many pivot and slide points is eliminated with
used are the Rockwell C scale {RA and the this method. While a load-cell equipped tester
Rockwell B scale (REI). The Rockwell C scale is will deliver the mot accurate hardness mea-
used to test hard steels and the Rockwell B surements. mechanical dead-weight testers are
scale is used to test the softer, low-caroon steels, still widely used by manufacturels.
aluminum, and other soft nonferrous materials.
The dial on most Rockwell testers has both a Advantages of Rockwell hardness testing
Band C scale. The hardest value that steel can The Rockwell hardness testing method
attain is about 70 (Rockwell C scale). has the following two key advantages:
. The minor load greatly reduces or elimi-
Testing accuracy nates the effect of surface imperfections.
A load-cell tester may improve the accu- . Human error is reduced because tre hard-
racy of Rockwell hardness tests. Thi tester in- ness value can be read directly from a scale.
Chapter 3 Hardnl;;'b5 33

\ -


, ; \ I ' - :'

"':.;. . .
, .

. ,) ' ; ":t= '

'I" , .P'.
I "-
I r ..... 11,;.,)1
. -

tJ. ' - .. Figure 3-26. Rod.:ll'Cll hardness tester penetrators.

3-25. The Rock-well hardness value can be
A-1/16" diameter ball penmator. B-Dianwnd-
anctly from a digltal readout. ([nstron point penctrator. (Instrol1 Corporation and
rJII1"II tiorl ) SUN- TEK Corporation)

rcJ:we1l Superficial Hardlless For example, 55-15N would mean that a

sling Method material has a hardness value of 55 units
1be Rock-well Superficzal hardness testing measured on a Rockwell superficial test ma-
is similar to the. basic Rockwell hard- chine using a diamond-point penetrator and

g method.outside
The dif erencesurface
is that the dwellofsupertheficial temetal. dness awith
ter tests the harSee 15 kg load. A reading of 75-30T indicates a material hardness value of 75 units tested
the 1/16" ball and a 30 kg load.
The Rockwell superficial tester penetrator-
r;ure 3-28. A tester that can perform both dwell hardness tests and Rockv.'eU Superfi- load combination for the hardest steels would
be the one used with the 45N scale. This com-
IlIests is shovm in Fih'UTC 3-29.
bination makes use of the diamond-point
-.kwell Superficial hardness testing FfiLetrator and the 45 kg load.
ure In order to test the hardness closer to the Advantages of Rockwell superficial
1I'IiIce, the Rockwell Superficial hardness hardness testing
The Rockwell superficial hardness testing
sling method uses sroaner loads than the ackwell hardness testing method. The three method has the following advantages:
. Thin materials can be tested.
.-mon loads used on the superficial tester
. Hardness near the surface can be tested.
15 Rockwell
kg, 30 kg, and 45 hardness
kg. The same dia-test
lIJOd-poiarent penetalso
rator andused
1/16" balinl usedthein . Case-hardened surfaces can be tested.
(Case hardening is discussed in Chapter 15)
bell Superficial hardness test. Many companies use Rockwell Super-
There are two choices of penetrators and ficial testers for all hardness tests. Even
choices of loading, so there are six total
nbinations available for use on the Rock- though their intended purpose is testing hardness close to the outer surface, they are
D superficial tester. Each combination uses dependable for nearly all manufacturing
of the following scales: 15N, 30N, 45N, applications.
JOT, or 45T. See Figure 3-30.
34 Section Two Propt:'rties uf Mctals

V 0 B
Diamond-Point Rockwell A Scalf' Rockwell D Scale Rockwell C cale

1/16" Ball Rockwell F Scale Rockwell B Scale Rockwell G Scale
[d t1 {? {}
1/8" Ball Rockwell H Scale Rockwen E Scale Rockwell K Scale

0 t1 {? {}
Figure 3-27. There are nine combinations of penetrators and IOlliis ptJSSible with tile Roc1"'-ll'cll hardness
testmg method. Each combinatwl1 has a unique Rochl'ell scale.
Chapter 3 Hardness 35

Rockwell Rockwell



3-28. TIle pclJetrator ill a Rock-u't'll super- i!\ "
IIm:Iness tester dOt'S not penetrate as decpllj ...-

pmetrator in a &JCkwell hardness tester.

Scleroscope Hardness
;ling Method
the SllOre scleroscope hardm'ss testing
is entirely different than any other
thud discussed thus far. The surface is
penetrated by a diamond-point or ball
IIdrator. A hammer baH is dropped onto

i. 1
sample, and the hardness is proportional
k bounce of the object. Two Shore sclero-
IfJemodel<; are shown in Figure 3-31. £)
_ scleroscope hardness testing
The sample to be tested rets on an anviL
ga,a)) metal ball or hammer drops from a Figure 3-29. TIl s hardness tester 0111 measure eitl er RocKwell or Rock.. well Supetficial hardness
values. (Instron COlJX'ration)
,trt of 10". Theassumes
hammer !-.trikesthatthe testtheI p)e andhigher
rebounds.theThis harhammer
dness testing This height is converted inb} a hardness
IJOUIlds, the harder the material. The ham- value in units of Shore. For example, if the
S" weighs 40 grains. This is less than 0.001 hammer bounceb 6 ] /4" after it strikes the
.-..:Is, which is les than 3 grams. sample, the hardness is 100 units Shore If
The height of thc fir,,>t bounce ib morn- the hammer bounces 3 1 /8" high, the hard-
Ifd. On most Shore scleroscopes, the scale ness value is 50 units Shore. If the hammer
a follower that followb the first bounce. strikes the sample and does not bounce, the
Ir reading can be read directly off a dial, hardnebs of the material is 0 units Shore,
little human rcading error. Figure 3-32.
36 Section Two Properties of Metals

v o
Rockwell Superficial Rockwell Superficial Rockwell Superficial
Scale 15N Scale 30N Scale 45N
1/16" Ball Rockwell Superficial
Scale 1ST
Rockwell Superticial Rockwell SupertlClal
Scale 30T Scale 45T

o {f {}
Figure 3-30. This table relates the six RtJCkwell superficial scales to their penetrators and loads.

This method may sound very unorfuodox. Advantages of Shore scleroscope hardness
However, the correlation betvlreen Shore values testing
and Rockwell and Brinell values is very close. The tollowing are some of the advantages of
An imperfection in the burface noticeably the Shore scleroscope hardness testing method:
affects the movement of the hammer. . The impression made is negligible,
because nothing actually penetrates the
Therefore, it is important to have a surface surface.
that is smooth., flat, clean, and horizontal
when using the Shore scleroscope method.
This procedure requires better surface quality
The machme is small and portable; it can be carried around a factory. A conven-
tional Rockwell or Brinell tester is too
than most other hardness testing methods.
large to conveniently maneuver down the aisles of a manufacturing plant.
Chapter 3 Hardness 37


r: ?>. . " \
II ,'-'
. 0-
., .
-tq- . rc
'1 9..T.6 (

- ;...
.' '-',
.- ."

pe 3-31.1ity.
The Slwre(It/stron
scler(lscope testCorporation)
s hardnes. <:; by measuring the helght of hammer bounce. A-Shore rnl6CDpe. B-Slwre sclewscopc, clampmg stafld, and canymg case. One ad"l Outage of this tester is its
The resonant frequency value i!-. then con-
>IIOdur Hardness Testing Method verted to a hardness number. The Sonodur
The Sonodur hardness testmg method is machine reads in BHN units.
different than the other hardness testing
dhods. This test method is based on the
Advantages of Sonodur hardness testing
., hardness affects the natural resonant cy of a piece of metal. The Sonodur machine is small and port-
able. It giveb a very quick response and does
lIKKIur hardness testing procedure
In making the Sonodur hardness test, a dia- notmethods,
damage the speciand
men. TheisSonodur har d - ness t e st
considered very accurate.
i n g met h od i newer t h an most ot h er
i-tipped magnetAnostridelectrical
ive rod (0.75 mm icoil
n I JI""l:er)used
is pressedtoagaivibrate
nst the sampletheto be
Mohs Scale Hardness Testing Method
and the frequency at which it vibrates the
test is determined in the electronic portion The Mohs scale was probably the first
he machine. This frequency is known as the hardnesb testing method invented. In ancient
nmt frequt'ltcy. The harder the material, the
..jw!r the resonant frequency.
times, philosophers discovered the need to devise a hardness scale. They selected ten
38 Section Two Properties of Metals

Mohs cale

rlO"-Ongmalheight Value Stone

: if Hammff Talc -
Gypswn -

t 6 1/4"b()uncp-----l(}Oumt"shore Calcite

Fluorsar -

I t-- 411 / 16 "bmUlce-75unitsshore I

6 Orthodasf'

- -

I 8 ]'opaz
+ L-3 I/S"bounce--SOunitsshore
9 Sapphrre
10 Diamond

II I r--l 9/16.'bounce-25umtsshore Figure 3-33. Tllese ten stones mah- up the Mohs
scale. The softest stone (talc) is glVen tile value of
1, and tire hardest "tone (dinmond) IS gll'fn tire
II no bounce---O units Shore
value oflO.

accurate method, but it was useful at the time

it was devcloped. Today, this method is no
lunger applied, except for a minimal use in
Figure 3-32. Thi.s chart rewtes the height of the the field of geology.
hamma botmce to umts of Shore scleroscopl'.
Filr Hardness Testing Method
stones of varying hardness. The softest btone The file hardness testing metluJd is fast, im-
was given a hardness value of 1. The hardest pie, and convenient-but inaccurate. How-
stone was given a hardness value of 10. The ever, it does provide a quick measurement, so
other eight stones were assigned the values of it is used extensively in industry today. See
2 through 9, based on increasing hardness. Fi 3-34
These ten stoneb are listed in the table in In the file hardnes test, the inspector
Figure 3-33. takeb a file in one hand and the test material
To use the Mohs scale for hardncs5 tebt- in the other. An attempt is made to scratch the
ing, the material sample ib btruck with one of test material by scraping it once with the edge
the stone. If the sample is scratched, it is of the filc.If the material does not scratch, it is
softer than the stone. Therefore, a softer stone id to be file hard. If it does scratch, it is said
is used to try to scratch the sample This to be not file Izard.
procedure contmues until a stone that does This may sound very crude and useless
not scratch the sample is found. For example, as a hardness testing method. However, in
suppose topaz, quartz, and orthoclase scratch industry, specific numerical hardness values
your sample but apatite and fJuor<;par do not. are not alway important. Often, an inspec-
Then, the hardness of your sample is between tor merely wants to check if some parts have
5 and 6 units Mohs. This certainly is not an received a heat treatment or not. With one
Chapter Hardness 39

File Hardness Testing o
CInain sm.:lll pia.--es of
.-nmum, brass, plastic,
times un each sample, using
different degrees of power. high-carbon steel sample now have more hardness
Note the depth of the resistance than the low-
cast iron, and several
mdenture on each sample carbon steel sample? It
t types of steel, in- should!
due to the file strike. Is there
- g 1018, 1045, 1095, WI File hardness testing is a
I, and 302 stainless
Other similar materials a large variation in depth? The softer materiab, like very quick test and is there.
fore used extensively in in-
be substituted if these aluminum and plastic,
d available. Many of should show a much deeper dustry, even though its re-
sults are not as accurate as
same materials will be penetration.
Heat aU of the steel sam- those gained by using a
or other Self-Demon- Rockwell hardness tester.
II'1S later in this text. ples to 1700°F. Let them soak
Some inspectors become very
fain a "sharp" file.
the edge of each sam- at that temperature for at least haU an hour, and then skil ed at filp hardness test- ing after doing it for many :
th the edge of the file, plunge them into a bucket of
a smooth downward cold water. Perform file hard- years. Did you notice that
ness tests on these samples
. It is important that
sample receives the again. Are they much more yoursamples?
technique improved as you tested more and more
strike intensity from resistant to the file stroke?
file. Try this severa1 hey sh0!i!? be! Doeb the

quick stroke of a file. they have their

.v answer.

. -PP, :\ This test method is not intended to give an

.. -. .' , accurate hardness value. However, many in-

spectors who have performed. the file hard- ness test for years are very skiJled at it and
.\ "'!" -,..
argue thattotheybelieve
caD ten the numerth icexperienced
al hardness value within apeople.
few points. One is in-
. ..:..<fjf The file hardness test is dependent on the
sensitivity of the hand of the inspector and on
,1 ,
the sharpness of the file, so most companies
/ rely on only one or two experienced people to run the test. Then, the results can be consistent
and considered dependable. It is also impor-
lUre 3-34. The file hardness testing mt'thod is
ateusil'f.'ly in mdustry because it gives
tant to Ube a relativelv new file so that the hardness of the file ds not cause a variation
in the test.
40 Section Two Ptoperties of Metals

Method Basis --I-- Penetrator Load Sbol
Diamond Point
Depth of 1/16" Ban "c erc
Rockwell Penetration or liE" Ball 6O-1()(1 -150 kg
Diamond Point
Rockwell Depth of 1/16" Ball L5N
Sup erficial Penetration or 1/8 Ball" 1 5-30-45 kg 3aT ete
Area of 500-3000
Brinell Penetration 10mm Ball k.<L BHN
File ofScratcn File Manual None

Slrore Height of Scleroscope Bounce _40 Grain Wci Gra"\ity Units Shore
Area of Pyramidal
Vickers Penetration Diamond 5 to 120 k.[ DPH
Area of Pyramidal 25-3600

Knoop Penetration Diamond grams --t-u nits KnlJo p

Frequency Magnetostncttve
Sonodur of Vibration ---!--- Rod N.A. BHN
MolTS Sct/le of Scratch 10 Stones Manual Units Mohs

Figure 3-35. This chart compaJ(? various llardncss testing methods

and they are working together in manufactur-

Comparing Hardness ing the same parts, they must be able to com-
Testing Methods municate with each other.
The answer lies in the use of cotll'f'rsion
All nine of the hardness testing methods
are summarized in Fgurc 3-35. This chart will charts such as those shown in Figure 3-36 and
give you a quick check of the rdative advan- Figure 3-37. With charts of this kind, hard-
ness values can be converted to other scales
tages and disadvantages of each technique.
that measure in the same hardness range. For
example, Figure 3-38 shows that a 52 Rock-
Conversion Scales well C scale reading ib equivalent to a 77
Hardness can be measured in many dif- Rockwell A scale reading. If a blueprint calls
ferent units, using different machines and for a hardness of 235 BHN (Brinell) and you
.;cales. Therefore, there must be a simple way have only a Rockwell testing machine, the
to convert one hardness scale value to an- material should have a 99 Rockwell B scale
other scale value. If company A has a Rock- value, or a 22 Rockwell C scale value. See
well tester and company B has a Brinell tester Figure 3-39. Also, a hardness of 321 BHN is
Chapter 3 Hardness 41

10mm Ten,lIe
B.II VIu", Sirengih
Diamond Br,le 118"'B.11 .'N Brllle I'enRIda' 3OOOlqjmLoad
Dlemond oIFlrlh Sclero- -

U' oo "" ". Dlem.ol Herdn..' -po E='lr l

_gm km :. ..m IJ ro:s ts B.lllm- Hardnela Number
C . pr...lon Number Sq. In.
-. k.. k.. UN "N 45N ,"mm
oo oo "' .. " .., 91
:1 93
'35 "

oo " Ii 93 93 2.25 745 . . !l : 92 82 '" ., 82 j " oo : . , 77" :J

93 '" '" m " 82 82 '" '" '" oo * 2.30 '" 000
oo " 60 j " '" .91 .. " 70 60 oo ." ". 60 '"

:; '"
" ". H" " " ..
: 55',OO,.. j55'
77' 59'
". " ,,,
'" II'" '"
oo oo oo " 93 75' .33 '"

" 82 '"
93 77 95 oo g .j ." '" oo '" " " 50 " : '" oo '50
" j :g :: - '" " '" :: :n '" " '" " " :: : :g : ."
" " " " :g ... :: '"
93 82
50 * ''''
-gg :'" " 'n
g j93
'"" '5O:J82
:6: " :
g :m
.. 3_15 '" " m" '"
" ooooi ""92,., 15
'" " ""oo" 3.35
: '" '" '!" S35'oo "109' ' " ' " m
" '" ''"" ..'"!:
" 92 : 55 37 Hg ' " : '
" ,"'" 50 92 3_60 SO, "
" oo " l()T'
" l()B. '" '" '" ].I ft " ''''" I 33 355 "" " 76 ,., '" '"

" 199
: ' ' " : 77
" ij- '-77'50
" : 1()3' j " " :g

" " 70 : :_g '" '"

: '" :50351()3'"73::; ',..

"oo'" " '""37
19''" '"'* '"'"'"".

m !1 '"


g '"" g ;: '"
'" 70' '" 95;g
"" 60 :: '""'" ! 03' '" 70' g


I '"
. .
'60 :g - 70
" '" i:n
NumbenareRockwell'B or C veluesnolordlNlnlydel nnIned.
60i "'"
n oo "

pre 3-36. A hardness c01lversion chart permits hardne<>S values to be converted to otlzer scales.
yne Vasco)
42 Section Two PropcrtJes of Metals

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I!Jo - - s::.. :;::/1:: i55 E; i!:?i :=:2 .:i ... Sa! ;:i;:l!:;: --- .! aiSSi5!5! ;'.!::::I=:I; ::;:UI; ;:;:::: j;ii5 --- ! ""

. . M) m.. :£!:. --.- --- -- --- --- --- --- --- .-- -.- --- --- --- --- -- --- --- -- -- - t;
- It" M= ,.",-.,..- _n ::i:: n_ .--.-- --- -- --- --- --- .-- -- --- -"' --- -- -- -- n -- -
. . .-= .."'M....' _._ Iii! I I I:: 1;:3 I;: I; ;;;1i: . I; :!::; - - - ..- --- .. -- -- -- -- -- --- -- -- --
. , I .- s::!:: --- .-- _.. --- --- --- --- .-- --- ::::; :Ii:;;:;; :;::!;i :;;:::.i:;;:Ii:: :: _n :;; ;;a:= ;
. I -.. ':;;;=:i:: Ii::: --- :::!;!;i --- :l;= --- --- ;.'!: --- --- --- --- ::S:i :z; .-- ; ;;a ;;;! . bIJ
u -- s::::::::=: --- ;::=::::1:.:: --- --. --- ... --- :I:: :os: :I :;;s= --- ::::1;::: .-- --- ::::;$ ::t:;:: . "'
Chapter 3 Hardness 43

the same hardness as 46 unib Shore or 36-

ROCKWELL ROCKWELL 45N on the Rockwell superficial tester. See
Bf.le 116"Ball N"Bral.PeneIr8IOr Figure 3-40.
The larger the numerical value of hard-
ness, the harder the materiaL This h. trulC of
"W' '00 '00
c . .gm
D .'om 1:J J tJ
-..... ...Ie ..... "N 30N 45N every hardness scale. Therefore, as we move

owrd the toptoward
of the chartsthe
, the harbottom
dness valuesofreprethe
sent harcharts,
der materiaLthe
If we
'" .. ., .."7' ..
.. .. 7515
., ., 7'
., .. 15

material ib softer. For example, a hardness

.. .. ., ., 72 .. 83 7' 92 ., 71 ., 83 73 91 8() 10
5l ., 72 91 79
value of 28 Rockwell C scale would be
12 7.
91 7.90
., ., 1177
90 7...
.7 slightly higher than 35 Unitb Shore. A hard-
ness uf 432 BHN would be slightly higher
than 434 DPH. Which would be harder, a
....00 0079
.. 7. ..81
S 80 .. ....15 8373
.. 79 ..61
.. 7. ., value of 30 Rockwell C scale, 302 BHN, or 49
54 7. .7 72 60
50 77 .. .7 11 59 Shore? Many interesting problems can be presented to give you practice at reading
these charts.
.. 77 .. 70 57
79 .. .. 69 ..
.. 76 83 .. 69 .5
.. 75 ., .. 54
.. 75 61 .5 .7 "

ptre 3-38. C01m_rtil gfrom Rockwel C scale to Rockwel A scale. TI1is figure .-s il portion of tile chart iLlustmted in figure 3-36. (Teledyne Vascl 1 )
ROCKWELL ROCKWELL 10 m/m Ball Vicker'
Brale 116" Ball "N n Brale PenetndOr 3000 kgm Loed olFIr1h
,.. 00 '00 '00 Dlam.ol Olamond Hardnet'

C 'om 'omB
. D .gm l: : l: Ball 1m.
preulon Hardn... Number
..... ..... SCale SCale 15N >ON .'N Inmm

....g,.... 75 94. 50 .. " .. 7' .. 92. 81 .. .3 .. 7' 900

g, 83 74 225 745 ...
.. .. 7. 92 .. 72 83'

315 28' 27.

103" 73 .. 28
71 84 45 255 272
103' 73 .7 21 380
215 B3 45 300 255 266
102 72 45 28
25 63 44 24. 26.
10' 72 45 24 3.5
21 62 43 390 241 25.
'00 " ., 23
23 62 42 39. 235 24.
.. 71 43 22
22 62 42 400 22. 243
.. 70 .2 21
21 61 41 223 238
98 69 .2 2Q 405
2D 61 40 410 217 23.
.. 97
.,, 212 222
..- 9.
.2. 203 213
.." 94
'35 '92 204
12" 92

3-39. Converting from BHN scale to Rockwell B and Rockwell C scale. Tllis figure s/IO'il'S a por-
(ftlEl' chart illustrated ;11 figure 3-36. (Teledvne Vasco)
44 &d1on Two Properties of Mctal

Se'f-Deror tration
Correlation of Hard.ess Sea' . s "J
Test their hardness on the Convert all the values to one
Obtain four small pieces
Rockwell D scale and the of the RockweU scales, such
of 1045 steel; 1095 or 1018
Rockwell B scale and record as the Rockwell C scale or
steel may be substituted if the Rockwell A scale, and
1045 is not available. This these values. lest their hard-
material will be used for ness on any other hardness compare the values. How
otht:>r Self-Demonstrations tester that you have available much do they vary?
later in this text to you. Do you have a Brinell It is expected that these
hardness tester, a Shore scle hardness conversion values
Test their hardness on the
loscope, a Rockwell superfi-
Rockwell C cale, using the
diamond brale and a 150 kg cia) tester, or a microhardncss mayvalues
deviate byofa feany
w hard- nessof puithents. Domaterials
the hardneSb
load. Record thee values. tester? Record all these val-
Next test the hardness uf ues also. consistently vary by more
Now, use the hardnes than the others?
these same samples on the
Rockwell A scale using the dI- conversion charts in Figure
amond brale and a 60 kg load. 3-36 and Figure 3-37 to com-
I Record these values. pare the hardness re' <;.


10mmB.11 Vickers Strenglh
'W" Brele Penetr.lor 3000 kgm Loed olFIr1h Sclero- -
Ol.m.ol H.rdnelS oe.po E=.I
15kg 30 kg .... Bell Im- Herdn... Number
Loed Loed Loed prenlon Number Sq. In.
15N 30N 45N Inmm

83 8. 15 940 91
93 8. 75 920 86
g, 8' ,. 900 9'
g, 83 ,. 880 83

363 50 111
.0 3.30 3.
79 51 '8 186
39 3.35 331 354
18 56 ." 183
31 3.35 331 3'5
18 " 15'
321 33" 45
11 54 36- 3.40
311 321 .8
17 " 35 3.8 150
302 318 ..
,. 52 34 3.50
310 ., ""
51 33 355 293
18 .2 142
'2 3.8() 285 302
15 50 ., 13"
3.65 271 29.
15 50 30 134
269 286 .0
,. 49 29 310
262 279 39 131
13 '8 28 3.75 128
255 212 35
13 " 21 3.80 12'
380 '55 286 37
12 .8 26

Figure 3-40. Convertmg from BHN scale to SllOre und 45N Rockwell Sllt 'rjicinl. This figure shou.tS {l portion of the clzarf il ustrated in figure 3-36. (Teledyne Vasco)
Chapter J Hardness 45

15. The 30T scale refers to which hardness

..t Your Knowledge testing method?
16. Name the hardness testjng method that
IJitt' your mlIl'fi'S on a separate sheet afpaper. measures in units of DPH.
.. write in tlJis book.
17. Name the hardnes testing method that
In which hardncs testmg method is the
lIdness based on the diameter of an involves scratching a surface with ten
k1 which hardness testing method does 18. Name a hardness testing method that
uses either a diamond-point penetrator
!he- impression look like a diamond, with or a ball penetrator, wlth loads of 15 kg,
one axis seven times as long than thE'
alber' 30 kg, or 45 kg.
What hardncs testmg method is the 19. Which hardness testing method is the
fastest to use, but docs not give accurate
widely used of all methods? numerical results?

. which hardness testing method is the hDdness value dependent on the height 20. In the 45T bcale, what does the 45 stand
CJI the bounce?
In which tvw hardness teting methods 21. What is the grt:'dtet hardness value, in
Rockwell units, that steel can attain?
he hardness dependent on the depth JX"Oetration rather than the width of 22. Which Rockwell hardness scale is most
commoniy used for hard materials?
.. which hardness testing method is a 23. In the Rockwell hardnebs test, what scales
use the diamond-point penetrator?
l1I1.ond-tippcd magnetostrictivt:' rod 24. Which of the following values represents
the hardest material?
which hardness testing methods is a
a. 35 Rockwell C
mor load applied first to get through b. 69 Rockwell A
Duter surface of the metal befofe
c. 44 Rockwell D
...king the hardness test? 25. Which of the following value.. replcsents
.. most hardnes teting methods, the
the hardest material?
dace should be as horizontal and as
a. 460 BHN
II and smooth as poible. In which b. 53 Rockwell C
mIne55 testing method is this the mot c. 271 DPH
26. Which of the following values represents
which type of hardiamond-shaped
dnes testing method i5the hardnesimpression?
dependent on the width the hardest material?
a. 38 Shore
b. 25 Rockwell C
k1 which hardness testing method is a
c. 97 Rockwell B
'R'f"V small impression made by a diamond 27. Which of the following values represents
rator usinghardness
a load so small it testing
is mea- IJ[Iremethod
(l in grams instemploys
ead of kilograms? the hardest material?
a. 389 DPH
b. 61 Shore
either a C, A, E, G, or K scale?
c. 389 BHN
List the hardncss testing methods that
measure hardness in \ll1its of BHN. 28. Which of the following values represents
the hardest material?
Microhardness tester is another name for
a. J2b Knoop
which hardness testing methods?
b. 30 Rockwell C
_ \'\'"hat hardnCSh testing method uses a
c. 270 BHN
(I mm diameter ball and a 3000 kg force?
46 Section Two PlOpertit;'S of Metals

29. Your firm has dccided to invest in another testers would you amsider and l<'Cll:mmend?
hardness tester. If you already have a 31. The budget for a new plant allows for the
Rockwell hardness tester, what hardness purchase of tvvo ncw hardness testers. If
testers would you consider for recom-
mendation if your company uses primar- the company manufactures only high- alloy steel products, what factors should
enter into the decision of which hardness
ily low-carbon steels?
30. Your firm is building a new plant in an- testers to buy? Which hardness testers
other section of the cOlmtry_ The budget for would you recommend?
the new plant aHmvs for the purchase of 32. If your firm is planning to get involved
three new hardness te1ers.1f your com- with products that will require a thin,
pany uses all types of metal (including hard outer surface on many of its metal
steel, cast iron, alumimun, brass, and also parts, which hardnes tester would you
some pl.:'1stic materials), which hardnes.<.
.:.1 JiL.. ""
\......, Y.'. :
;" :.ld.(
... t'

1 "' 'r1 ' ! .

4 '4 ,JI. ,. Ii '0' ...
- f

sbMlying this chapter, you will be able to: . Mechanical propertIes, such as strength,
hardnes, and modulus of elasticity.
ain tne relationshisimple
p bern'cel1 iltensi1e,
ength. hardness,compressive,
and ductil ty. . Chemical propertie, such as corrosion

tDrSional, and flexural stresses. . ELectrical properties, such a resistivity.

Compare the variOUb types of btresscs . Thermal properties, such as melting
materials must withstand. temperature.
Drftine and calculate percent elongation . Other properhes, such as density and wear.
.-ad strain.
Compare elashc and plabtic deformation. Three Mechanical Properties
IJI!5cribe stress-strain diagrams for
.maunon materials. Hardness, ductility, and strength are the
three properties dicussed most often in met-
Explain modulus of elasticity.
DEtErmine lateral strain using Poisson's allurgy. These properties are related to one
.-, another. Generally, as strength and hardness
increase, ductility decreases and the material
0I5cnbe types of CorroSlOI1. becomes more brittle. As a material becomes

ain thermal properhebthennal
such as IE!ltinconductivity,
g point, coefficient of therand
mal more ductile, it strength and hardness are

:Jecifichcat. Strength, hardness, and ductilIty are nor-

mally desirable properties in metal. Brittle- refer to the characteristics, abili-
traits, strength.., advantages, disad-
ness (the opposite of ductility) is general y a bad characteristic. Thus, a primary goal of
. and unusual feahucs of a material
material propertieb are used to compare
metal urgical science is to find ways to in- crease the hardness and strength of a material
without reducing it ductility.
II!IB1I materials. Just as a human being may
Ihe strength to lift heavy boxes or the abil- Hardness
ID resist bffioking cigarettes, similarly, a
may exhibit strength to carry large loads When certain alloys are added to metal.
Dlity to resist decay from conosion hardness and strength can be improved with-
rerial properties can be divided into out decreasing the ductility. Millions of dol-
-lowing classes (Figure 4-1): lars of metallurgical research have gone into

48 Section Two Properties of Metals

Important Properties in Steel

Stress/Strain I

Mechanicai Relationship Chemical Electrical Thermal Other Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties Properties
Hardness Flexibility Corrosion Electrical Coefficient of Weight Strength o elongation resistance conductivity thermal Density
Brit lene% Strain Resistance to Electrical c:\1'ansion Specific Ductility Elasticity acid. resistance MeitiIlg weight
Stress PL:1.sticity Resistance to Dielectric temperature Wear
le strength Malleelastkity
ability all;ati strengttoh Therother
mal Machisusceptibility
nability Compressive ModulHeat
us of Resicapacity
stance Magnetic conductNity Weldability
Shear strength Stress-strain chemicais Specific heat
Torsional diagram
strength Elastic range
Hexural strength Plastic range
Fatigue strength Creep
Toughness Poisson's ratio
Impact shength
Figure 4-1. General materiall'ropt..,-ties can be grout1td into Sl'Vl'ral categories.

the development of metals that can increase A common measure of ductility is per-
their hardness and streogih without decreasing cent elongation, which is discussed later in
their ductility. the chapter.

Ductility and Brittleness

The terms ductile and bnttle are OppOSIteS.
Both terms are used to describe a material's
ductility. If a material stretches very much
before it breaks, it is said to be ductiLe, or have

high ductility. H a material stretches very lit le before it fractures, it is said to be brit le, or
have little to no ductility, Figure 4--2.
In nearly all situations. ductility is more t
desirable than brittleness. Ductile materials
resist shock better and absorb more energy
before failure than brittle materials. However,
in applications where deformation b undesir-
able, ductility is no longer an asset.
Brittle materials are usually strongcr than

ductile matLow-carbon
erials, but not aMa\'s. Somesteel.
ductile mataluminum,
erials may ICSi&t high fand
Ol 'CS .wrubber
hile stretching. Original Ductile Brittlt'
bands are ductilc. Cast iron, glass. and uncooked
spaghetti are brittle. Figure 4-2. A ductile matenal stretc1res mllcl nIore before fracture tlrlI l a brit le nIl/terial dilt'S.
Chapter 4 Matenal Properties 49

gtll t t Pt t
lhm;> are many different types of <;trength,
Ioding tensile strength, compressive strength,
strength, torsional btrength. flexural
fatigue strength, and impact strength.
tvpe of strength is a meabUIe of how a
D Tension
III5ial reacts to a speo...--ific type of loading.
IIp; I
1he amount of effort attempting to frac-
M1 item is known at> stress. The ability to Figure 4-3. A tensile load causes Ifwlecules ill the
that stress b known as stlCllgtlr. If the 1lll1tcrial to be pulled nwatj from Or/e or/other.
on a part exceeds its strength, the part
Stress is mathematically equal to force or Tensile stress is equal to the apphed force
di\"ided by the cross-sectional area resist- divided by the cros..<rsectional area that is
lllat force. The units of btra.s are normally resisting the tensile force. For example, if a
IIIds per square inch (psi) or kips pe[ cross-sedionai area of 0.75 in 2 is resisting a
inch (ksi). Metric \U1its arc dynes per force of 9900 lb., the stress developed is:
for example, if a L.2/J diameter shaft is
!IIhed by a uniformly applied force of
[ensile stres = :;
lb., the stre<>s on the part is computed = ]3,200 psi
Comprt511>C strength is the ability to with-
Cross-sectional area:::: J[ x 4 D2 sprcbsive
tand "pres ing" orstrength.
"squeezing together," Figure 4-1:. Cast iron has outstanding com-
_ 1tx(1.2")' A part loaded in compresion must with-
- stand a compressive stress equal to the com-
pression force divided by the cruss-:.ectlonal
= 1.13] in 2

Area tIt
_ 22,000 lb.

- 1.131 in 2

19,450 psi

J1sile strl'1lgth is a material's ability to

t t
Ihstmdstres intension.Tensionisal ing,"Figure4-3.This perhapsthemostportantofal strengths.Mostmetalsare
ong in tension.

Figure 4-4. Compn-...si01l15 (/ squeczl11g togetlll'r.

50 Section Two I'rop('rtie of Metals

area withstandmg the load. For example, if

the compreNve load is 555 lb. and the cross-
sectional area is roWld with a diameter of

0..1,.1.-1", the comp:res.....ive stress can be calculat-
ed a folJows:
. 1tXD2
Crm,s-sechonal area ='

_ 1txO..J..l.F - Figure 4-6. Sllear is a slidmg Iltlst ty'Il' of actl:Oll.

0.155 in'

Compressive stress =' nonnal J y l e ss t h an i t s abi l i t y t o r e sI s t t e ni o n or compr e ssi o n. However , t h e shear st r e sses
that are built up in materials arc also general-
555 lb.
0.155 in' Iylct>s. The shear tress developed in a part is
=' 3580 psi equal to the "hear force divided by the cross-
ectional area withstanding the force. For
Most matenaL... have approximately equal example, in Pigure 4-6. assume the shear
force is 2220 pounds, the width of the bar is
abilitie in resisting ten.. .ion and compion. A few material. ., such ab LaSt iron and concrete, 0.75", and the depth into the page it> OA-5".
The shear btreSt> is calculated as follows:
are able to take much higher olmpressive
btrcsbes than tenile hcs.<:oes, Figure 4-5.
Shear strength i the abilit) to resist a
Shear stress =' :ee
"sliding past" type of action, Figure 4-6. A material's ability to withtand shear stress if, 2220 lb.
0.75" x 0.45"

Tensile Compressive == 6580 psi

Material Strength (p,>i) Strength (psi)
The resisting area for shear)5 not perpen-
1025 Steel 70,000 70,000 dicular to the line of action of the force, as is
1095 Steel 110,000 110,000 the ca!'>c with tension and compression. This
52100 Steel 140,000 140,000 is a key difference in shear. The resisting area
GrClY Cast Iron C 35,000") (no,ooo) is always parallel to the line of achun of the
Wrought Iron 40,000 40,000 applied force.
TorsiOf/ClI strength is the ability to resffit
Stainless Steel 95,000 95)JOO
rotational ..hear, figure 4-7. Torsion OCCllrs in
Alwninwn 40)XJO 40,000
Bronze 60,000 60,000
Zinc 20))00 20,000
otating machithene parstress
ts. Round becomes
shafts that carry enelexcessive,
gy are common exampl es of this
the crys-
taL... in the metal slide pabt each other and the
Figure 4-5. Cast iron has gI.eater ['(nl prl'ssion strcngth than tensile strengt!1. cro section of the shaft fractures.
Chapter 4 Material Properties 51
T Plexllral strength is bending strength. It
generally involves tension on onc side of a
material and compression on the opposite

"ide, Figute 4-8. This is regularly encountered
in beams and long parts in machines.
\'\Then flexure is applied to a part, there
wiJI be a tctlSi1e stress on one side of tht' part
and a C011lplessive stress on the opposite side_
T For a symmetrical beam, the maximum stress
4-7. Torsion occurs Wht.-"l {/ JOm> CmJ::Jl'S can be ca1culated using the following formula:

Flexural stress = I
)be maximum torsional stre% in a shaft In this equation, "M" is the bending
bu is determined from the following moment in inch-pounds, "c" is the distance
from the neutral axis of the member in inch-
es, and "1" is the moment of inertia_ For a cir-
Maximum torsional stress = T ; R cular cross section, the moment of inertia is
calculated by the following-:
this equation, "T" is the applied
1txD 4
r in inch-pound, foot-pounds, etc., UR"
distance from the center of the shaft to I=
outside surface, and '']'' is the polar For example, in Figure 4-8, if the diameter
I1118'\t of inertia. For rolLnd shaft, the polar of the machine member is 0.75" and the applied
I1118'\t of inertia is deteuruncd using the
lowing formula:

J- n;2 D4
... this equation, "0" is the diameter of
)r example, in Figure 4-7, if the applied
is 555 in-lb. and the diameter of the Original Sample
is 0.375". the torsional stress is calculated

J= 1txD 4 32
It X 0.375 4
::: 0.00194 in 4

Torsional stres&::: T; R Sample Loaded in Ac\.

Figure 4-$. A material loaded in flexure is sub-
555 in-lb. x 0.1875 " jected to both tensile and compTl'SSilli' sm's.t,(os. Tlte
0.00194 in 4
top of this sample is compressed, while tlte bottom
is stretched in tCI1S;O/l.
53,b-IO psi
52 Section Two Properties of Metals

Self-Demonstration r,
) Flexural Strength JI
Obtam a flat piece of sheet hard coating over a 1 in 2 ec- pression on one side of the
metal. steel. or aluminum tion of the sheet metal near sample and tension on the
the middle of each side. Give other side. Does the tension
(1/32" or 1/16" thkk). The
piece should be ],. to 2" wide the coating plenty of time to ide begin to show small
and at least 6"long. The exact dry without disturbing the cracks? Does the compres-
dimensions are not critical. sample. sion side show signs of
Sheet metal ..tock will likely Carefullv hold the sam- bulging?
be in in\'{ntory in your metal- ple at both nds with your
lurgicallaboratory stock room hands and slowly bend it
or machine shop stock room, into a concave shape in one
0[ it may be purchased at a direction only.
I local hadwi'lre store. As VOll slowly bend the
I Apply a coating of paint, sample: observe the coating.
glue.:t polish, or any ther Flexural stresswiU put corn-

moment at the break point i!' 8B(l() in-lb., thf' Comparing Types of Stress
moment of inertia will be:
The different types of stresses me the re-
1TXD- sult of various types of loading. The type of
1 - 64 loading determines the stress to which the
material is subjected. A comparison of the
1T -.0.75 4
main types of strengths and stresses is shm\'11
in Figure 4-9.
= 0.01553 in"' Fatlguc stn:'llgth or endurance strength refers
to the ability of a material to resist repeated

and the flexural stress will be:

loading. A machine part may fail at a lower stres level if a force is Lontinually applied
and withdrawn. Vibration produce;;; fatigue
MXc ,>tress.

Flexural stress = 1 Some matcriab will hold up to a constant

tensile stress or compressive stress without
8800 x 0.375
breaking, but will fail quickly under a smaller,
repetitive fatigue stre. Such a material has
212,500 psi little ability to withstand repeated loading
and unloading. Slight cracks in the surface
tend to grow and propagate across a piece of
metal when it lacks good fatigue strength, Fig-
In this example, there would be a tensile ure 4-10. Similarly, if you repeatedly fold and
stress of 212,500 psi on the bottom of the shaft cre,lS(' a piece of paper before trying to rip it, it
and a compressive stress of 212,500 on the top wiH "give up" much muTe easily.
of the haft. The two stresses together dre TOllghness and impnct strength measure
called "flexure." the ability of a material to resist shock. Some
Chapter 4 Material Properticf> 53

o 81- [(c->
Tension Compression Shear Flexure Torsion
Figure 4-9. Materials are subjectcd to many typt's of stm:Sl'S. TIlt' farce::; Il[tmg on the ob;lY"t prol.tucc tlU' . Tll 'St' stltOSses are resisted b.., the strcn>.;th of the material.
...terials Wh1Ch require toughness and hock tolerate even a small force if it is suddenly
RSistance, must have a good combination of
h:JIh strength and ductility to resist shock. Air
hlmmers, connecting rods in engines, and im- ap licd.Thescienceofkar teilustratesthis.Strongmaterialscanbebrokenwithsurp is-inge<Lifthespe doftheblowisquiterapid.
To cite some e>.amples, a material like cast
pId wrenchesSome
all mustmaterials
resist shock. Therecan
fore, . . resist
important prhigh
operty in fOlces
them is toughnes.or iron, which has good compressive strength but poor ductil ty, does not have ood shock
loads if the 1o.......1.ds are applied graduaHy and resistance. Medium-cdlbon steel has fairly
ptly. But some of these same matetials cannol
good strength and ductil ty. Therefore, it has good toughnes and shock resistance.
Ductility 1S the ability of a matenal to

n +n+n+n+Q
bend, stretcll, or distort without breaking. A
ductile matcrial is flexible. A brittle material
is not flexible.

U OuOuOuOo
It + t + t + t +
When a metal b shetched in tension, the

amount that it length increases can be refer ed to as elongation, deformntlOn, c1lOl gC of

lCflgth, or simply stretch. When a metal is reduced in lengtl due to compression, thf'
length reduction can be referred to as ddimlla-
tiol1. contraction, or dlOnge of length.
..e 4-10. Fatiguc stlt'11glh deal with rt"pfllted A common measure of ductility is percent
r, altime.
ld unIon/lD.j0l111l1tion
ing. Tn this figl re, a sampleofis jetIll'cted tpart
o periodiisc cocXHggell1ted
mpres ive and tensile loadiinng elongation at fracture. Other measure of duc-
tility include strain and elasticity.
54 5<-'<:hon Two Properties of Metals

Percent elongation is the perL'eIltage that a L

material stretch:'''> before breaking. Mathe- 222"

matically, this is equal to the maximum amount of deformation divided by the origi-
na1length. This value is then converted to a percentage by mu1tiplying by 100:
0,,, elongatIon - Original
DeformatJon x 1 OO' u
Consider the long bar in Fie 4-11 that

crably before bleaLng.222"
As- sumebefore
that the origmalbreaking.
length of the bar wasThe33"
percent elongaDon i.. calcu1ated as follows:
Original Deformed
Length Length
'Yo elongation -ngma
Oeortionength x 100"0 Figure 4-11. PenYllf elongation LC; tile Il('1"nlIt of
tile original lc1tKtIJ 11 material stretc111 bt'fore it
0= 2;''' x l00'u bUlks.

Stram is the ratio of deformation (or Suppose you app1y a load to a part and it
change in length) to origina1length. The only numerica1 dif erence betvveen strain and per- sttheretches.materia1
Then, vou removeisthsaid
e load. WitoH thbee partelastic.
return to its origIfinalitlengtdoesn't,
h? If it does,
is a fadoratof failure,
100. Howeverwhile
, percent t:'
longation gener al y refers to the
can refer to
and it retains a permanent deformation, it is
said to be plastic.
either the stretch ratio during a test before Ihe terms elastic and p1astic are a1so used
failure, or the maximum stretch rati.o of the to describe materials. An elastic materia1 returns to its origina1 shape after loading. A
Thus, strain 1S found by: plastic material retains some of the deforma-
tion caused by the load. Elastic and plastic
St. Deformation behavior is illustrated in Figure 4-12.
ram - Original Length 111b ability of a material to return to its
The umts of strain are commonlv referred original length and shape after being
stretched without any permanent deforma-
to a inches per inch, .1lthough , >tra"'in can be consicl.er1c- d as unitles since deformation and tion is referred to as elasticity. PlastiCity is the
oppoite. It is the abHity of a material to per-
original length normally have the same units.
Tv determiru:' the strain at failure of the manently deform and to retain its new Sh.1pe
bar in figure 4-11, without breaking.
Malh'l1LJllity is a form of plasticity. It is the
Strain _ Detormation ability of a material to permanently change to
Original Length a new useful shape after being hammered,
forged, presed, or rol ed. Malleability is heeded for operations such as fmging, draw-
ing, extruding, or forming in a press. Most
0= 0.0673 inche/mch ductile materials arc malleable.
Chapter 4 '\1aterial Properties 55


OrIginal ome deformation

Original rcmain after
to origin<1J length
length load is removed
UJ1deT load
under load

:.-e4-2. With elaticdl'(i.1Imatjon, a matenal returns to Its 111ltial SIItlf-lCwllel1 the lond is remfT('(',l
astrc dff!1rl1remams.
latlOn, the material dOl. 1I0t return to its origil1l11 shape WIIt'11 the load is remolrn: some

*Nions/rip of Stress and Strain This ratio remains constant tor low levels
Dtere a special relationship betvveen
and strain that is significant in the study
.-etallurgy. Strain increacs as stress i-
ot <;trebs, Le., stresses below the proportional limit stress, which wil be discussed later
!IiIISeS. For clastic deformation, strain inc:reases imaterials.
n this chapter. The table in Figure 4-13 shows the modul-us of elasticity for several
t proportioton to force
the increaseorin btload,
res in myand
s. For a giveisn parpropor-
t, stres is pro- We can use the relationship between
stress and <;train to accurately predIct dL"-
E to elongation or change of length. formation for vanous load. For exampJe, a
The ratio of stress to strain for a mate- shaft that is 0.375" in diameter and 5.5" long
is called modJllul> of elasticity or Young's stretches 0.0073" when subjected to a longitu-
Illus (named after Thomas Young) The dinal force of -1400 lb. This is illustrated in
lief' E is used to represent the modulus of Figure 4-14. In the following calculations, we
---.llSlicity. I t has the same unih. as stress (psi) will use this information to calculate the
.J. is calculated by dividing a stress by the modulus of e)asticity for the materiaL We will
rain it ploduces:

Modulub of EL:'1sticity _ t ress

then use the moduls of elasticity to calculate the strain that would occur for dif erent
- Strain
56 Section 1wo Propt:'ctit's of Metals
The tress is calculated as discussed
Modulus of ElastiCity
Material (p,>i)
. 7tXD2
Aluminum 10.0 x 10'" Cross-sectional area =
Gray cast iron 12.0 x 10'"
7tX (0-375")2
Malleable cast iron 26.0 x 10"
SIITI 30.0 x 10"
0.110 in'
Magnesium 6.5 x 10'"
Titanium 16.0 x 1(1'
Concrete 3.0-8.0 x 10" 1::'.&-..___ Force ':>LIS=
Wood 1.5-2.0 x 10"
-MOO lb.
0.110 in 2
Figure 4-13. This table lists tile modulus of elas- ticity for several materials, both metal ic and non-
metallic. 40fJOO psi

After determining the stress,

determiI1£:' the strain:

4630 Strain _ Deformation

=r t88TT r
Original Length

O .OO7:i'f ---.L = 0.00133 inches/inch

Using the btreSS and corresponding

r strain value, we can determine the modulus

of elasticity for this material:
E = Stress

40,000 psi
0.00133 inches/inch

= 30 x 1£Y' psi
Now that we know the modulus of elas-
length ticity, we can determine the strain resulting from any load in the elastic range. For exam-
Luad and
Load known,
ple, we can caJculate the strain for a force of 2UOO lb. First, calculate the stress:
known unknown
Stress = Force
Figure 4-14. III tllis example, the modulus of elas-
ticity IS calculated from tile load and dt1i-"JYmati(lIl 2000 lb.
ShOll'lJ. Tilis illformation is thellllSf.'ll to detcnlline 0.110 in 2
the stram wIder two dfft'"t!lIt loads.
18,200 psi
Chapter- 4 Matenal PcoJ:X'rties 57
Elastic limit stress
m use the equation for the modules of elas-
Iv determine btrain:

Strain::: StEess
18,200 psi
30 x lO(,psi R
/ ProportIOnal limit stress
= 0.607 inches/inch

\Ye could then calculate the expected

bmation based on this stram.

- =-Stram Diagrams Strain

A graph of stress versus strain IS known

OIl stress-strain diagram and decribeh the
_viOl of materials. A typical stress-stram Figure4-15.Astrcs -stra£ndiagramilustratesa!n ter;al'ste1ldencytodeformulderload.This thestn's -strni diagramforlow-carbonste l.Tile
bluc area reptt'Se1lts the ell1stic rmrge and tile gray
-am for llimit
steel is shownarein shown
pre 4-15. Theinproporthetionaldiagram.
limit stress and afl'tl represents the plastic Yallge.

rtionallimit detormation grow more rdpidly. Thb region

As long as both strs and strain increase b known as the plastic range. See Figure 4-15.
OIl constant rate, the stretrain diagram Stre<;s-strain diagrams have different
iI be linear, i.e. a traight line. Note that in shapes for different materiab. See Figure 4-16.
r:ure 4-15, the straight line continues until it Aluminum and most nonfl::'rrous metals do
--=hes the proportiollal l£mit. Beyond thb not show the distinguishable proportional
..t, strain increases at a faster rate than limit that ferrous metals do. Cast iron 11or-
.-ss and the modulus of elasticity nn longer ffi.:llly tracture very dose to the proportional
...ppties limit because it is so brittle.

Elastic and plastic range

U the materia I is stressed slightly beyond Creep
When a material is loaded to a specific
proportional limit, it rcaches a point stress-strain level and held there for a long
JWI1 as the elast£[ Im1l1. Set:- Figure 4-15. If
material is stressed beyond this point, the
lerial will not return to its original length permaterial
iod of time, acontinues
phenomenon knowntoasstretch
creep occureven
s. Plastic fthough
low occurs andthethe
ft1 the load i released. It wi1l be perma-
Illy deformed. If the load is rele.lh€d before stress is not increased. Creep is a slow plastic
material reaches thit. elastic limit, it will flow process and is more pronounced at
urn to its originalll::'ngth. higher temperatures. When it occurs, the
The porti.on of the stress-strain curve function of a part may be jeopardized due to
ween zero and the elastic Jimit is known as its dimensional change. At lower tempera-
dastic range. See Figure4-15. Beyond the etas-
limit, the ratio ot stl'C&b to strain is no longer tures, creep may take months or years to affect the functioning of a part. However. at
ear and the material will not return to its elevated temperatures, creep may be a sen-
ginallength if the IO.ld is released. Strain and ous problem.
58 Section TwC' Properties of Metal'>

Poisson's Ratio
As a material is trained and elOllp;dtcd in

jL il:=_ Strain
Med mm-Carbon Steel
one dhcction. the material decrc dimension-
ally in the other h''lO directions. See Figure 4-17.
fhe decrease in strain in the two perpendicu-
lar directions is Iss than th applied strain in
the loaded direction. The relationship
betvveen these strain valus is defined by
Fois.J1I's ratIO. Poisson's ratio is the ratio of
the lateral strain to the strain in the loaded
direction. Poisson's ratio includes a negative
sign, because the lateral strain and axial

, !L
"train have opposite polarity.

Poisson's ratio (ll) = L;:;;I '1a;

Stram Strain The tollowmg example iHustrates how
Plastic Cast Iron Poisson's ratio is used to determine dimen-
sional changes in cross section.
Figure 4-16. Stress-strain diagrams vary for dif- A thin machine member is 77' 1011f" and
ferent tyP{ of 11l1lterials.
has a 055" x 033" K'L1:angum CJ.U&S section. The material has a Poisson's ratio of 0.3. If it is
stretched 1.5" along its k.ngth, we can detennine

V 1.Xis
- I
z axis yaxis - zaxis

__ '1_-

[ _/ >: r1 '> i-b4

x axis

y ---J
.l / _
I- Lx_v -ox--
Original Size Loaded Shape (greatly exaggerated)
Force "Fx" is applied in the "x" direction
Object increases fix in length in "x" direction
Object decreases by in length in ''y'' direction
Object decreases 6/' in length in "z" direction

Figure 4-17. An object dong/lted along Olle ,71,S tJ. il contract along ti,e at"cs lJf!rpcndiculnr to tile axIS of loadmg. Pois on's ratio is the ratio ofl ie frl1l sversc strahl to tire strain in the liwdl"t din- ctlOl .
Chapter 4 Material FTOperhes 59

poisson's Ratio

Slowly apply pressure to Multiplv the new length

Obtain some modeling
y. You will need a few the upper surface of the flat
afts that are 1 to 2 in 3 in size. object as unifonnly as posible
times the new width times the new neight and compare to the
Mold a bdmple into a until the clay cube begin to
iginal volume. Whi\..'olume
ch vol- ume productshould
is greater? Thebe
hange . changes
hape. TIle clay shouldimensions
d bulge at the' sidcs. Befvery
ore the
obewithyourhands.Donotp lyagreatdealofpres ure.'"sque zing"totheample
making it take shape.
much, remove the upper object
action should have compressed
the sample slightly.
greater because the squeezing

Measure the sample very and accuratelY rneasure all

three dimensin. If the bult,>1ng ratioCalculate the Poisson's
value for the clav. Does

roatelvineachofthethre mensiO'ns.Calculate hevoiDe(formula:lengthxwidth

height). Record these values. average and estimate the width
is nol: uniform th.toughout the side burfaces, you wil need to your poisson's rati seem

Set the bottom of the cube cbange. Did your side dimen-
sional values (length and
1a flat surface. Set another flat
vtidth) both increase?
d:J;rl on the top of the sample.

Lateral deformation (z) ::::=- -0.00585

x 0.33"
IiD\ge m the cros section using Pois on's liD. First, we must calculate the axial btrain:
3 ial strain (x)Ongmallength
Axil dormationLxk.- Chemical Properties
Corrosion lrsistllnO> is perhaps the most
important cbemical property of a metal. A
metal that has good corrosion resistance is
::: 0.0195 inches/inch

Once thc axial strain is known, we can use

e to protectcan
itself agairesist
nst chemicahumidity
l attack bv the envwithout
ironment. A cordeterio-
osion resistant
isson's ratio to calculate the lateral strain: rating. It can a\so resit su"nlight, water, and
..-.ral strain (y and z)::: Axial strain x heat. Corrosion resistance may be the most
(-poisson's ratio)
= 0.0195 x (- 0.3) important factor in selecting material to be
:::: _ 0.00585 inches/inch located in a corroive enviT'lnment. Materials
are subjected to m<my types of corrosion:
This lateral strain ,,"alue is then used to Oxidati.on. Oxidation invdves a chemical
kulate the deformation in the two cross- reaction betv-,reen a material and oxygen.
dional dimensions: Iron and steel rust when the iron chemi-
'eral deformation (y) :::: Lateral strain x cally bonds with oxygen to form iron
Original length oxide, which is better known as rUSt.
= _ 0.005R5 x 0.55"
= - 0.lJ032"
60 Section lwo Properttt:'!- or Metals

such as salt watcr or chlorine bleach.

. Galvanic corroion. This type of corrosion
is also referred to a electrochemical cor- Figure 4-19 illustrates pitting.
rosion. In order for galvanic conosion to . Intcrgranu lar corrosion. This typc of cor-
rosion occurs when the molecu lar compo-
occur, hvo dissimilar metals must be in
contact with each other and both metals sition of a material differs slightly at the

also beOnc
d by an elacts
cdrolvtc,a<;a liquiand thatanode,
positive ions to the electrolyte and posi-
ionizes to bondlosing
with othe'r grainboundaries.Thisconditoncanbecauedbyimproperheat reatmentorbyimproperchemicalcompositonsinanal-
loy. See Figure 4-20.
tive ions to the other metal (cathode). Pit- . Stress corroion cracking. This type of cor-
roon occurs in many types of metals.
ting occurs on the anode as it loses the:->e Residual <;tres"ies caused by improper pro-
ions. The meta] serving as the cathode is
not corroded. See Figure 4-18- cessing produce cracks. See Figure 4-21.
. Pitting. Thi<; type of corrosion causes
small pits to form on th\" surface of a Electrical Properties
material. Pit ing is caused due to incon- sitencies within the molecular and If electricity can flow freely through a
material, the lTk"'rial has high electrical
atomic composition of the material. This
conductivity. If the matenal refuses to let elec-
lack of consistency can result from many causes, including -residual stresse, J tricity flow through it, it has high electrical lstal1ce Steel has a very high electrical con-
crack, and processing proccdures. ductivity and a low resistance to electrical
Some materials, :-,llch as stainless steel,
flow. -
are more likely to be corroded than
other materials. Pitting is al<;o more Dielectric strength is another popular elec-
likelv to occur ill bpecific environments, trical property. A material with good dielectric

. \.N"'--
\'., . . j
1. II
f ....
'""" '.: .-
\ ....
." "'., ....""Y
: . \ r;"
..;;-- tttl. ,.. .J<'

.............. .t:- .,
Figure 4-18.111 tllis example of galvanic corn>- Figure 4-19. Small pits distributed al random are
51011, magl1csiunl reacted with tile steel core. evidence of pitfiJlK corrosioll. (The International
(Tile International Nickel Company, Inc.) Nickel Company, flld
Chapter 4 Materml Properties 61

!\ t1IIit.

.-.:'; >-..".
__ ...:'i' .,
41':, - 1

.. ......1 /#
j I ., !!"
., ,
4-20. Intergrarmlar COnOSlOll of steelllll-
JOOX magnification. (TI,e Internati(lnal ....
rid CompmlY, Tne.} '"

Figure 4-22. This electro..te assembly is USl'lt to
test dIelectric strength.

at elevated temperatures are no longer mag- netic. Most nonfer ous metals, such as alu-
num, magnesito wasn, coppermagnetic
, and zinc, areslIsct'ptibility.
not magnetic. The ability to b magnetized is re-
fi& 4.21. Stress comjoll cracking of stllin- Thermal Properties
sfeelunder WOX magnification. (The lnter- As the temperature changes, mechanical
IIionnl Nickel Company, Tue.)
properties alba change. The strength, hard-
ness, ductility, dnd modulus of elasticity are
.?Ilg\h is able to withstand a large voltagt::
O't-er a prolonged time period without passing noreffect
mally affofcted.temperature
Some metals are affcteond morthee by teproperties
mperature change tofhanmo<>t
others. The
current or breaking down. A type of device metals is not linear. A loss of ductility, tensile
to test dielectric strength is shmNTl in
f;gure 4-22.
strength, or impact strength as the tempera-
ture increases occurs suddenly as the temper--
ature reaches d thermal transition level.
Magnetic Properties When a metal is heated, it expands.
Some metals are magnetic. Some are not.
The most recognized examples of magnetic
materials are iron and steel at room tempera-
ture. It is interesting to note that iron and steel
Somemetalsexpandmurerapidlythanoth-ersasthet mperatureincrease ,Figure4-23.ThecoefiCIentofthermaleXlwnsiondescribes
how fast a material expands whcn subjected
62 Section Two Propertic,> of Met<lb

to heat. In FigLUe 4-24, the coefficient of thermal Meltmg point i another important ther-
e'\.pansion is compared for different materials. mal property. This is the temperature at
The greater the coefficient, the more a material which the material will change from a solid
expands. to a liquid. For steel. this temperature is in the
The magnitude of the change of length for
a material due to thermal expansion is given vicinity of 30000F. The temperatures at which selected materials melt are listcd in the table
bv the expression: in FigLUe 4-25.
. .t..L=a:xLx.t..T If heat can travel rapidly across a material,
where "a." is the coefficient of thermal expan- it has high thermnl conductiVIty. A material with
sion (in unit of in/in/"'F), "M.," is the chanJ!;e a high degree of thermal conductivity transmits
in length (in inches), "L" is the oripnallength heat rapidly. If you are trying to get rid of heat,
(in inches), and" dT" is the change in temper- this prof€rly is an advantage. If you are trying
ature in (oF). to retain heat. this trait i a disadvantage.
For example, consider a long thin, alu- Aluminum and copper both have high
minum connecting link in a business degrees of thermal conductivity. Steel is about
machine. It measures 0.062" by 0.125" by 7.7" average for a metal TIle table in Fi 4-26 lists
long. How much would it increase in length the thennal conductivity of SC'veral materials.
due to an increaM:' from room temperature Heat capacity of a material is the amount
(72°F) to HOOP? of heat required to raise the temperature of a
First, calculate the change in temperature: material one depec. This amount varies from
l>L 1l0"P _72°P material to material. It is measured in Btu
3oP (British thermal unit) per pound per of or in
From Figure 4-24, the coefficient of ther- Joules per kilogram per OK (Kelvin). It is used
mal expansion fOr altuninum is 12.8 x 10 f, per to determine the specific heat of a material.
oF. TIle increase in length would then be:
l>L = "X L x l>T = (12.8 x lO',/°P) x 7.7" x 3R o P
= 0.00375"
Coefficient of TherIllilI
Material Expansion (per "F)
Cast Iron
6.0 x 10.
Steel 6.5 x lo-t'
I Nickel 7.3 x IO-f>
Conner 9.2 x IO--{>
I Bronze 10.0 x 1O-{>
Brass 10.3 x 10-[,
Zinc -

I I\.luminum 12.8x 10-1>_

I Magn f'<;ium 14.4 x to
Nylon I_ .::...::...::...::...::.-::.-::. -=-"-"-'::'-::'- ::'
17x 10- 6
\lvlon 50 x 10-1>
Fituregure 4-incrtt1St?5.
23. D!(i 'rmt nloteriolsThe
1Se m li'l gfh morcompare
e mpiltly thantIleotherstiler
as the1llo1
tcmpera- I Polystyrene I()Ox 1O--f>

expansion of fit'l' dfJerent materwls exposed to the

same tel1ltJemtltre increase. Figure 4-24. The table compa,ps the C(H. f iClent of thermal expansion for dfft'rent materials.
Chapter 4 Matcnal PropertJes 63

5ptCific lleat of a materia1 is numerically or as calories per gram per °C The values of
to the heat required to raise the temper- specific heat for some materials are shown in
of a unit mas of the material by one Fi h "11re 4-27.
Therefore, the units of specific heat
OJIIl1I\only given as Btu per pound per OF Weight and Density
WCIKht is a property that often i impor-
tant. Often, a lighter weight material, such as
aluminum or magnesium, has an advantage
Melting Temperature over steel. Less frequently, heavier matenals
--.I ("F)
have an advantage for certain applications.
The ratio of the weight of a material to its
iron 2400
volume is often referred to as densIty or spe1.'!(ic
od 2700 weight. Technically, specific weight is the cor-
2650 rect term, but since the term density is so
'1'1""" 1980 often used in actual practice. we will cnsider
.urn 1220 these two terms to be synonymou. The table
lUm 1200 in Figm€ 4-28 lists the density of several
"'" 7YO
620 Wear
- 300 The ability of a material to withstand
oI-rsIvrene 250 wearing away is a very important material
4-25. This table compares the melting
lure:; of d(tCreflt materials.
Specific Heat
Material (BTU/lbrF)

rhermal Conductivity
YoII!rial (cal!cml/OC/sec/cm) L:ray iron 0.130
:;tt>el 0.116 I-
Nickel 0.109
iron 0.11

" 0.11 tcopper 0.093

chi 0.22
I BnmL.€ 0.093
Brass 0.217
'-we' 0.94
Aluminum 0.222
aminum 0.45
J..J,;neslum 0.37 Magnesium 0.095
Zinc 0.031
.-.< 0.27
0.08 Nylon 0.400
Ion 0.0006 Polystyrene 0.320
Watef" 1.000
Wystyr ene 0.001
pre 4-26. TlIiE; table compares IlOw rapidly Figure 4-27. Tllis table compares slJfcfic hetlt for
trallfer5 across each rt1l1terial. d!(faent n1l1terials.
64 Section Two PropertIes of Metab.

Material density (specific weight) (lb.fffJ) property. 111 many applications, a few thou-
sandths of an inch of wear can cause an entire
Gray Iron machine to fail.
Steel 490 Wear is thf' ability of a metal to resist a
l\Jlckel 550 slow deterioration, usually over a long period
of time. This deterioration may be caused by
Co'r frictional scratching, scoring, gallin, scuff-
Aluminum +-
ing, or seizing. Wear is also caused by pitting
M agnesium 100 or fretting. Figure 4-29 illUstrates several dif-
Zinc 440
ferent types of wcar.
The ability to resist wcar is higl1Jy depen-
Le<ld I 710

dent on the hardness of the material. The
harder a material become gencrally deter-
mines how great it ability will be to resist
PlystyTene t 60

Figure 4-28. Tllis fable compares tile densIties

(specific weight) of different matenals

Types of Wear


Norma] \-Vear A.brasive Wear Adl1e...i'\/c Wear
(Surface Iolishing) (Scratching) (Sconng, galling,
scuffing, seizing)

F=:', - ; I.


or ....
t. f

, /...
Pithng Wear Fretting Wear
Figure 4-29. Wenr can result from mallY causcs. Some typical types of wear are illustrated in these
photographs. (TIle Falk CorporatIon, subsidiary of SUlldstrand Corporation)
Chapter 4 Material Properties 65

is known as weldahiTICl1ty. Common wel d i n g pr o cesses
welding. and gas welding.
t o day i n cl u de ar c wel d i n g,
Comparison Charts of
Metal Properties
. It is lllteresting to compare the properties
Proper Lubncanun of different metals. Th table in Figure 4-31
compares most of these properties for steel,
cast iron, wrought iron, aluminum, copper,
bronze, brass, zinc, lead, nickel. tin. titanium,
and tungsten.

i;; __' . - - -.-1'

____-H.- '"
Test Your Knowledge
Write your answers Ofl a separate sheet of
Improper Lubrication paper. Do not write if! this book.
pre 4-30. Close-lips of llsed engi1le bt"tlring in- L Name threc important mechanical prop-
rrwgnified at 2SX. The sample on the top Wt15 erties of a metal
prfy lubricated. TIle sample on tlze bottom is 2. As hardne<>s of a material increases, how
Iilmple of improper lubrication. (Texaco IncJ is the <;trength of the material usually
3. What type of strength indicate<> a matc-
Proper lubrication i<; effective in reducing rial's ability to rcsit being "squeczed"
mr. Figure 4-30 ow!-o thc effects of improper . proper )ubrication on a typical engine
.nng insert.
4. What type of strength indicate a mate-
rial's abilitv to resist hhock?
5. What type of strength indicates a mate-
rial's ability to resist "pulling apart?"
chirwbility 6. What type of strength indicates a matc-
The easc with which a material can be cut rtars ability to resist rcpeated )oading?
tant charactcristic of a metawith
L This nov.which
. 'n as mac1lail1matcrial
£/blzty. This propern1ilV
ty rcfers 7. What type of strength indicates a n1ilte-
rial's ability to resist bending?
f\. What tvpe of strength indicates a n1ilte-
cut by turning, drilling, milling, boring rial's ability to resist "Iiding past?"
9. if a material does not btretch before it
I other cutting tools. Machinability varies ICh in dif erent metal5. For example, alu- breaks, it is described as_.
"urn and magneium have good machin- 10. Percent elongatIon i a good measure of
lity, whereas alloy steels and hardened what other mech.1llical property?
5Il'e1s are difficult to machine. 11. Calculatc the percent elongation and
strain for a n1ilterial with an initial length
"r1dabili ty uf 62" that stretched 2.04" when subjected
to a tcnsile load.
The ability of a material to be fabricated
isfactorily by one of the common welding 12. Define moduLus of elasticity.
66 Section Two Ptoperties of Metals

Tensile Compressive Modulus of

Strength Strength Hardness Elasticity Weight

Material (psi) (psD (BHN) (psi) t- flbs/ff)

Steel 60,000-200,000 Same as Tensile 150-620 30 X 10' 490

Cast Iron 20,000-100,000 8O,ooo-180,()()() 140-325 15XI0" 482

Wrot Iron 40.000 Same as Tensile NA 28X lIT 490
AlUll1l11um 20,000-60,000 Same as Tensilt' 50-110 lOXIO" 170
Copper 30,000-60,000 Same as Tensile 40 -!- 17X lIT 555 -

Bronze 65,000-130,000 Same as TensIlt: 100-200 17X 1{)" 550

Brass 30.o00-IOO,(X}{) Same af> Tensile 50-160 15X lIT 520 -

Zinc 20,000-30.000 NA 80-90 NA .j.j()

L€ad £O oo-5,()()O NA 5-12 20XlIf t 710

Nickel 45,00J.--.60,oOO NA 80-380 30 X Iff 550
Tin 3,OOo-9,(X](} NA 6XIO' 450
TitanIUm 50.000-135,UOU NA NA 16XHr 280
Tung.;;ten 220,000 NA NA 59 X lIT n80

- -

Conductivity Coefficient Thenna]
(100 Silver Electric of Thermal I Melting I Conductivity
Comparison Resistance Expansion Temperature (callcmZf
Material Scale) (Micro-OHMlCM) (per Of) (OF) °C/seclcm)
Steel 12 17 6.3XIO b 2700 .11

Cast iron 5 30 6.5 X 10-' 2400 .11
Wrought Iron 15 NA 6.6XlO 2800 18
- - -

AIUmin 63 12XIW 1220 45


Copper 98 9XIO" 1980 .94

Bronze 36 IOXIO. 1840 .29 -

Brass 28 65 lOXlO" 1700 .28

Zinc 30 17X 10- 0 790 .27
Lead 8.4 23 16X 10' 620 .08
Nickel 13 20 7XlO. 2650 .22 -

Tin 14 11.5 15XUr' 450 .16

Titanium 14 120 5XI0. 3300 .03

Tungsten 14 5.5 2.4X106 6100 .48

Figure 4-31. This table compares marlY properti ' of dif erent metals. Values l sted 11lny vary for dif erent alh)y and composit ons ("1 each material. Cost is not mc1l1ded l f'cause it fluctuates rapIdly for some of the
makrials listed.
Chapter 4 Material Properties 67

What point on a stress-strain diagram oc- bot arm for the space shuttle that has to
.-s at the end of the elastic region? lift heavy satellites?
docs temperature affect creep? 20. Which properties of metal would be mot
bat type of ,>train is calculated using critical when selecting d material for a
- 's ratio? part in a toy metal truck?
t is dielectric strength? 21. "Which properties of metal would be most
%material that does not permit electriCity critical when selecting a material for an
Bow through it is said to havc a high 8' cross to be attached to the fnmt of a
-nrica1 church?

t is thermal conductivity? 22. Which properties of metal wou Id be most

IIich properties of metal would be most critical when selecting a matcrial for a lcg
. a] when selecting a material for a ro- of a card tablc?

Section I
Three I Ferrous

r-\ l' .
_ :\\ f \
'r -.t :J',:I." Il j,'.r\'1",, :jli;' .
ftf'. ., t-t fl.

,I ;f't' , ' ";

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I. . lJl-i . I'...
fl'' I.
4 fl<.
f',. .:,
.:,.-;-.. ""'. ..""",
.. ,- -..

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. - ..-
";....; .,
. >-J..l1j .>
,!W; ., '1'1:
rt .11

5 1_" '4 11 , " 4 ,. 'e f

. fl. ,,'

"- J'j!J ;,tr".-,..:.

What Is Steel?

weaker. As the carbon content increases, so do

sludymg this chapter, you will be able to: strength, hardness, and brittIencs.
Describe the composition of f;teeL When steel is made, tlle iron diolves the
Identify the differences between steel and carbon When there is too much carbon for
Use the steel numbering system to iden- tlle iron to "digest," the resulting alloy is no
tify various types of steel.
Identify the effects of different alloying
longer called steeL Tllt' carbon precipitates out and remains in the form of flakes or other
e1ements on steel ..hapes, Figure 5-1. Approximately 2"0 carbon
Describe various kinds of carbon sted i the most that can be dissolved in the iron.

.and alloy stcel Compare the dif erent types of cast iron. Steel Numbering System
Steel is one of the most widely ued mate-
A steel numbering system is used to iden-
15 in the world. It ha high strength. It can
-. machincd and formed easily. Also. steel is
tify the many types of steel. A teel's numerical name usuallv consists of four numbers or
_. dily avaj)able and reasonably priced, as digits. The first two digits refer to the alloy
content. The last two digits (or three digits, in
nparcd to other materials having similar
"""\-rsical properties.
the caseThe
of a five-steel
digit numbernumbering
) refer to the per- centagesystem
of carbon in theissteelhnwn
. See Figwe 5-in2.
Composition of Steel Figure 5-3. In 5]47 steel, for example, the "51"
id('nti£ie chromium as a key alloying element.
Steel is a materia) composed primanly of
iron. Mot steel contains mort' than 900,., iron. In 2517 tecJ, the "25" indicates that there is
an unusual amount of nickel in this steel. In
Many types of carbon steel contain more than 4718 steel, the "47" indicates that the amount
9J'ro iron.
of chromillffi, nickel, and molybdenum in the
All types of steel contam a econd ele- steel is higher than average. In 1040 steel, the
lI1ent- carbon. Many other alloying elements Me used in most steel, but iron and carbon are "10" means that the teel has very little alloy
content except carbon. As shown bv these ex-
the only elements found in (Il steel. The per- centage of carbon in steel ranges from just amples, the first two numbers alway give an
indication of the allov content in the steel.
above 0"Steel
" to approxiwith
mately 2£'less
0. Mostcarbon
steel has betwiseen 0.more
15"0 and 1.flexible
0. . , carbon. The last two digits (or three digits) of a nu-
merical name for steel indicate the percentage
of carbon jn the steel. A two-digit number
,ductile) than lligh-carbon steel, but it is also
70 Section Three Ferrous Metallurgy

4- - -"- 0 - "

Idenhfies Percentage ut
major alloying carbon

Steel Numbermg System

Figure 5-2. A steers Ilame usually consists of
four digits. It supplies inforl1lntioll about the alloy
content and percentage of carboll.

carbon, thub it i a low-carbon steel. There

is approximately 0.600,,:-, carbon in 8660 steel,
which would make it a medium-carbon steel
\-\!hen the carbon content of the steel is 1 OJ."
or more, three digit,> are needed to describe
the carbon content. For example, 50100 steel
contains 1.IJO"o carbon. See Figure 5-4.
A steel nllmerical name provides much
information about the alloy content of the

I, 'S. , :f9"'.!T. \ . ."" .'". ' . . . !;'""':":JfA'-(,/l' steel. Indircctly, the number tells you about
the quality, strength, and corrosion resis-
tance of the steeL FOr example, 8622 steel

, · . p {. J " _.hJ'\ .\; ", ',' ',. '/',.,-'f ,: /;!.,

.--. ,. ...0
\ .' 105"" '" '''l''' .
has 0.22°;" carbon, 0.20o molybdenum,
0.50°" chromium, and 0.55W, nickel. Molvb-
denum makes this steel strong at high tm-
peraturcs. Chromium improves its corrosion
1 .. '(,,'oj e",V' y 'J...... rcsistance, while nickel improvlCs thlC sIlCel's
':t-!... ""'<.J. ;.d1'" toughness.

Figure 5-1. MIcrostructural VI£l{1S of steel and

cast iron. A-In steel, the iron dissol1-'t'S the Comparing Steel and [ran
carbon. (Buehler Ltd.) B-In gray cast Iron, tile The relationship of stcel to cast iron .md
carbon precIpitates out as carbon flakr'r;. (Ruthler wrought iron is shmVl1 in Figure 5-5. The dif-
Ltd') C--ln ductile cast iron, the carbon precipi- ference in the three material,> is primarily
tates out as small round nodules. (Iron Castings based on the carbon content. Steel ranges
Socict.'lJ from just above O'" carbon to approximately
2°" carbon. Most types of cast iron contain 2"{,
represents hundredths of a percent. In 1040 to 4°0 carbon. Wrought iron contains essen-
steel, for example, the "40" nlean there is tially no carbon. At approximatcly 6° carbon,
0.40£J u carbon in the '>teeL In 1018 steel, the the material become,> so brittle that it is rela-
"18" indicate that the steel has only 0.18°0 tively useless.
Chapter 5 What Is Steel? 71

Steel Numbering "'stem ExampsSsaocmtent

identification Number Carbon Content
Steel l- - 1040 I 0.40""
'lame oys 1018

10XX Carbon uruy b60 I 0.60""

l1XX Carbon only (free cutting) 501 00 I 1.00""
13XX Mangane<;e
23XX Nickel
Figure 5-4. The last two or tliree digits in a
25XX Nickel
larewl ericaused
l l1mC forwheH
steel represtheent thecarbon
carlxl11 contcncOlltent
t in hUlldre,t hsisof a1"..lJer cl1ort. Thrmore.
ec digits
31XX Nidel-Chromium
J3XX Nickel-Chromium
303XX Nickel-Chromium Vvroughl
.nXx Chromium-Molybdenum
..BXX Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum
-l-IXX Manganese-Molybdenum
.\6XX Nickel-Molybdenum
-'/XX Nickt'l-Chromium-Molybdenum ()">" )'\-,,, 2"" 3".. 4"" 5"" 6"1
-I8XX Nickel-Molybdenum Carbon Content
50XX ChlOI1Uum

Figure 5-5. The bllslC dif m'I ce il wrought iron, steel. mId cast iron is their pf'rcent carbon cil tent.
511XX Chromium
52IXX Chrom1Uffi
Alloying Elements
I 514XX Chromium
Most steel contains other ingredIents in
5I5XX Chromium

Chromium-Vanadium addiMosttion toofirontheand caralloying
bon. These ingrelements
edi- ents afE' commonl y cal l e d l I
in sted are pl"t:"f>-
l I o yi n g cl e ment s .
8IXX Nickel-Chromlum-Molybaenum
I!6XX Nickel-Lhn1mium-Molybdenum ent in small amounts, but they have a great
7XX I Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum effect on the properties of the steel. Some of
:t8XX _I Nic kcl-ChromlUm-MolybdpntJm these Carbon._
alloying elementmanganese,
s and their effectsand
are summar i z ed i n
nickel are added
Fi g ur e 5- 6 .
93XX Nickel-Chromium-Molybdcnum to steel to incrca<>e strength. To obtain better

:r!XX J i lJcon_\1ang<tnese
9-lXX Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum- corrosion resistance or resistance to i1.tmos-

XX Nickl -Chro mit1m-Molybdenurn pherwillic condihave

tions. chrbetter
omium or copper may be added. H l e ad
machinability. To obtain bet-
or sul f u r i s added, t h e st e el
I \.XBXX Boron
;..,XLXX Lead ter physical properties at high temperature,
hmgsten or molybdenum are recommended.
Figure 5-3. TI,is toNe relotes tile alloy cOlltent in The greater the amount (percentage) of
\l'l to tile first two digits 111 its name.
the alJoying elements, the more profound their effect on the steel. HOW€\7€r, it ib
72 Section Three Fen-ous MetallUlg}

elements. Therefore, it is less expensive than

Effects of Anog Elements on Steel alloy steel. Alloy steel has special qualities,
Alloying such as increased :"trength, corrosion resis-
Element Effect on Steel
tance, and the ability to resist wear at high
Carbon Hrdness, streJ.l..!h. wear temperatures.
Chromium Corrosllm resistance, harden Carbon steel is classified a low-carbon
"bility steel, medium-carbon steel, or high-carbon
Lead Mach:IIlability steel. There are many types of alloy steel,
Manganese Strengt h,. hardL-'11 abihty, more such as structural steel and maraging steel.
response to heat treatment See Figure 5-9. Stainless steel and tool steel
Aluminum Deox idizati are so widely used that they can be consid-
roune<;strengt!, ered separate types of steel in themselves.
Tungsten High-temperature '>hengU;:- Carbon Steel

Carbofl steel i the most common type

Molybdl-'num High- temperature :.trength,
hardcnabili ty of steel. About 90"" of all steel made is carbon
Sulfur Machinability steeL It is sometimes called "plain carbon
Titanium Eli mination o f carbide
I precipitation There are comparatively less other alloys
Vanadium Fine gr ain, toug lmess present in carbon ,>teel; carbon is the domi-

Hard cnabi
Corrosio n resJstance, strength nant allov. Most carbon steel is considerablv less expeSi\7e than alloy steel. The three b-
Col umbi um ElJrnmatlon ot carbide - sic types of carbon steel are low-carbon steel,
medium-carbon steel. and high-carbon steel.
Phosphorus Strengt
Tellurium Mach inabllttv
Low-carbon steel

Lobalt Ha:idness, wear The largest percentage of all carbon steel

is low-carbon steel. It contains between 0.05""
Figure 5-6. This table lists the cffi'cls of commOfl and 0.35o carbon. Low-carbon steel lacks the
alloying ele11leflts. ability to become as hard and <;trong as other
steel However, because it does not become
vcry hard, it is easier to machine and work
unusual for steel to have more than 2% of VlTith in the manufacturing plant. Some char-
acteristics of low-carbon steel are listed in
any single alloying element. For example,
phosphorous and sulfur are added to most Figure 5-10.
types of stet' I, but the amount added rarel}' Low-carbon steel is the least expensive type
exceeds 0.05"". fhe percentages of alloying of teel For thi!:> reason. it has many uses. Ap-
elements for some common type.. of steel plications include tence wire, auto bodies, gal-
are listed in Figure 5-7. vanized sheets, storage tmks, large pipe, and
various parts in buildings, bridges, and ships.
Low-carbon steel is not as strong and
Types of Steel hard as some of the more e),:pensive grades of
There are many different categories and alloy steel, but it is not weak or low in quality
types of steel. However, most steel is classified All steel--even low-carbon steel-is very
as either carbon sled or alloy steel. Figure 5-8. strong and can be trusted to support a great
deal of force.
Carbon steel contains relatively few alloying
Chapter 5 What Is Steel? 73

I :!1

I -\-g 6

I ITj a a
m a-

$ l 6 a 6

-1 :!11

I 11 I
<'I m
V111.D1 :;;
IIgI 119 1lfi II

1)<' x --
-1-ci_'ci :1 1I 61


II! i'H Ii Iqlql \I

V)-1--ci-! a "' I '" a

, x x -I
.!il g eEE I

:E ml 25 I a 0 :-1
g I ;; ;;1 6

I c..lci 0 at
ro ,; 01
a "

I II : :I: 5 I R il I 6 - '-I OJ II 1\9I1 <o, 101g;o


I I 6


Alai I I I I I II
(U'] .16\ olcilo 0 , °1 0
I ;1 iI:I
61 6 t

"' I m

!'il <!: I
ICf1 N Cf1 N

II ojwl
II I I;:; i
e g e .] .g]

]15 5 @ .5 .

'8:881; Qj o.z;.I e t;
I . _I c u : . Z i6 O
f: \u o

I 01)

I V; ;2 Ii:
74 St--ction Three Ft'TroUS Metallurgy

Steel Low-Carbon Steel

Carbon Steel . 0.05-0.35<><> CarbOJl

_ A.lloy Steel
. Lc<;s Expcnsl\'c . More l::xpenslve . Comparatively less strength
. Fcwt'r Alloys . More Alloys . Comparatively less "hardness
. Few Special . Special Pwpt'rties Easy machmmg & formmg
Properties . Least cxpcn,>ivc
. Largct,t qUilntity produced
Figure 5-8. Most twIt'S of steel fall into olle of
two cntegories, a/rboll steel or alloy steel. Figure 5-10. Common characteristics of loll'-
ClIrboll steel.

Medium-carbon steel
Medium-carbon steel contains 0.35° to The disadvantagc of high hardness in
0.50'}o carbon. It can be heat treated. If it is
steel is a relatively high rate of distortion and
heat treated properly, medium-carbon steel the potential of cracking Or becoming very
can become quite hard and strong. It is fre- brittle during the hardening process. Never-
quently used in forgings and high-strength theless, high-carbon steel can be safeLy used
castings. The characteristics of medium-carbon for making touls, dies, knives, railroad whL:ds,
steel are shown in Figure -11. and for manv other applications requiring
Applications of medium-carbon steel in- high strength. The characteristics of high-
clude wheel.., axles, crankhafts, and gears. carbon sted are listed in FIgure 5-12.

High-carbon steel
fhe carbon content in Illgh-ClIrbo1l t>teel i Allay Steel
over 050".., and it may be over 1"u. This type Alloy steel is a grade of stee] in which
of steel can be r£'adilv heat treated to obtain
high strength and 11lgh hardnes. one or more alJoving elements ha,\'c been added in larger aounts to produce specia]

Figure 5-9. Sl'1-'ewl tYJ1l'::; of alloy steel are <>0 widely used that they are considcmt as parate classifications.
These illclude stmnless "feel find tvol stl'el.
Chapter 5 What Is SteeP 75

Comparing Hardness of Different Types of Steel J
record the hardness values. be necessary to tile off scale
Obtain a small piece of from some of the samples so
The Rockwell C scale is rec-
"eral different types of
ommended for this test. that they rest flat on the test-
,induding 1018, 104...r:;, ing surface.
195,4140, and 52100 steel. Other testing methods may
Did the hardness value
ther similar type may be be used, as long as the
method is comdstent for each increase for each of the sam-
Ibstituted if any of the<;e are
Jt dvailable. If other types type of steel. ples? (It should.)
Heat the samples to Did the hardness values
't' substituted, try to obtain ,assortment tbat includes 1700°F in an oven. After the of the samples of high-carbon
steel increase to higher val-
-carbon, medium-carbon,
have soakeplunge
d at this temperthem
aturc for at linto
east onea ues than the values for the

steeL ManySelf-Demon-
hese same types wil be samples of low-carbon steel?

1tions later in this text.

bucket of cold water.
After the samples are (They shouid. Most of th{' hardness values should in-
cool to the touch, check their crease consid{'rably, espe-
Test the hardness of each
hardness T. ('S again. It ma" ciall the high-carbon steels.)
.. the five samples and

Medium-Carbon Steel
Carbon Steel lIoy stee l
. Lower Cost . Higher Strength
. 035--0.50"0 Carbon
. Greater . Better Wear
. Hard & strong after heat treating
Availability . Toughness
L More expensive than low-carbon steel . Speo...-<ial High
Figure 5-11. Medlllrrt-carbon steel is hmder. Behavior
strallger after lieat treating, and more e:tpenslVe . Better Corrosion
lltan lourboll steel.

. Special Electrical

Hih-Carbon teel
Figure 5-13. A comparison of the advantages offered by carbon steel and alloy steel.
. 0.50-1.00+°" Carbon
. Hard and strong after heat treating
. More expenive than low- & medium-
carbon steels
s. Alloy steSc{'
el has prFigure
operties that5-13_
cannot ordiSome
narily be obtcommon
ained wi th car-
Figure 5-12. Hlh-carbo1i steel has a high level of alloying elements for alloy steel are listed in
millcss mut strength. Figure 5-14.
76 Section Three Ferrous Metallurgy

An g Elem ents That Define All oy Steel:::;. Low-All oy Structu ral SteeJ
. Alununum . Less alloys than other alloy steel
. Chromium . More alloys than carbon steel
. Cobalt . Les:. expenivt:' than other alloy steel
. Columbium . More expensive than carbon steel
. Copper (OVL'r ()H,) . Weldable
. Good corrosion resistance
. :t>.1anganese (Over 1.6 U o)
. Molybdenum . Strul..iural applications
. NickeJ . Alloys include;
. Silicon (O\'er 006" to) Manganese-Silicon-Lolumblum-
. Titamum Vanadium-Copper
. Tungsten
. Vanadium
. Zirconium Figure 5-15. Low-al otj stmctural steel is stronger than carbon steel alld it's." eXpenSll'e than
other tytJeS of alloy steel.
Figure 5-14. Common 11lloying elements used in
alloy steel. -

11' --I I.: I 'l L .1 I
Alloy steel is more expensive than carbon [:; ---'
steel; it should be used only when a special
property is needed. Some of the special prop-

I- :" d- . :. : oft
erties that allovs mav be used for include
corrosion resistnce, high temperature capa-
bility, electromagnetic behavior, high trength,
and wear resistance_

Low-alloy structural steel

Low-alloy structural steel has less alloy ,.
content than other types of alloy steel. Gener- ..1.
ally, it is stronger than carbon steel and less ,'

expensive than high-alloy steel. The charac- __;I.'

teristics of low-aHoy structural steel are listed
in Figure 5-15.
Low-allov structural :"tecl contains more
than an avrage amount of manganese,
silicon, columbium, vanadium, and copper
in its composition. This steel is primarily
used for structural applications where light Figure 5-16. Mort' tllml 22,fJOO tOilS of structural
weight i.. important. Becauhe it is stronger steelll.'crc ll&'li during COllstmctwn of the Fncific
than carbon steel, low-allov structural stcd
can be u.':;;ed to make smaller, lighter parts. Gas and Electric COll pantj Headqllnrters Build- iug i11 San Francisco. Til s buildiJlg is 34 stories
Applications of different types of struc- 11igh. it contains more tlwn 1,OOV,()(){} ft? of floor
tural steel are shown in Figures 5-16, 5-17, space, and it rises 530' abt}i!e tile stred.
and 5-18. (Bethle/lern Steel CorporatlOll)
Chapter 5 What Is StecH 77

? ....

:( . "".;,



. 'I _ 1 "


i: "/J, - l
/h' -. $ t

, - ".:,: .
, . \I, .. , 4..,
"' 'It4/" .'

.... '\i. -." .: .:. . ;; ;. .., Co>.,I, (/ f

.., , .i,,-,""i\ . :,t
l-.,. .:' " t -L,:' l

; >:\:.1;", ',' .;

Figure 5-17. Construction of the Madison Square Cordm Sports and Ellterta;nmeut Center En New York
"'- _. _'to
,." I :, . 'l' -

Ci";0"ty requroofs
ired lnrge ainmoutltents of sUnited
tructural ste l.States.
The structure's(Bethlc!w11l
.J()4.' diameter ro f is supSteel
orted by 4Corporation)
8 as emblies of 3 3/4" ste l strand cable. The mblc-sl p nrtcd ro f is one of the largest permanent 5uspen-
Quench and temper structural steel
Quench l/ud temptr structural stITI is stronger It has very high strength (up to 250,000 psi) and is able to maintain glX-I ductil ty and good
than low-alloy structural stepl and ha better toughness. Some parts made of maraging

mpact rebetter
sist;nce at lophysical
wer temperature. properties
Thi type of steel also hasin morgenera] sistance stmaraging
e cor osion rethan ed can be stretched by ]1" of the original size before breaking The characteristics of
stcel are listed in Figure 5-20.
low-alloy structural steel. See Figure 5-19. Maraging steel is used in rocket motor
Quench and temper tructural steel i ca and other aerospace appJications where
often used in pressure vessel", submarine high strength, toughness, and ductility are
bodies, and other applications where addi- necebsary. A typical alloy composition of
tional cost is justified in order to obtain maraging steel is shown in Figure 5-21.
greater strength and corrosion resistance.
Tool Steel
Maraging steel
Tool stcel is so widely used that it is
Maragil1g steel contains large amounts of
nickel and small amounts of carbon. Gener-
ally, maraging steel contains 18C"jo-25°> nickel. grouped separately from o'ther types of steel, Figure 5-9. There are many dif erent typeb of
78 SectIon Thlee Ferrous Metallurgy

::.- .. ......
_ Quench & Temper Structural Steel
- - ----

..... Stronger than low-aUoy structural stt:'eI

-' . ...¥ . Better properties than low-aHoy structural


. More expl'nsive than 10w-i1l1oy f>mlctural


. Structural applications

' . 'f:, ' E."

Figure 5-19. Quench and temper structural sted
IS lIsed for apphClltions where strt'nf;t11and resib-
tallce to corrosion lire important.
.. ;".
;:,. I
. ., _ Magin g St eel -

. U!-25°" Nickel
. Low Cilrblm content

. Very high strL'l1gth

. Good ductilitv

/. t i-N . Good toughness

Figure 5-20. Large lImounts of nickel are used in
maraging sted.

I -. Typ ical Composition of Ma raging Steels

lling Element Amount
Figure 5-18. Different tYPt'S of structural sted

Carbon 0_03"0
were used in construction of the Golden Gnte
Nickel IB.5<J
Bridge. (American lrolland Sted Institute)
Cobalt 75"..
Titanium 0.40"0
tool steel. Some are ued in cutting tools,
Zircoruum 0.01<>"
molds, and dies, Figure 5-22_ Some tool steels
Alummum 0.10"..
are also used for general machine parts, where
Silicon O.lO""max
high strength, wear resistance, and dimen-
I\1angancse 0_1(]""ma.'I(
sional stability are required.
Different categories of tool steel are listed Sulfur 0.01"" Tna'

in Fip;ure 5-23. Each of these 11 categories de- Phosphorus 0.01°" max

notes a type of tool steel used for a specific

purpose. The "5" category of tool steel, for Figure 5-21. A typical composition of alloybw
example, is used for applications requiring elements for maragmg steel.
extreme shock ristance, such as air ham-
mers or stamping rues.
Tool steels in the" An category have spe- quenching or oil quenching, so the steel is less likely to crack or distort during the quenching
cial alloys that make them capable of becom- pmccs. However, tool steels in the" A" cate-
ing hard when quenched in air. Air quenching goty are expensive, and are only used where
is a less violent qucnching method than water dimensional accuracy is extremely important.
Chapter 5 What Is Steel? 79

ol Steel <;'atories
k ,', ;. Category Example Description
W Wl&W5 Wte HdJ?
o 01 &06 OilaTdening

1 A A2&AS Au Hardening
Oil or Air Hardenmg
I o

-, 5 52&54 _SiiL
i i H HIO& H41 !!oWrkg
-- High Speed
M Ml&fvL1-l (Molybdcnum)
."J.IUJI" High Speed
A T I T2&T15 (Tungstcn)

L U&L2 Special Plli£Ose

F F1 &F3 Iia<;e
P P5&P20 Mold Making
" l.jj
:/;. ,I Figure 5-23. Common categories aftool stt'CI.

u,6l< " ' ,I

\J - '#..'9,
t.:' The "M" and "T" categories of tool steel
are designed for high-speed work. These steels
contain higher quantities of molybdenum
";" IIp' I, ", I
.... J.. and tungsten.
--- Tool steels in the "H" category have good
strength at high temperature. They are used
. '1
,< ',\
---'\ .' , 1;
for hot-working proees:,es, sueD as forging
and die casting.


C;i »
Stainless Steel
Stainless steel IS a classification of special
B altremelv
loy steel that i usedresistant
extensively, Fitogurecorrosion.
5-9. As the name implItics,costs
stainless stmore
eel is ex-
Figure 5-22. Applications for tool steel. A-This than crbon steel and is harder to cut and
plcrcillg die is made from Cm penta Vegtf1 a
comnlercial brand of A6 air-Imrdening tool steel.
hine. However, if a macthehinedextra
part is ex-cost
pected toiscorjustified
ne into contact with a cor osive
Cl1rpenter TecJmology Corpcase
oratwn) B-die.
This to Itl anisd dwmmle
maker is pofolishCrucible
ing a slide insert of a Ford Stain1es steel is commonly used to meet
NlI-Dj V Densifit-yfTM, a commercial brand of special sanitation requilement. It is desJgned
H13 tool steel. (Crucible Speciallt; Metals for such applications as food processing and
the tram,fer of chemicals through pipes.
DiVision afColt Industries) -
80 SectIon Three Ferrous MctaLlllf.1!;)

All ,>tainless steel con tams high quantities

of chromium alloy, and many types contain
gh quantities of nickel alFigure
loy. These aJlo5-24.
ys give stain]ess <;teel its superior ability to resist
" r.o.
Spring Steel
Spring sted l a pecial classification of
steel that has great hardness, strength, and
elasticity. 1t is used in leaf springs, clock A
springs, knife blades, and golf club shafts.
Spring sted is nonnally purchased as a
thin, flat material The carbon content can
vary anyvvhere from 0.35°" to 1.4"'u.

..:r,- '\J': ,,,' d,'\ \

Compared to carbon steel, spring steel is .

relatively expensive. However, it has special strength and ductil ty characteristics that
make it worth the extra cost. Additional al- j

loying elements in spring steel include man- ganese (up to 0.8°, ) and chromium, silicon,
vanadium, or molybdenum.
Applications of spring steel include cam-
era shutters, circular cutters in machine tool B

industry, fishing rods, putty knrve, manicure files, bread kniveb, measuring tapes, steel 41 ..
rule,>, trowels for concrete work, feeler in- :1fl
spection gauges, and ,>mall springs for docks
and otht:'r device. See Figure 5-25. . - - -.

" ,r
Other Types of High-Alloy Steel
There are many types of special purpose
steels that have unusual allov contents: '-!i iJ ,
. In the electrical industry, special steels
with high silicon content arc used in c
generators and transformers.
. In rockets. missiles, jet aircraft, and Figure 5-24. Stainlest; stet'! applications. A-
nuclear powt:'r devices (where operation This stainless steel KW1K-BOLTt. Concrete
at high temperature is important), special Anchor is made in flJrer productIOn stages.
allov steels that contain titanium, colum- 1-1/2" rolmd bar stock of 303 PLUS-X swin/ess
bi, nickel, and chromium are used. bted. 2-Part I111S been machined and degrel1scd.
. Special cobalt teels containing over 30". 3 -KWIK-BOLT' complete .L'ilIl flontilIg wedges.
cobalt are used for electmmagnet. thermoplastic sleePt', and foil retailler. (Crucible
Many of these special purpose steels <lrc
cxtremely l:xpensive and can be justified for Speci alty Metals Division of Colt Industries) B- Stainless steel is used for the building trim on this
..tmclure. (Armco Ille.) C-Stail1kss sted l5used
use only when their unLLual properties are re-
{IS tr11l1 around these wmdows. (Armco 111e.)
quired for afety or specialllt'eds.
Chapter 5 What Is Steel? 81

disappears. Eventually, if enough carbon is added, it precipitates out. Steel is iron with the
arbon in solutCast
ion, which lIron
JCcurs belisow 1.iron
6 to 2°:-in, (thewhich
percentage vsome aries in dif erofent tythe
pes of
carironbon hasofprethe
out and appear s as f 1 akes ( a
icon family) or little spheres
s i n gr a y cast i r o n, t h e most common
V (nudular iron). See Figure 5-26.
The effects of the precipitated carbon are
both good and bad. The flakes provide a
"\ -
cushioning effect for iron when it receives
high compression loads, Figure 5-27. Thb
makes cat iron a very good material when
vibration is present along with large compres-
Figure 5-25. Spring sled IS m/lde mto many sive loads. See Figure 5-28.
4'reut shapes for a ronety of applications other On the other hand, gray cast iron is more
lllan COIH1Clltional sprin. (Wallace Bartles Sted, brittle than steel, and it has very poor strenj?;th
&mes Croup luc.)
when stretched in tension, Figure 5-29. The precipitated flakes encourage the formation of
crack and cause breakage.
Cast iron
Cast imn is a material that uses tron as its
primary ingredient. it contains 2°" to 6°(, car-
bon and small dillounts of siJicon. Other al- r ;_ . . ;-< <.

J '" .,..-",-"
P-8J t . "5..-;:
en ing elcmentterms.
5 are albo used.Considt:'f
Bf'ar in mind thitat "caastcoincidence
iron" and "iron" are two \Tthat
ery dif-
lite word iron is u:->ed in both names. . fj ... ':4.
r- .;oJ ,

How Steel and Cast Iron Differ
It is important to understand the differ-
ence between steel and cast iron. The differ-
tee can be de<;cribcd as follows. When steel
is produced, the carbon that is added to the
dissolves andamount
disappears. Thbofis sisugar
milar 10 thetodissolavinglass
g of sugar inofwatewater,
r. If you add
liIe sligar immediately dissolves and becomes B
mvisiblc. If you add a little more sugar, the
same trung happens. E\.TentuaUy, if you add Figure 5-26. Cast iron crystals. A-In gray cast
enough sugar, the water does not dissolve an iron, carbon flakes tf'lld to clystallizc Oflt of ale
iron. (General Motors Powertrain Group) B- The
of it. Some sugar precipitates out, and it be-
comes \Tisible. graphite flakes in this cast iron sample are 'very
The same situation exists with iron and fine and can barely be !ecog1lized. The flakes are
carbon in steel and cast iron. When carbon the tiny black lilies tlmt appear throughout the
IS added to iron, the carbon dissolve& and photograph. (Budder LtdJ
82 Section Three Ferrous Metallurgy

Tensile torces
Compressive forces

! ! !

13 ""'" J I Graphi
CP flakeste
act as

or spon . in tension
in compression

r Compresivc
r t forces
t t
! ! I ! Tensile forces

Figure 5-29. The carbon flakes in gray cast iron

Figure 5-27. Carban flakes Sin'£' as a cusl,;lJn for make it weaker tl1mJ pure iron ill tt'nsion.
iron and protect it during compressllJn.


,,- .
, - .... , '----
-\....;. IJoo: ..aJ

" h'


.... '. I'''.


.)Y' ...

Figure 5-28. Tlus pwcision tool grmder base absorbs "vibmtion. Making tile bose from CllSt non Ki¥.oes It a long serVice lifc. (Iron Castings Society)
Chaper 5 wna (s Steel? 83

Cast iron is very easy to machine. It is also Types of Cast Iroll

The following are the five basic types of
",' to cast, due to the f>ignilicantly low melt- . point relativc to tee1. This is a dirc t re- cat iron (see Figure 5-31):
. Gray.
h of thc higher carbon content of cast iron. 1St iron casting is abo easier to control than . White.
. MaHcable.
oeI casting.
. Ductile.
. Special anoy.
""lieatiolls of Cast Iroll
Cast iron is ued extensively for tht> Gray cast iron
When peoplc refer to a material as cast
1IJ\e5 of large cquipment and machine to ls, pre 5-30. Its damping capabil ty and com- lYon, but do not specify the typc, chanccs are
re;si" e strength make it very suitable for If'Se applications. Because cast iron has very _ frpt's o-.! Cst r0!l
td reistance to wear, it is used for engine 00, piston rings, bra ke drums, rol s, and . Gray (most common)
. White (most brittle)

ers. In architecturecovers,
, cast iron is uedfurnace
for stalr ads and lgrates,
amp of>ts. Casand
t non i alsanyo used . Malleable (higher qualiy)
. Ductile (higher quality)
. Speci al alloy (special propcrties)

leIap licationswhcreitscastabilty,tdUnabilty,dampingchar cteristcs,andmprcs ivetrengthareofbenefit. Figure 5-31. Tllis chart lists Ole fil'l_ basic tljpl'S
of cast iron.

"--;;:/"0,..: -
'. J 0' la ",,'

t, ' i

.. \,. ',t"
.:- > 1I\ \' I"\,\,'
,\ ,
. ,j o '\ L .. \. . f II c w'

, OlD ".:..L ..
- \ 11

figure 5-30. 1 '01 castings are used eTtmsiveJy in paper mil eqUipment, such as this larx e pulp refiner. (A. t lrOl 1 lC ts rug ed seru;ce al d cor osion rt"Sisfance requiremcnts. (Iron CastiYlgs Society'!
84 Section Three Ferrous MetallUlgy

they are talking about gray cast iron. Gray cast to break up stone and other materials See
iron is the most widely used type of cast iron. Figure 5-32. White cast iron is also produced
as an intermediate tep in the production of
In fact, more gray cast iron is ued than the> malleable cast iron.
other four type> combined. When white cast iron is observed under a
Although gray cast iron does not have
some of the good qualities of ductile, mal- microscope, it looks much different from gray
cast iron. See Fir;rne 5-33.
leable, or special alloy cast iron, it is conider-
ablofy lcast
ess expensiironve. Thei chosen
dif erence in costforandaqualgiven
ity must beapplication.
considered when a type Malleable cast iron
Malleable cast iroll has several special prop-
erties that make it superior to both gray cast
Gray cast iron is very hard and brittle, and
it has relatively poor tensile strength due to
J'!:. --''V?'
tht' graphite flakes in its tructurc. However, it has excellent compressive strength and damp-
ing capacity, and it can be easily cast.
White cast iron
White cast iron is not used a extensively
F:\. '9",
., ''1' ._<i.t, ,>;..,.., -
as gray cast iron because it is harder, more brit le, and more dif icult to machine. It also ",---'
1"b'. l' <'."4.. ."--,,.. 'l.."..'.....-,,' .. ",- .
has le<; impact trength. \:It <*J <1'",,:/1 >' ..... ','
The extreme hardness of white cast iron,
however, makes it a valuable materia) for
some applications. For example, white cast
iron rolls, used in mills, need great hardness
"t . ."l'!.:"4./:"'.':!;:'.: .';"ij',.';'." '""". .""A>-1Y
< .t. t., A_ '1::\.
"C i a ' . >
:J; (;""'t'!f'd' , . ' ,

;;;. . :\.,111 J :'\."\\," ...,,,""

-, ,\
f ,.
"';:. t, . .t.> ,
. -iQ fj,,,!
"'-;.t ...
: ": ,'t
\ " .
. .. . .f'...\\""
.! J


9 9 1\ :---:--,' ,.
l-.\\. \\
.. \'

-;\.. ':"=;
_,;, .,:_1 _:_. "
:' "'\"\' . /" ,," " ",,4ft
t\' . .'\'!'. ..,.
r' . ,;,")·
, '\\L.' c'. '4-U B

Figure 5-32. WI,ite cnst imn is used In tllt'se

muller tires becmlSt' of its superior hardness and FiliOI1
gure 5-33.isMi400X.
croscopic vif(LfCO
?1I'S of whiteCorporation)
cnst iron. A-Magnification is WOX. B-Magflif ica -
nbrasioll resistancc. (Iron Casting Socicty)
Olaper 5 \tVhat Is "teel? 85

iron and white cast iron. Malleable cast iron Gray White Ma l eabl e e Cast Cast Cast Cast
bas more tensile c;trength, ductil ty;. and impact st: rength. It also costs more than gray cast iron Weight
Iwn Iwn Iron .!!Q!!-

Ibs/in' .25-27 27-28 .26-.27 .25-.27

or white cast iron. The table in Figure 5-3- 1: c:omparcs the propertie& of the various types of Tensile 20,000- 20,000- 60,000- 60,000-
cast iron. Malleable cast iron is made from white (p:.i) 70,000 50,000 120,000 120,000
GISt iron. The white cast iron is heated exten-
si\"ely at high temperatures to refine it. Compressive go 88 00 00
Enntuany, carbjde bleak down into carbon i I1d free iron. The carbon collects in small, g 00Rr
Strength 00 00
JDUghly sphcrical particles known as temllCr
orroon particles. The formation of these particles
GllL">eS malleable cat iron to become more duc-
mpact SrengtLow
Charpy h V-NotchedLow
Very Ver14-17
y 2-30
tile and workable, without crificing high
romprc<;ive strength.. Common applications Hardness 140- 300- BHN 290 580 110-270 140-330
IIDr malleable cast iron ue shown in Figure 5-35. Modulus of '" Co Co
Ductile cast iron
Ductile cast imn IS sometimes referred to
as nodular cast 11011 because its graphite parti-
(psi) Low Very
des are shaped like tiny sphere (or nodules).
Uril ke the temper carbon particles in mal- leable cast iron, the nodule in ductile ca..<>t Coefficient
of Thermal a 0
Expansion percF ?A )
iron are precipitated directly from the Hquid Figure 5-34. A cOl1lpari<;on of the properties of
iron by treatment with magnesium. dlfli-'fellt type> of cast m1n.
Ductile cast iron, as its name implies, has

great ductil ty. Its tensile strength is compara- ble to that of malleable cast ir n, Figure 5-3-1.
Thein prmany
ice of ductileapplicCitions.
cast iron has become more compet i t i v e, and
Some typical uses of
i t i s r e pl a ci n g gr a y cast i r o n ..,..-...-
ductile cast iron are shown in Figure 5-36.
Special alloy cast iron
t' . . -
Most cast iron has a very basic aHoy con- ...

lent.Itprimarilycontainsjustcarbonandsilconasitsaloys.AnumberoftypesofspeclOIaloycastironhavebe ndev lopedfor

..j_ lilt.
specific applications.
A few grades of special alloy cast iron
contain high rcentes of nickel. copper, dlromium, and other alloys. Nickel, copper, Figure 5-35. Malleable CQ5t inm i<; used for appli-
catIOns n'quiring high ductility and compressiVt'
and chromium produce good corrosion resis-
tance and good chemical resistance to acids. stmlKtl1. (General Motors Powertrnill Group)
86 Section fhrce Ferrou:" Metallurgy




-, g40
\( - A

.... "". r

.. . .,

. \ :\'"

Figure 5-37. Tilt' additi01I of small quantities
Figure 5-36. Ductile cast iron applications.
A-Tile wheel spIndle and support shown are ductile CIlst iron parts. B-Automoti"lJe crank- oonf al o'stheto CllStC1lsile
t iron a'h.}culntiostn'lIgth
n) inlprovfs its provfpel tcast
ies. ThiS imll.
graph slw(lm"
il's the il jlCastills
U('1 Ce oj al oys
S/MJtS are typically ductile cast iron parts. Society)
(Geneml Motors Powertrain Group)
important structural metal aVaIlable. How-
ever, due to advances brought about by met-
Other special alloy cast irons have been
developed that have greater btrcngth and bet-
ter high-temperature properties, Figure 5-37. allurgicThe
al researkey
ch, wroughtasset
iron hasforbeenwrought
widely replacedHon
as a structtoday
ural materiisal.
Special alloy cast iron is used in cylinders, good corrosiun resistance. Many fibrous
pistons, piston rings, and turbine stator
vanes, Figure 5-38.
stringers of slag arc distributed throughout wrought iron. If corrosion attacks the IrOn.. the
Wrought Iron deterioration proceeds only until it meets a Iag stringer. The corrosion stops there, and
Wrought iron is very different from cast forms a protective coating. The slag then becomes a barrier against further corrosion.
iron. WrWmught
ought iron is almostiron
pure irohab
n; it ha ververy
y lit le carlow
bon in itstrength
s composition. Figand
ure 5-5. A microscopic view of slag stringers is

hardnebs, since it contains little carbon. How- shown in Figure 5-39. The slag contains con- ",iderable amount of silicon. A typical chemi-
cal makeup of wrought iron is shown in
ever, it is very ductile and resistant to corrO- sion. Before 18110, VI'TOUght iron was the mrn.t Figure 5-40.
Chaper 5 What Is Steel? 87

r Typical Composition rought Iron

..'j'A Element Pcentage
Iron Ovt.'TI}l).6"n

'-, , .,,
. .- Carbon

0.10 0 'n-O_16"n

Manganese 0.02[Yo-O.05'"
Sulfur 0.01'''.

Figure 5-40. This chart shows the l.u/JimT c1u?mi-
caT makeup of WrollXI1t Iron.

The amount of wrought iron used today

i... small, as compared to the amount of cast
iron and steel in commercial use. Applica-

J J J · ;""..iJ
tions for wrought iron include procesing
tanks, wastewater pipes, sheeting on ship'>.
and gratings.

Test Your Knowledge

figure 5-38. Tile 'vanes of this turbine stator are
.'>YnIly cast of a l1iKh-nlloy cast iron. Tluyare Write your auswers on a separate sheet 0{ paper.
Do not v}rite in tllis 11lJok.
." mac/lined. (11'On Castings Society)
1. Name the h\ro elements found in every
type of steel.
2. What percentage of carbon is in steel?
3. Mo<;t stcel cont.1ins more than

; I':: '=r: ',. percent iron.

4. As the carbon content in steel increases,
doe<> the stcel become more brittle or
more ductile?

';!i "
5. As the carron content in steel increases,
does stce] become harder or softer?
6. As the carbon content in stcel increascs,
does steel become stronger or weaker?
7. If the numerical name of a type of steel
.E-G .-' .. - contairu. four digits, what do the first two
_ ..- 2
'-'T" __ K c- .,--->._-'f_-.
s - -
digits tell you about the :,oteel?
8. If the numerical name of a type of stce)
contains fnur digits, what do the last h\ro
Figure 5-39. WrouKllt iron contal1lS many digits tell you about the ted?
fibrous, elongated strillgert> of sTag. The stringers 9. Why do some steels have five digit
.re composclt Inrgdy off mOlls oxide and sIlicon
dicr'(ide. 10. What alloy(s} are found in..J.U24 steel?
88 Section ThreE' Ferrous Metallurgy

11. What allay(s) are found in unusual 31 What is the advantage of gray and white
amounts in 4147 ..teel? cast iron over malleable and ductile cast
12. What alloy(s) are found in]
amounts in 52100 steel? 32 What type of cast iron is produced when
carbon is broken down into temper car-
13. What alloy(s) are found in unusual
amounts in &-030 steel? bon particles?
14. Compan:' the carbon contents of steel, cast 33. What are the main advantages of ma\-
iron, and wrought iron. lcable and ductile cast iron over gray and
white cast iron?
15. Name tvm alloying clements that im-
prove the corrosion resistance of steel 34. Wrought iron offers very good resitallce
16. What is the percentage of nickel in 3310 against _'
steel? 35. An t:'11gineer is designing a high-speed
denta] drill. The materials used for the
17. What is the percentage of chromium in
6150 sted? driJI must have high strength, good heat
18. Name four ways in which alloying ele- resistance, and thermal stability. What
ments can improve steel. types of ,>ted shouid the engineer con-
19. Most steel is classified as either carbon sider for this application?
steel or alloy steeL Which of the two i!-> 36. An engineer is designing a head for a
generally le<;s expensive? nine-iron golf club. TIle part requires
20. Which has the greatest use today, carbon high impact ,>trcngth and resistance to
steel or alloy ,>ted? distortion. What types of steel shouid the
21. What are the ranges ot carbon content in engweer consider for this application?
the three type of carbon steel? 37. An engineer is designing a sheet metal
frame for a small business machine. What
22. What is mamgillg steel?
23. What category of sted has members with mechanical properties would be impor
names such as WI and A6? tant for this material? What materials
24. What docs the 5 stand for in a steel iden- should the engineer conbider for iNs
tified as 51? appJication?
25. What two aJloys are common in stainless 38. An engineer is designing a gear train for
steel? use in a large rock crusher. What proper-
26. List at least six uses for spring steel. ties would be important for the materiah.
27. What is the difference between steel and to be utot::'d for the gears? What materials
cast iron? shouid the engineer conider for this ap-
28. Name the five basic types of cast iron. plkation? What are the advantages and
29. Which type of cast imn is the most com- disadvantage:-> of lIsing cast iron,. com-
monly used? pared to steel?
30. What is the biggest disadvantage of white
,'' ' ' ..,. ..+. -." ,.
" :. 1"
'./if.. .'

6 ,i i¥<." Manufacture of
1 j''\'

;:, Iron and Steel

"'Iter studying this chapter, you wdl be able to:

o Identify the basic steps in the production
steel-making center. There, the Hon ore IS mi'\.ed with coke, limestone, and hot ga inside a
of <;teel.
o Describe how cast uon is made. blast furnace. The products coming out of the blast furnace are pig iron, slag, and hot gaes.
o Identify the properties and uses of iron The pig iron is used to I'l1ake steel or ca.<;t iron.
orc and pig iron.
o Differentiate betwpen common steel-
making and cast iron-making proceses.
o Discuss how rolling mills change bteel -
ingots into different shapes.
The manufacture of steel is done in h\ro
basic steps, Figure 6-1. Two furnaces-or met-
allurgical processes-arc required. First, iron
-e is comrcrted to pig irOJ1 in the blast furnace,
_ f } Jj 'i-
Figure 6-2. Then, pig nOll is made into steel in . -,

a 'i.feel-11lllkingjurnace. See Figure 6-3. ,_/_",', orl

The Steel-Making Process
The entire pl'-XGS for making steel is dia-
grammed in Figure 6-4. In the first step, iron ore
is mined from the ground and shipped to a
i I
f " - > f " p:- -' . .- -
" I

/ p,' - q
',;(: I
Vj ,----"
. ,\

Figure 6-1. Producing steel is a tll'o-stt'l-' process. Fiwith

gure 6-2a. Thiheartll
s huge blast fdinmeterof331/2feet.
urnace located at the Armco Inc. Ashlaud WorAkscomputer
stauds 234 fed high
t, iron ore is ("01Il",. ,.ted to furnnce.
pig iron in a blast furnace. 1 1en, the pig irati s changed to ste l in ..elects tile materials for tlte charge.

90 Section Thref' Ferrous Metallurgy

,1'I i l! '1 I: 1 y'! 4 \ " <: I
-'.... .',.'' " -- 'j ",,-.'
. -""

6 .:r-.: : - .


.. \1"



Figure 6-3.1n tlte steel-making procCfls, an Ol!fl'-
head crane pours {j ladle of molten iron into {j

basic oxygen furnace. Tile fumace can manufac- ture 300 tons of steel in less than an haur.
Steel-Making FUrIlaces
There are two main types of steel-making
. Basic oxygen furnace.
. Electric arc furnace.
In the steel-making process, the pig iron
enters one of these furnaces along with fuel.

alloys, steel scrap.. limestone, and small amounts of iron are. Then the pig iron is
transformed into steel.

Figure 6-4. Making strL'l or cast iron is a t.11(1-

Cast Iron-Making Furnaces step process.
There are two types of cast iron-making
furnaces: .
. Cupola.
. Electric induction furnace.
In this process, the pig iron goes into and steel scrap. The frh cast iron normally 1S poured directly into molds for
the furnace and is joined by fuel, limestone,
Chapter (, Manufacture of Iron and Steel 91

day. sand, or e\.Tcn mud. Gettmg the pure Iron

out of this form is very costly. but necessary.
1rol1 Ore Deposits
Iron ore depoits are found in S€yeral
lucations in the United States. The largest con-
centration is in the Lake Superior region,
Figure 6-6. Most of the iron ore is mined from
open pit mines. Here the rock is broken up by
explosive charges, then loaded with powcr
..-., j",-'i(,
. J""'.,-.J ,
shovels onto trucks, Figure 6-7, or railroad cars. It is then taken to a nearby processing plant.
figure 6-5. Iron ore has a Iligh iron content. (Erie Mil ing Company, l1lal 1ged by PLc1amds Mather &
Co., ClL'T'dot1d, Ol1io)
lrol1 Oye Processil1g
At the prucesbmg plant, the ore goes

Thom;ands of companie throughout the

through many operations. First, the large chunks of stone are broken up by giant
crushers, Figure 6-R These smaller pieces are
Lnited Statcb have cast iron furnaces. They
pour final castings in their foundries. trotate
hen fed intowith
rotating rthe
ol mil soreand baland
l mil s, Fistcadily
gure 6-9. Hardenedpound
steel rol eitrs orintoballs
Steel Foundries finer particles.
While cast lIon foundries are commoo, After bcing crushed and milled, the rock
lhere are very few small stee1 foundries. Most of particles become so fine that they feel like
Ihe steel-making furnaces are located near sugar or dry sand. In this condition, valuable
Gucago, Pittsburgh, Bethlehem (Pennsylvania), iron ore particles can be separated from
or one of the other great tecl-making centers. the worthless particles. This is done with
The steel that is poured from a <;teel-
making fuma.ce is just at the beginning of magnet i c s e par a t o r s . Fi g ur e 6-
rest of the powder as the separator rotates.
1 0. St r o ng mag- net s pul l t h e i r o n or e par t i c l e s away f r o m t h e
ls long jourisneymade
. Next it travinto
els to thitse in-final
got buddicommercial
ng, then to the rol ing mifurm.
n. There the Next, the powder goes to flotation cells,
where the particles are immerscd in a liquid.
Steel making and cast iron making are ex- See Figure 6-11. Impurities bubble to the top
-ting businebses. Each of the steps shown in and are skimmed awav, leaving an iron-rich
Figure 6-4 will be discussed in more detail
later in this chapter. miItxtisure. then
After magnetready
i separatioton andbeflotabhipped
- tion, the ore maytoconttheain assteel
much as 700milL0 iron.
Iron Ore
Iron ore is mmed from the ground. It is an Types of lrol1 Ore
There are many different types of iron ore,
unImpressive luoking rock, Figure 6-5, that Figure 6-12. One of the most valuable typcs is
may contain only 30 0 0 iron. The iron in the
k is in chemiorecaliscompounds ( o r e <; ) i n whi c h t h e i r o n i s combi n ed wi t h oxygen or sul f u r . hematite which is reddish in color. This is a valuabl ore because it contains a high per-
found intermixed in rock, gravel, centage of iron.
92 Section Three Ferrous Metallmgy

Figure 6-6. TIle steel industry is widespread m the United States. Lake dql(Jsits of iron (Ire are
concel1trated 111 Ole Grmt Lnkes region. (A11leJicarllroll and Stec1lnstituteJ
After the taconite ore has been milled to a
Taconite is one of the most interesting

types of iron ore. At onc time, taconite was considered worthless because it contained fFigure
ine powder aI6-13.
ld separateHere,
d from the the
waste powder , i t b pour e d
taconite is mixed with a
i n t o a l J ai l i n g dr u m. See
oniy 20" to 30"0 iron. Getting iron out of the ore required proces ing that was too CXPCIl- binder, or "glue," and mllt:'d into small, round
pellets about 1/2" in diameter. See Figure 6-14.
sive and time consuming. Today. due to im- provements in proces ing methods, taconite The pellets are baked and hardened. The
hardened pellets are then shipped to steel
is one of the most popular ores. Due to mod- ern mining technology, the refil ing of
taClmite i<; now more efficient.
centers, where they are stored for ue. See
Figure 6-15. It is much more convenient to
Chapter 6 Manufacture of Iron and Stt'C1 93

>r ,- .
/ ........-::.

.>:<};.- JJ-

..-1I..r",! ,V.j C

\jii'"'> .'
. iP1' t
figure 6-7. A pawer SIWI","lloads largt chunks of Fimanaged
gure 6-9. Bal rnil sbybreaFiclaIJlds
k irol orc into smal eMather
r I';CCt'S durin&g prCo.,
oces ingClcr'Cland,
. (Erie Mining Company,
:m ore onto trucks at ile iron ore mine. (Erie lining Cortl ml1Y, managed by Plckn ds Matl er &
11., Cleveltmd, Ol1io)

'\, It ';I

#/ ' - j "i' ;" (t{

/ ...
" ' ,
: r-1Jll aq II '>...
- - .4-.
It'''' If
......- .4..


r:..¥.;J4_-;' v.. t"k--:""':
Figure 6-10. Vall/able Iron ore parrjcle are
rt'covered by magnetic separators. (The Clt'7.'t'1cmd-
Cliffs Irou Company)

tu the top of the blast fUrnace. The skip cars

resemble little railroad cars Tiding on a very
handle the ore in pellet torm than to handle it
,>teep, inclined track.
in powder form. A bJast furnace may be more than 250 feet
high, taller than a 12-story building. See
Blast Furnace Figure 6-17. The inside is about 30 feet wide.
A discussed earlier, the blast furnace con-
The outside surface of the blat furnace is a
thick steel shell. The inside wall is lined with
"erts iron orc to pig iron. Iron ore, coke, and fire-resistant brick.
lime5tonc are carried in skip cars, Figure 6-16,
94 Section Three Ferrous Metallurgy

w- Jf :,
',ref....' r=."

')i ',,- '- >,"



f '"?..;.. , J,J1]1"
/t -""
Fitil'Sgure 6-adl1el'l'
11. Flotation ctoel s gctireneratbubble...
e air bubbles to leand
move imfloat
purit es fOVi'r
rom iron ortltee partitopcles. Tmploflri- .::," ......

- ..........<
tlte cell while tlze iron particles arc drawn of! tlte
bottom. (The Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company)

Iron Cumpuunds ",iI'.",

lronOrt> in the Ore

Hematite Fe 2 0 l Figure 6.13. Taconite pellets (/re.Jr1lled in a ball-

gnetitl' 1<2L ing drum. (The Oi:'l>eland-Oiffs 1ron Company)
Sidente FeCO l
Pyrite FeS

Limonite 19L
Taconite Various


Figure 6.12 This chart lists the more common -": .,

types of Iron orc.
Up to 350 tons of molten iron are produced
and tapped from the furnace every three to
five hours. Over 80 miUion tons of molten iron
is produced annually.
A blast furnace in operation is spec- -"!E-- -"4-
tacular to see, especially at night. The tre-
mendous heat needed to melt the coke,
limestone, and iron ore i.. attained by a Figure 6-14. Taconite pellets stockpiled at tlie Eric Mining Company procesing plant. These
continuous blast of hot air introduced at tht:,
bottom uf the furnace. The coke burns first. pellets, with an iron content of abt.lut 650.;', are comparable to high-grade arc. (Bet1l elzem Steel
It, in turn, melts the iron ore and limestone, C011ltlmtioll)
Chapter 6 Manutacture of Iron and Steel 95

> it",::::>, '_}'''- ''f'

.c'..-' -.
\ ,1 ''-
::..t. ...-?;;J
#.. ...r r n:. <"'''{'jC''''''''''_.'''''
iI';" ,I... .:..:I.:. :...--
'."";;_f'. -
,\" <.'''+ ' ,-.1:>''''-' ". ,--t .:rr.:
,',' ..-T.
. :._.r
'4 ",'.:-' r.->.'
..,... , ' ....".""/,,..
. Co"". , ;".J4"
,..:/11;;,.: ! ,'.if...
t . ;:.\ , '.:;}
.,..i''' ) '"''"
.. r .:0 .;;,. ".
! '- .'iiR . ,-.-'0- . - ." :
>.\> ' : .. . .{_.'
....{. ',..., .,
.,,:u-... , ¥ "..:'o't"':'
Figure 6-15. An enormOllS pile vf iron ore fCl!lts a pair of ltigh-capaCity blast furnaces. (Armco file.)
and a chemical reaction takes place that p[(}-
duces free iron.
As everything melts, it trickles down
through the taB stack and collects in a molten

\"' " ' ¥ "'- f'

pool at the bottom of the bla<;t furnace.
Since the iron is the heaviest, it sinks to
the bottom of the furnace. The limestone re-
f\ r.\ " I!. acts with impurities, forming slag, a relatively
ubeless bvproduct. The slag floats on top of
" -\(,-
the molten pool and loob like a saUD
r . '.....:"...:, As the hot gaseb work their way to the

.-... -.. tand

op of thecollected.
blast furnace, they areThese
filtered by dusthot
, cleaned by speciareal equithen
\!t ' . \, routed through one or more tOVl!s. Tht' stoves
.:...."" \'\&.T'
'.. /-4J., \ II '_
are tall, thin, and cylindrical in <;hape. They
may be 120 feet tall and 28 feet in diameter
\ -r"'''; , 10..\ \?
They look like junior-siLed blast fuloa.
.'\'.ft ¥.\ Inside the toves, there is a complex

'W arshort
of bricks.later,
These bricthe
ks heatincoming
up as the hot ga<;eairs pass(tothroughbethem.used
Then, a
Figure 6.16. Skip cars are used to mrnj tltecoke, I",restone and iron ore to Ole top of tlz; blast for the hot air blast in the bottom of the fur-
nace) is reheated by the hot brick.
/I"Imcc. (Americnlzlrotl and Steel Institute)
96 Section Three Ferrous Metallurgy


L" Furnace
8000 tons per day


Figure 6-17. This skdc11 of {/ modem blast furnace il l$trates its nmmmoth sIze. This blast furnace is located at the BetldcllCl1l Steel Corporatwn Sparroil's Point ManJland plant.
Modern tecnnology in this field nas come rhe slag also is tapped off and collected
a long way_ Today, technicians watch the over-
all blast furnace operation from a large air- ilatioR
n a large ladlIte. Slisag hasalsosomeused
commerciainl applbrick
ication. It making,
b most notably usedasasaninsu
conditioned control rOom. This control room
looks like a computer center with switch asphalt filler, and as a spread on ice to prc-
panels, readouts, and colored lights through- vent falling.
out the room. See 6-18.
Pig lron and Hot Metal
Tapping tile Blast Fumace The most important product tapped from
EverV three to five hours, some iron (not the blast furnace is the molten iron. Molten ;roll
all) is removed from the blast furnace. See is commonly refened to as Itot metal or pzg iron.
The molten iron that comes out of the blast
Figure 6-14 A taphole is opcned at the bottom
of the furnace, and the molten iron flows along furnace will take onc of two routes. One route
leads to the production of castings as the end
a long trough into a bottle car, Figure 6-20. The bott]e car looks like a <;ubmarine with railroad product, particularly cabt iron castings. The
other route leads to the steel-making building,
car wheels. It is a gigantic drum. It is lined on
the inside with refractory (heat-rcsistant) brick where some type of steel shape becomes the
end product.
so that the iron rctains its heat and stavs molten. Iron enterS the drum at about 2600F In the first route, the molten iron is
(1430"'C). Then,.. the bottle car takes the molten poured from the bottle car into long molds,
iron directly to a steel-making furnace. which are cooled and hardened. Each mold
Chapter 6 Manufacture of Iron and Steel 97


"'::':-t '" fttl J .' '

_ L.L =!t \I:I[;' ,,-.'"00 ;,...__i
D f.1 II I; r \i;'1:Ir ,Il -< ,.".', '"W : m':- =
. . \ . V '':i;:;':: 'f g\r
\. ._...
\ _ ' .:,,:..
.t "".;;.." ,c-'--.
\V. .)!tII"'. . [ ""-
J; \\.....c- -1"""", ,",' ;"""["1':.': . "'" h "... . ;

r' -L'!f
_.,--: /' ..c::_. .. \ ..-. '
.r..J" /. j,'It
' JJ!!"
igure 6.18tlu'. ThisScot'ntroconsolt'
l center at ilt' Bsef.ldenIl'hem S20,000
ted C01t1()ratiowiren Spar oterminals
v.!s Point MarylandinplantthisIS G1IRcontrolll1l'
J1Ifteri=ed. Althougth1thedlufifmte
bUlSt furnace is 1the0rmnl ycomplexitv
computer-colt rol ed, ioft canthealso bes!,stem.
nU1nlwl y control ed



-, <,;1 ;# . , 'l '-..


': ' :{ I:"f ...r-" --,
, ,.-

Figure 6.19. EvelY thlet' to fillf hour5, tile blast fur- Figure 6-20. Ml1/.tell iron flows dowll a trough into
the bottle car, wllere it is carric,t to a steel-making
Nace is tar't1f'(t by burmng out a plug at tire bottom
"refuml1ce. (American Iron and Sted rnstitute) fuYlll1ce (AmtTican Iron l111d Steel rnstitute)
98 Section Three Ferrous Met<IUurgy

is referred to as a 1Jig and wt:'ighs at least 40 \. .:}

lb. Pigs are refined in a casting machine and . .
then sold to foundries. Molten iron that is
cooled and solidified in this manner is cal]ed h

pig iron. The term "pig iron" is certainly strange. ... ,

Many year ago, molten lion was poured into I
'- .:';.I;:
athelong trtrough,
ough with manythrough
gates or openione
ngs alongofitsthe
sides. Thegates,
liquid metand
al flowedinto
.&)... : it I!\o-
sand mold shaped soanmewhatentire
like a babyfamily
pig. Aft :'r allofthe metsuclding
al had cooled, thpigs,
e casting '...
all lined up along the sow. Thu, the name Figure 6-21. This cllpola ftmwce is used to melt
"pig iron." In its initial state, pig iron i<; a rather use- and refine pig 1ron into cast iron. (General Motors FOl{ocrtmm Group)
less material with essentially no product
value. It i hard, bnttlt', and not very strong.
However, pig iron is a vitally important into ladles for charging into a steel-making
ingredient in the manufacture of steel and
cast iron.
Cast iron foundries (and ome stt'el furnace, Figure (1-23. The hot me\al rem8ms in the molten state and never solidifies during jts
journey from the spout of the blast furnace to
foundrie) purchase pig iron and melt it in induction furnaces or cupolas, as hown in the mouth of the steel-making furnace.
Figure 6-21. This metal is then used to make
cast iron products, Figure 6-22 Steel-Making Furnaces
Most of the molten iron travels the econd
As di!-.cused earlier, the two most mod-
route, from the blast furnace to the steel-making
building. It is carried in bottle cars and poured ern types of furnaces used to convert molten


.,.'.:>.,}'.- 1!:''''.
:::. ..
."r '- f: w.i
, tv
. '1'

.... /!--. . !

. L; , ' -- ;

,I ':.
9,so - ."

Figure 6.22. Cast irOll1S used to make a wide variety of paJ.ts. (General Motors Po<{Jeltram GrOllpJ
Cha.pter 6 Manutacturc of Iron and Steel 99

Ii< "',

-'"1 Itl

.r '" .,.,.

\: ..


s '"
ij ,I-
'" ,

/'! t "'" ,
, '

. sa
'1r. 1,1 ,;I,J.r I
I' FiSteel
gure 6.24.Corporation)
Molten iron is charged into a basic oxygen furnace for refining irt o ste l. (Bcthlel/{>m
igure 6.23. Moltm iroSteel
n from theCorporatiwJ
blast furt/acc IS charRed into (I basic oxygen fUn/ace.
the resulhng steel is about the same as that of steel made by the open-hearth pnlCs.
The basic oxygen process
The entire basic oxygen process is rapid
iron into ,>teel are the basic oxygen furnace d the electric arc furnace. Two other and colorful. It is described in the following
eight steps.

Iypes-theopen-hearthfurnaceandtheBes emerconverter-wer usedasthemainste l-makingfurnacesformany ear_The L The furnace uses a huge, pear-shaped
steel barre1Iined with refractory material.
The barrel pivots on a haft and tips to
hearth furnace iobsolete.
s stil in use to a limited degree today, but tht' Bessemer converter is one side so that scrap (about 90 tons) can
be poured into its mouth, Figure 6-24.
2. Immediately follf1wing the scrap charge,
Basic Oxygm Furnace an overhead Crane pours a ladle of
The basIc oxygen furnace (Bon replaced molten iron (about 200 tons) from the blast furnace into the mouth of the basic
theopen-hearthproces asthenumberonemethodofste lmakingveralyearsago.Capitalequipmentforabasicoxygenfurnace
({)Sts lesH, and the process is much faster.
oxygen furnace. See Figure 6-24.
3. The oxygen lallce (pipe) is lowered to
approximately 6 feet above the surface 01 the metal. The lance is locked in place.
A basic oxygen furnace can manufacture The mixture is ignited, and a high-
](X) tons of steel in lebs than an hour, which is
pressure stream of oxygen hits the mix-
fi\ e to ten times faster than the open-hearth proces . What makes the proces so produc- ture at supersonic speeds. See Figure 6-25.
4. Shortly after ignition takes place, lime and
ive is the oxygenandblast.intensify
Massive amountthes of oxygenheat.enter Thl"
the furnacequality
at supersoniofc fluorspar are added. These matt:'1ia1s com- bine with carbon and other impurities to
100 Section Three ferrous MetallLllgy

oxygen furnaces are general y instal ed in pairs, so one call be fil ed with raw material
while the other j<; manufacturing hot steel.

Electric Arc Furnace

The ekctrrc arc furnace, Figure 6-27, differs
from the basic oxygen furnace in the follow-
ing tluee way:
. [t uses electricity rather than gaseous fuel
to produce the heat.
. The quaHty of the teel can be controlled
more accurately than it can when other
furnaces are used.
. It is uSt:"d primarily for special types of
t , '!'t quality steel, such as stainless steeL tool
steel, and high-alloy steel.
The furnace itself lookb like a giant tea-
, ..;.
kettle with a spout on one end. It hab a round,

_l. tloaded
ightly dosed chamber . The roof pivots and swings aside so that raw materialb can be
into the furnace. The steel outer shell
Figure 6.25. A high-pressure stml1U of oxygen is blul m outo the molten iron and scrap at super- of the furnace is lined with heat-resistant re-
fractory brick. Three retractablt:' cJt:'ctrodes ex-
sOllie slJCeds througl1 a "lance," whICh is IOR'ITf'd
into tIle basic oxygen furnace. (Amcricatllron
and Stee/lnstitute)
end up throughelectrodes
the roof of the furnacare
e. Theyused
may be astolargeignite
as 2' in diamettht:'er andmdal
24' long.
charge, Fiptrt:' 6-28-
The electric .lIC furnace presents several
form slag. Temperatllrt-"'S of about 300(f'F
(1650°C) arc reached. advantag over the basic oxyJ!;co furnace. The
5. An intense chemical reaction follows. It controls of an electric arc furnace can regulate
keeps the molten mass churning as if it ib the temperature more precisely because elec-
trical flow is easier to regulate than gaseous
in agony, Figure 6-2b. This continue fuel. Also, no air is introduced, so there is more
uninterrupted for about 20 minutes.
6. When the chemical reaction ends, the control over the oxygen content.
In general, the electric arc process IS more
oxygen lance is removed. The molten steel is poured into a large ladle. The slag costly than the basic oxygen or the upen- hearth processes. Therefore, it is normally
is poured into another ladle.
7. Alloying elements are added after the
steel ib poured into the ladle. usednaces
only for hihas
ty steel. However. in recentandvearsthe
, the sizelectric
e of new electricarC
arc fur-
8. The ladle of liquid steel is then taken to
the ingot center, where the steel is poured process is becoming competitive in the low-
carbon and medium-carbon steel market.
into ingot molds.
The entire process is computer-cuntrollect.
The electric arc process
A computer determines the precise amounts of each charge ot material to be added. It also de- The main ingredient in an efectnc arc tur-
nace is steel scrap. This is another way in
termines cycle time for the operation Basic
Chapter 6 Manufachtre of Iron and teel 101


!i <

Figure6.2 AlIeatshieldprotecsme bersoftilebasicoxygcnfumace ml'takingste l,>ampiesandarmpemturemeasurem ntsfromthebathofmoltcnmet d.SamplesOf sentbypnrl/matc ubeto heksicoxygCl1furnacespectromet rlaboratoriesforan lysi .(BctldelcmSte lCorp mtion)
which electric arC furnaces differ from other .. , _....,
.: -- ... -
urnaces. Thescrap
scrap is ttbat
be first togoes
go in. It i analintoyzed andanyexamiother

ished steel can be predicted more accuratcJy.

This again reflects the outstanding control of
ned much mortypee carefuofl y
furnace.Itis epar ted,grade ,andbortedintoasmanyas65difer ntclabse ofste lscrap.Asaresult, becompositonoftbefin- -Ii =- - ,. .
!:=- -, \i ;,':,:\ r"
the electric arc process.
After the crap has been introduced, the "

e1ectrodes are lowered through tbe retractable

oof into tbe fcharge,
urnace near tbethrough
metal charge. Elethectricitymetal
jumps from oneitself,
electrodeandto the "'......-.

hen back to anotheflow
r electrodofe. Heelectricity,
at is devel- oped by band
otb the rebysistanthece of tbheat
e metal toofthe ;

the electrical arc itself.

The operation of an electric arc furnace is
gure 6-27. High-qualify ste(Anllco
l IS faptl 'd fromIncJ
an electric arc fumace after if IS made to a very exact
spectacular. A soon as the electricity is
102 Section Three Ferrous Metallurgy

..0;;. ,A

" c;. JL " ., I;' J hE . ,RODE'.:
. j I':



! \,LJI' ' I :
...\ ,:-. ''If:'!Jj" .,"'..
---.\ fr,,',
.'" i,' h.f,
. .1 '\', ,!'- ,f/;'
I I} IJ..I. '
. " ......

Figure 6-29. A 11lfl' of cables carries the electri-

cal chmge to the electl'odcs of an electnc arcfllr--

" nace. (Amerlcan lr011 and SteeilnstztuteJ

: :; ".'" " r" , ' , ;.:-.

'I, !)!: may be used to remove carbon, or carbon

I' ! ..4 J .... ' - may be added if the carbon content i.s low.
Liestone is added as the fluxing agt:'nt.
Alloying elements are added at the very end of the operation. Oxygen gas is {lmeti.m('s
fired into the melt to speed up tbe 1lent (the cycle that convert: . molten iron to steel). Mil
cale and small amounts of molten iron may
Figure 6-28. Heat for an electric arc .FurnarI.' is also be added
made avmlable by three large retractable ekctrod. As much as 300 tons of sted may be man-
The electrodes ale lowered into tile furnace near
the charge of selected scrap lfon and steel.
(American lroll and Steellnstitute)
ufactured per heat, dlthough most electric arc furnaces are designed for smaner amounts. A
period of about three to seven hour b re- quired for a compJete cycle. When the steel is
turned on, a large roar occurs, and electric
arcs flash like lightning in a tbundeTstorm.
The arcs strike the metal charge in the bottom
ready,theslagispouredof.Thentbeste lit-se1fispouredintoal dle,Figure6-30.Even-tualy,tbeste ltravelsto heingotcenterand
is pOUled into molds.
of the furnace and produce turmoil in tbe fur-
nace ingredients. The electrodes turn white
hot as more than 800,000 volt-amperes of Open-Hearth Furnace
electricity flow through them. The electrical Prior to the emergence of tbe basic oxygen
process, the open--lleartll process was the pri-
charge is so great tbat tbe cables carrying tbe electrical charge literaHy sway when tbe elec- mary method of manufacturing steeL Open- hearth furnaces were used for over fifty years
tricity is turned on, Figure 6-29.
After the scrap has melted, a variety of Today, the basic oxygen and electric arc are
other ingredients are added. Some iron are tbe standard steel-making processe. The
Chilptcr 6 Manufacture of Iron and tccl 103

'I>ii'. ' -

. I
' \ 10:,
'),,",,""",.' I ':\\-0

. I' ---

_ . 1" : :\1 \ >
... '


\ -; . .,

'I "
- 91' j
I -.--
I. '

'!J<\\' \\
/ -t" T'j1'.1
t ._.J,,_¥ -
Figure 6-30. Molten steel pours out of al1 electric arc furnace dUYlng a tap nt Betldelwl1l Sted Corpora--
JlI'S Steclton, Permsylvanin, plant. TlIis furnace has a cal1£1city of 160 tons lInd can produce a heat of
"eI in tllrci'lwurs. (Bethlehem Sted Corporation>
104 Sectllm ThTee Ferrauo. Metallurgy

chart in Figure 6--31 mustrate tbe differences hours. In recent years, the speed of tbe
reaction has been increased by introducing an
between tbe three methods.
The open-hearth furnace looks like a giant oxygen blast from overhead. The oxygen gas
flows ditectly onto tbe burning ingredients in
hbasin (heartbof) tbattheis expbasin,
oed (open) t{Figure
) a powertul Har6-32.
ne of fireSteel
that shootsscrap,
againt the the open-hearth fire.
The open-hearth process is illustrated in
Figure 6-32. After the burning gases pas over
imestone, pig30000F
iron, and some i(1650°C).
nm ore are loaded intThis
o this giantproduces
hearth and heatedato the molten mass in the center of tbe heartb, they arc col ected on the other side of the fur-
nace and routed through a complex brick
violent, spectacular boiling action. Despite ib
appearance, tbis bubbling, boiling fluid is arrangement known as a checker dlt1r1lbcr. As
actually steeL tne"e hot gase p through tbe checker
chamber, tbt' bricks are heated.
AJ{ open heartb measul"l."'S about 30' by 90'. After 15 to 20 minutes. the burning flame re-
As much as 600 tons of steel may be manufac-
verses direction and enters the hearth from
tured in a :,ing)e hC'Ilt (one complete cycle that converts molten iron to steel). At most steel the oppobite side. As incoming air is intro- duced, it passes over these same hot bricks.
mills, several open hearths are located side by This heats the air and increaes tbe efficiency
,>ide for convenience in loading, tapping, and
of the furnace. It abo reduces the amount of
overall layout. Two floor are required for op--
ation. Thefjrstheartfloor
h itself takeshouses
up most of ththee secondheating the loading io. also done. poHution tbat ecapes from the furnace. Hot gase tben heat the bricb on the other side as
floor, where system.
they pasMolten
s over 01 secondironcheckeisr cnamber . This operation is reversed every 15 to 20 minutes.
added after the other ingre-
Tbe open-hearth process dients have melted intl! a liquid. The molten
Natural gas mixed with air is the fuel
most often used to heat an open-heartb fur-- iron pours out of a ladle spout into a large
accepting beak at the mouth of the furnace,
nace. Sometimes, liquid fuel oil, tar, or gase from the coke oveno. are dlso uo.ed. In thi Figure 6-33. Alloying elements are the last in-
gredients added.
proces:" a singie heating cycle takes up to ten

(Based on
Steel-Making Steel
Furnace Cost
pcn -----r Produced)
-+ Low:cost I Steel
Mofficn! t- Genera1
Electric Slightly Special Steel

Open- + and
Expensiv High
Alloy Steel
Furnace Low Cost

Figure 6-31. A comparison of tile t"ree wain "teel-making proases.

Chapter 6 Manufacture of Iron and Steel 105
Gas or

........_,.._...-:- Oxygen Ian'e Bume liqUidfUel

".,.. _ "" ..-aa,.
- ....... . . "-
, : r -.=. - - ;- . 5 : ·
"Molten.metal Air

gr . __.-1-
- '1.--"..- \
--.--.:... Ladle

Slag .

figure b-32. The open-hearth steel--making process. A pool of molterl metal is exposed to the swcep
IIJJlames flait'illg alternately from cill,c,. side of tile hearth. The entire cycle takes lip to tell hours.
(lJdhlchem Steel Corporation)

At tbe end of the heat, a plug is removed

11'/ from the taphole. An explosive charge may be
used to remove the plug. As the plug is re-
moved. fresh steel fJows along a trough and
l into anotber ladle. A-:.. the steel enters the

) tofrough,thesparkladle,
s fly in a spectwhen
acular displmost
ay re- semblofing fitireworisb.skimmed
The slag floats to thoffe top
l) intoaslagpot.Se Figure6-34.Next,moltenste lipouredfromtheladleintoi1lgotmolds,whichgiveshapetotheste lwhenitco h.
and :->olidifies.

..'.... Processing the Ingots
i' l An ingot is a large steel casting that has
t..' cooled and solidified into a workable hape.
I': Ingots are procd by means of three sepa-
rate operations:
. Teeming. Pouring molten steel into the
ingot molds.
Figure 6-33. Hot iron from tlIe blast furnace IS ntJ I l' t into all 0tJel - Jlearth furnace. TIl S molten . Stripping. Removing ingots from th('
ingot molds.
Iron is subjected to 30OV°F (1650°C) tempera-
tures bc{ore bemg purifIed into steel. (Bethlehem . Soaking. Heating ingots to ubtain more
Steel Corporation) uniform properties in the metal.
106 5ectioll_ Three Ferrous MetallUlg}'


] --.
!, I

1< ·

'I .J'- : !1' -. H I,a --


\:, \ '..., '

Figure 6-34. As molten sted fills the ladle at the ,I,

rear of an op(71-llCarth furnace, some of the l(ii;htel .
slag Ylses to tile top and flows into an adjacent "'-'

lag pot. Theits,.emaiheat
n1,'g slauntil
g at tIle titop ofistheready
ladle providtoes abe"protpouret1
'dia' bhrnket" formto
the steel to
molds. (Bethlel1Ct1l Sted CoqlOration)
gure 6-35. In(BethlellCl1I
pourmg or "teeming,"Steel
molten steCOl
el is transpomtioll)
fer ed from the ladle mto il XOI
When steel arrives from the furnace, it is Soaking
After stripping, the hot ingot is carried
poured into ingot mold from a large ladle. Set' Figure 6-35. The molten meta) flow
through a hole in the bottom of the ladle. A long row of ingot molds are lined up and the tfloor
o a soakinlevel,
g pit, Figurethus
6-37. Theresembling
soaking pit is actuallyaa fupit.rnace.The
It is usualingot
ly below
ingob are pOlued at one time. See Figure 6-36. i.. heated in the soaking pit for six to eight
The cross-sectional shape of the ingot is hours at about 2200°F (120QoC) so that a uni-
normally square or rectangular. It is tapered, fOrm temperature is reached tbroughout the
witb rounded corners and corrugated sides. entire ingot
Ingots may be anywhert' from 3' t(1 R' high The purpose of soaking is to prevent tbe
and 6" to 3' wide. outer surfaces of the ingot from solidifying
before the inside. If ingots were not soaked,
Stripping carbon, phosphorous, and sultur (which tend
As soon as the ingots are partially cooled, to sulidify last) would congregate around tne
top center portion of the teel.
tathey artbee bepartopateu fofrom teach
heir molds mold.
as quickly asThe
. A stripper ctben
rane gripsliftslugs locupated After soaking is completed, the hot ingot
is removed from the soaking pit, Figure 6-38,
the mold shell to separate it from tbe hot ingot and carried to the rolling milL
ChClpter (, Manufacture of Iron and Steel 107


"' \ '
.' .
, '-
I 5'. '(
,A.Ii\ ,:
. I

, .:
;; 0. , , .- ..:;."-
... ...-

fiAigurexriam6-36.IronA ((landW ofStre/Institute>

ingot molds. The molds are I1set" to shape the steel after it IS poured from the ladle.
A rolhng null is tht' part of the steel-
making comp'ex wherein a series of large,
hard rollers comprcss steel ingots into differ-
. ".
.Pb ent shapes. For example, an ingot tbat is
2' thick win be ":.queezed" untii it becomes
considerab1y thinner. Eventually, this same
sted may be pres ed to 1 /32" sheets or drawn into 1/16" diameter wire. Some stock i com-

',,'Ih1.i\.'\11\:\":..;."iInf.1,im\t"I .....".,.
'i\!1 t \iJ'
il l }' '1t .
. - f.. 1ft.'"""".. ;
f . 1 iii ....
. h If'$W',.
H '.
", . ' .. '\;,
pressed to even smaller sizes.

rhe "squeezing" is done by using a pair of
ol ers, as shownsupported
in Figure 6-39. Theiningotstrong
space between the roners is slightly less than
tofbe ththeicknCb:space
:' of the ingotbctv\'een
passe betweenbearings.
the two rol ers, whiThe
. Since the ingot theis hot androners.
ch are
p)ia.ble, it i reduced to tne thickness
:;I After passing between these roBers, the
steel moves to anotber pair of rollers where
); ;.
\ the gap is slightly smaner. Here, the steel is
compressed again. Then, the steel moves to a
third pair of rollers with a smaller gap than
-" iii' 'f:':.,] the previous pair This process continues un-
tn the steel has reached the desired thickness.
A tHIO-high ({'persing mill, Figure 6-10, uses
'.., ..,. r. ,," only one pair of rollers. The ingot passes back
and forth behveen this pair. After each pas,
figure 6-37. Ingots are n.1110'l.Jed fn1m the mgot the gap betvveen tbe rolJers is narrowed until
mold and transferred to a sOl/king pit. (American the desired thickness is attained.
roll mId Steel Institute)
108 Section Three Ferrous Metallurgy

..."II! j.

I II".


.... -, :';"lJ 11 ,
'1',' . r l ,'''J 1

.. "

-..- Figure 6-39. A ghril'ing ingot takes on anFu'

slmpe as it is 'worked by the rollb (f a blooming
l . Rolling Corporation)
Jlot only s1wpes the steel, it also hnpml'es its mechanical pmpertic<>. (Betl el1l711

Slabs, Blooms, and Billets

In a rolling mill, rolling is a two-stage
process. Tbe fjrst stage occurs in the primary
rolling mill. The second stage occurs in the
secondary rolling mill.
Fithegure 6soaking
-38. This ingot n h(Bethlehem
eated to an LTt'1 tempelSteel
"l1turc throuCorporation)
ghout and is bang rC1 lfJl."ed from In the primary rolling mill, tbe ingot is
converted into a slab (in a slabbing mill), a

Three-high and four-high mills are a]50 used bloom (in a blooming mil ), or a bil et (in a blooming and bil et mil ). Slabs receive di-
to roll steel, Figure 6-41. In botb cases, the in-
mensi onal reduction primarily in thickness. The typical dimensions of a slab are 10" thick,
gotfirstpas esbetwe nthetwol wer olersandiscompres d.Next,i sraisedandpas esbetwe nthetwoup ermostrolers.The 6 feet wide, and 32 feet long. See Figure 6-43,
The size of a bloom, Figure 6-44, is reduced
equally in two different directions. A billet is
gapit isbetwcomped
een the upper tV\'Ofurther.
rol ers is slightlyThen,
less than tbe both
gap betweengaps
the lower are
pair, so made from a fimsl1ed bluom. It is essentiaJl}'
a smaH bloom.

decreased slightly and tbe steel repeats its From slabs, blooms, and billet, all other
journey, forward and back. After many passes, commercial shapes are made in a econdary
the steel attains the proper thickncss. rolling milL These shapes include sheet, strip,
As the steel becomes thinner, it also be- bar, structural shapes, plate, pipe, tube. rod,
and wire.
comes longer. Steel from an ingot tbat starts
out 9 feet long may be several miles long be- The entire rolling operation is monitored
from a control center. The control center uses
fore it leaves the last rolling mill, Figure 6-42.
The teel may make as many as 50 passes be-
fore it is ready for commercial sale. computers, dials. gauges, and switches to monitor the operation. See Figure 6-45.
Chapter b Manufacture of iron and Steel 109

.. F\'i":.- -. " . ,,'11 1 " "

-;'_ '1m an " .,\.'" \:1 .1 . '-., 1 "
c.. "_t:I.,. :/, ¥"'"t,-..!'"'"'0:<,At'\'1\ ".:',;,iIJ'.'II'IJ.<:'
oiIf" I 4'_ "-.AoI,1 -. - .-.....
" ' "''''t 'I '-n I. .,.. .;k I
"Ii I '. tk'; ,. _. . "'.
' I-1'AIi P-1..
, '''-. .,.. . ..;:..:;- ,- ,,_.... 1:"-
,," . '_ :;'..' ". 1\,(.....,. ''"" ';r-' ,,,.... .: '";J):.

..' -:-.'';.;;;'v\..' --f-:.,!i#..1
,.' .' --"J'oi
I't. -t.''r:;
gure 6.40. Tli s tu,>.l1igli " 'I?rsing slab mil is driven by a I"ir of 6OIJO IlOrser>olOl'f motors to com'" t -Jon ingots into ste l slabs. (Armco [nc.)
, , ,,.
.\,. I '''.. ,.,,--,,,-" l
.' .' liJ} ..;:' .::.. ) ,J"j '!...... i

; .,..,.tilf,. -,{' 'f' "J., :,:,.('+-,,'','V'" ," 'j:\':


J_t-:;t /"f' "\=

. jk. 'I
" a ,;. "..;:i---
! ',:;-;:;; -

\ .,)C

'j)I' ,.{( ... -N-

lIktlJ -:--' --
1;'" .:'
, ','"J/.
:.r;.: :(."'1iiJ.;i<1;": - =--==----_.
ure 6.h,4ant1. iThilipstofa120'urJliigl1hfleiln1igtshih natgBet",ilhproduces
lehem St.ep/ellCorporat
tesfro'" 3/io1n'6"s Burns
to 15"Harbor,
in thickness.
Indiana,lippltoontIS. O"
IBrll,lelrem Steel Corporation)
110 Section TI1J"eC Ferrous Metallurgy

II I:'
'C' G) I ,-E
;:': O! .1 ....--!'

Ij I

--1 - '-'-

1..., t.., . ..-.-:,.-

Figure 6-42. Tluslmrdened sted roll is slwum in Figure 1J-44. Blooms are rolled mto beams and
operation at a Bethlehem Steel Corpomtioll plaut. other structural slznpes typically use,t in the con-
Rolls oJ this type arc used for cold--rolling steel struction industry. (American Ironalld Steel
sllect and strip.

tit .", -. -

, }ij,,,:,
... II}

- ; .

" "
, ,

. .- , .
::\ ';r ,-

",' iJ'. ::' ",I

." . ...;.;..- ;'.,.. .=-' ,Iq

/ d..n ..uJlJli' .

n,-l -. !" .\.:"

e 6.43. Slabsbridges,
arc fit uced in tl and
icknes. Tlmachrnery.
letj may be fl .rtl er rol e(American
d into plates. which arIron
e used - Figure 6-45. The entire rol ing operntion at a bar ml1l is monitored from the I1Ull'S principal cmltral
and Stt'el Institute) center. (Bethlehem Steel Corporation)
Chapter b Manufacture of Iron and Sb..--el 111
4 1
" {- ".
.',i!'-; "'==r= - . II =-
. - - -+... !t ,.,

_ _",... H'' .,' .i,a I )1'.' oiWJ '-. .t

! Ij,; i Y 1 "" . & - - ,,1 ,, i
.Gi '"
:'- . :
.: 't,_ ._ 1' ._ '",
. ibt L --''" ''
'- . , . , 1 _ - M,-' ra
.,i .1f: '": ..

, . I,. . " . .: I ft. . J;f _ Ii._ a_ . .....
--' ,_ _ - - : -4: '! f'
igure 6-46. Continuous slabs of steel an: produced in this COrlti,1UOUS casting mil . (Bet'l ehcm Steel
. Combination ot the CUT\T-d mold and ver-
Continuous Casting tical cutoff method. The types of roJling
Slabs, blooms, and billet:-. can be made in
me continuous and uninterrupted operation in
miUb used in this method v.uv. The ClIH'e'lt mold metlzOit is the "most widely
USl---d. It is done in beven steps:

p knmvn as conti litheOl S fasingot
ting, or straoperation
nd £il5li 1g, Figure and
6-46. A sthetrand caprimary
sting machine 1. The molten steel is brought from the
steel-making furnace in a ladle. A stopper
at the bottom of the ladle is removed, and
rol ing operation (\vhere ingots are turned into s1abs, blooms, or bil ets). The continuous cast- the meta) flmvs into a reervoir called a
tUl1disll. See Figure b-t-8.
ing pHKess produces a continuous length of 2. The tundish is filled \vlth the entire load
of steel from the ladle. A'u it is being
steeL There are three common methods of con-
tinuous casting:
. Clllved mold method. In this method,
the steel is roUer-straightened. See
iled,itrel ase themoltenste linaintocon-tinuo s atreamseries
throughaholein tsofbase.Thm)\'ing
este lfO\Vbouta molds.
Figure 6-47. 3. The hollow interior of each moM has in-
. Vertical cutoff 111et/lOd ThIS method UbCS a side dimensions correbponding to the
straight mold.
112 5eL""bon Three Fcrrou:> Metallurgy

\Jj Ladle of ,_ i Tundish


) regul
- fl.ow
JI Steel slab is
" formed in mold
.. .. ..
.. . \ Water
.. .. spray

Slab cools
as it is

Slab is
Figure 6-47" Tile cun'ed mold metllod is used 11l the continuous slab casting process. Molten steel in a
LadLe is teemed mlo a tundisfI, 'il,hich regulates the flow of tile liquid metal into a water-coolelt mold. In

tfIenlOLd,atlmshel formsa tilemoltmste lbeghts os lidfy.Thestrandthatisformedisfurthersolidfedbelm!'tl moldbyadirectsprayofwaterasit sguide andsup ortedlJYacun'tdrolerapron.Tilenp misdi'Vde intoSlovensegments.BelowtfIerolerapronistfIestraightmer-'withdraw l
section, which sUP1-JOfts, straightens, (Ind "l JltfIdrm:I'S tire cast strand as solidif cation is complete,t. The strand then t 1lK'i S mto tfIe slab proces mg area wht'TC it IS cut mto slabs of p,ntetcrmined Lel gths,
weighed, and stampett witl1 tdentification numlJels. (Betldehem Steel Corporation)
Chap\C'r 6 Manufacture uf lTOn and Steel 113
of steel onto a level table for cutting. See
_:::-..:. Figure 6.49.
-"'... ....::
-'.... 6. Flame-cutting torches cut the metal to a
predetermined length. In order to make a
(11"- I stonraightthecut, throller
e torches movetableforwarCffi1trols
d with the metal asthitheymove-
cut. A mechanism
)' ,'J :: ",,! ..
7 '"
ment.Afterthecutiscomplet d,thetorchesrehlrntothestartingpositonandbeginanewcut.Thsoperationishown
l1'.¥- -ii!!IlII. .
'.'f --- ==.- c- in Figure 6-50.
. "1 1i1 7. After the blab, bloom, or billet is cut to
k t.:-- '. . 'f;! -; I," ,.."" .. .\f, . ..J size, it is usually reheated, and then taken
to the secondary rolling mill for finishing.
The speed of a strand casting machine
ud,s ,,'., ..,>-",.
'\, --S; .'\. ,--t.
maytakesbe as faless
st as 15'than
per minutthirty
e. The entbeconds.
ire journey from the ladle to the cut ing machine
figure6-48.Al {-'fl eadcranepositonstheWIeofmoltenst'elmprepar tiOnforconti uo saslmg.TIletlmdisl is up ortedonfl 1ldepcn-
"Itly driilt'n ({If belOl1 the ladle arms.
When continuos cabling wa<; first intro-
duced, vertical continuous cating machines
were primarily used. Today, virtually all con-
tinuous casting operations in the United States
(lktJdellCln Steel COIporatioll)
arC performed by mold machines.
and thICmolds
kness of theare
slab, blopipes
om, or bil etthat
bejng focarry
rmed. Limng\vater
thE' walls Manufacture of Cast Iron
Cast iron-making furnaces convert pig
to coo) the outside surface of the metaL Iron to cast iron, Figure 6-4. The ingredients
, the mettheal urfametal
ce begin to "continuously
freeze," a thin skin is formmoves
ed. During this opera- used in this process are pig iron, iron or steel
scrap, limestone, and fuel.
There are thousdnds of cast iron manufac-
downward, and the molds oscillate up
and down in order to keep the meta]
from sticking.
turen., in contrast to the relatively fe\v num- bers of major steel-making centers. There are
several reasons for this:
-I The meta] then moves into the roller . Cast iron ib easier to cast into compbcated
apron. Thb area is curved and contains
bending rollers and a "pray apron. The
econdary cooling pI'O\..-esb takes place
shapes becaue of its high fluidity. Most steel, by contrast, is u in the \' Tfought
here. The me\al solidifies from the out- . Cast iron is slightly less expensive to
side skin tmvard the center as it moveb manufacture than teel, so more manu-
through the roller apron. By the time the facturers can compete.
metal reache the bottom of the apron, it . Cast iron has a superior dampmg ability
IS olid throughout.
5. Next, the metal enterS the straIghtener. The (the ability to absorb vibration). Thou-
sands of machine frames and other large
straightener contaillb rollers that reshape support parts for equipment arc made of
the slightly curved metal into a flat slab cast iron.
bloom, or biUet. It carric the long ribbon
114 Se.---bon Three Ferrou"i Metallurgy

- ,I' iV'II,It/-' "!.'li!!IH;f.Il_

_ ""6. 1 if' "4', . - 1 ----:-J
V'iIIi;or., '";Ji....V 'J-"', - \, I' -... I . "
. .' -'- ". jM '!J . " ""'"I".): -.' 'i: ,,_','N / " i -rrl ' \
..;:d... -,.! "' .. . /..,.. ' ...,..
.;. I( , ' '11 1 --' .1 ' '., ''11/;--'"""'
... I' .. -
"d! ..._/,. -I, '_ ---_____'.""...=..,.-"'1 it _'/.. - -" =
...., -=;:-.- '>11 . . --.

,_,J9. "_if ;",, --4'7,1';'--:;'" iJr

*. . Ii!'" '
. l;:t-".' ..
Figure{,-49.Aconti uolscastmgmad/ilemoUl'Slongrib olsofste ltoa1f'lC'1tableforcutf operations.Slabsarecut oexactlengths.Conti uo scastingcanproducetile angerslabsn{'(del forthehuge,wd -fte cotIsrequiredmhigh-sl1Cetlstampingandforming0l"('rations.(ArmcoIle.)
'I........;. ___ . U.

\t -,

l "-- .
-', ".
.-'. . --

; -"'.... .", .'"

. ,

. .. ";"'1-:><. ...
_\10 -, '"

"i;. J"
, Ii,
". ..-..:- -- I

Figure 6-50. Slabs are cut to required lengths by the automatic flame torclles on a continuous slab cast-
mg mad/inc. This two-strand catcr can com>ert 300 tOilS of molten steel mto heai'Y slabs in 45 t1linut. (BetfdehclI Steel Corporation)
Chapter 6 Manufacture of Iron and Steel 115

Therefore, many parts made of cast iron

re large and thick, as compared to parts that
re machined from steeL See Figure 6-51. ,.,
ir"'-, '

Cupol a For many years, t h e cupol a served

workhorse of the cast iron industry. Almost
as t h e

, . 'lSl I . ,
all cast iron \vas produced by the cupola prior
101970 The cupola is round and tall, Figure 6-52.
t resemblesabout
a small blas5't furninacediameter
. A typical cupola ions two orthethreeinside.
stories tal andThemea-
outer shell is made of steel. The mside is lined
with refrThere
actory bnck. are
All of thtwo
e ingredidischarging
ents are marg ed into thspouts
bottom of the cupola. One spout discharges
e top of the stanear
ck, Figurethe6-53. " , "t<It4.J , "y' .ir-r ;" .
cast iron. The other spout, located a little Figure 6-51. This diesel engine block is tl1-'ical of
higher on the furnace, provides the eXIt for the many large, thick parts made of cast iron. (General Motors Powertrain Group)
the slag. The ingudients used to make cast iron in
a cupola are pig iron, iron or steel scrap,
imestone, are
and coklayers
e. The coke sofupplscrap,
ies the heat, andpigis addediron,first.limestone,
Added on top of the
more coke, more scrap, more pig iron, etc
The close proxin1.ity of the fuel (coke) to the
metal ic ingredients makes the cupola a very efficient melting unit. Usually, the furnace is
continuously loaded and regularly tapped. This is a dif erent procedure than the one
tJsed by a steel-making furnace, \vhich man-
ufactures steel in batches. To accelerate the
heat in The
a cupola,furnace
air is charged thrnormally
ough a wind box andhasthroughatland
yeres. Seebottom.
Figure 6-54.
The temperature at the bottom reaches 3700"F
(20400C). The original charge of coke that
(orms thThe
e colct' Ilimestone
JCt in the bottom of helps
the furnace iflux
s typicalout
y aboutimpurihes
3000 lb. (1360 kg).
(such as coke ashes, and, and any foreign
matter) that enter the cupola with the scrap.
Alloys are added to the cast iron after it is
Figure 6-52. This dzagram ShOl 'S a pictorial rqJ- TeSe1Jtatiol1 of a gas-recOl'Cry cupola. (General
Motors H1'i1't.rtrllill Group)
tapped from the tapping spout.
116 Section Three Ferrous Metallurgy

\L - ,


-"'" .. ....-.,..-
1Ii'D "

, t' " ,.-
-:j ..t

)-. '
'\ \
-'_ ' r
r __----..w '. :.'
e-.- .

lf '' 1! ' 1t :"k


r . '\I .". -.
IL J)l f;f r
" t ',"'roP O .TAC'l
. '''"

Figure 6-54. Air is clwrged through tuyeres into

a cupola to accelerate tlze 11eating process.
, .'

... (General Motors Powertraill Group)

Figure 6-53. The ingredients for a cupola arc

charged into the top of the stack. (GCIleml Motors
Powertmin Group) . The companies could opt to go out of
buiness because of insufficient funds to

Electric Induction Fumace instal newer equipment. The choice \va::. a dif icult one. Each of the
In the 1970s, many cupolas \ven' removed
by cast iron manufacturers and replaced with
electric induction furnaces due to the threat
hree alteriron
natives \vfoundries,
as taken by thousandsbutof companiaire:pollution
._ It was a dif icult\vas
time for ownercon-s of
sidered to be very dangerous to the environ-
air pollutioManufacturer::.
n. The burning coke used by cupol\vhose
as presentedbusiness
a hazard to the envide-ron-
pended on the cupola were forced to do one
of three things:
ment.Largefoundries,ne dinghighton agesofliquid ron,retainedcupolasbecauseoftheirhighmeltingrateandeficency.Theyinvested
in the neces.. ]X>Uution control equipment.
. The companies could install very expen- A high percentage of the smaller cast iron
foundries took the second alternative and con-
sive cleaning equipment to reduce pollu-
tion emitted from furnace stach. verted to the electric induction furnace. Since
. Another uption \vas to replace cupolas the fuel used by this furnace is electricity, the
with another type of furnace that did not pollution hazard could be nearly eliminated.
rhe electric induction furnace pre::.ents
burn coke, usually an electric induction
furnace. This was aL'>ll a costly route. other advantages for cast iron manufacturers:
Chapter 6 Manufacture of Iron and Sted 117
inside ll1 the crucible) acts as both tDe c-ore of
. lt can be operated economically as a tht:: transformer and the secondary coil
small furnace, with loads of less than The metal charge (ebits the flmv of elec-
one ton.
. 'v1.etal melts very rapidly in an electric
induction furnace.
rical cur ent. Thaction,
us, heat is dewhich
veloped. Theserves
in- duced cur toent inmixthe moltheten metmetal.
a! creates a
Less oxidation takes place because of the The melting is very rapid and very quiet.
high melting speed. 10 peed up the mallufacturing process,
. There i less chLlI"\ce for alloys to boil off
during the casting process.
Electric induction furnaces are generall}
wo or morc elewhile
ctric indudithe
on furnacother
e can be isusedmelting
to produce casand
t iron. Onepour-
can be
und and small. The inside usually consisb ing cast iron. This provides a more continu-
ous and steady supply of molten mdal. The
i tshightemper-;atures.Thecrumateria1.
eofthecrucibleicoils uroundeofbva use of more than one furnace also allO\vs the
foundry to remain operating whiie a furnace
is being cleaned or repaired.
Jpper tubmg is wound around the refractory
material. The copper tubing acts as an electri-
oJ. coil and Sef\iCS as the heat source. pollution Control
The electric induction furnace acb as a Many safeguards are employed by steel
batch furnacE' (like a basic oxygen furnace) manufacturer!-' to protect against air and
rather than a continuous furnace (like a cupola). water pollution. Air pollution is controlled by
After the furnace is luaded, Figure 6-55, a high- dust catchers, electrostatic precipitators, and
frequency electric current is pas through the wet scrubbing systems. Water is cleansed of
Luge cop er coil. The coi} act as the primary roil of a transformer. The meta! charge on the oils and solids in settling basins, clarifiers,
and treatment plants before bcing retufnt--d to
its source or before it is reused in closed cir-
cuit water systems.

Test Your Knowledge

. .. ' WYltc your an..uJers 011 a scporntc ..heet of
. . . \ 'U I I "!1\ 1\ ;. ' '\' ,. , . ' J t {'-'1 I I
:," .y'.-
paper. Do not write in this book.
1. What ta<;k is perf()rmed by magnetic
-.... 1'" .
- ;......j. .(\
2. Which type of iron ore is mixed with a
binder in a balling drum to form pellets?
3. What three materials are melted in a blast
f,- furnace?
4. Which ingredient in a blast turnace com-
I, ',. bines with impurities to form slag?
5. When a blast fm.11ace is tapped, what
materia! is removed first?
igure 6-5 . TIle raw nfunlace
mteflnls 1lt'( {fe(General
d to pro- JUL' molteMotors
n If al arc dmrgPonltTtrain
cd into Olis electric 6. What is a pig?
7. What are the two most popular types ot
steel-making furnaces in Q'Ie today?
118 Section Threc Ferrous Metallurgy

8. What type of furnace is used to convert 19. Name the hvo types of furnaceb used to
iron ore to pig iron? produce cast iron.
9. Describe the basic oxygen process. 20. What is the ftmction of a tWldish in the
10. Why are lime and fluorspar addd to continuous casting process?
21. Stee] is the material that has been choben
basic oxy furnaces?
11. Electric arC furnaces are normally used to for a small link in the fuel injection mecha-
produce \vruch types of steel? nism in a space vehicle. Which steel-
12. Describe the electric arc process. making procesf' \vould probablv be
u.-'.t:>d to manufacture the steel for this
13. What is tecming?
14. What ib strip/,inx? application?
15. VVhat is 1I.1king? 22. You are involved in the design and con-
16. Why are ingots soaked? struction of a new steel-making factory.
17. Where are ingots taken alter they are re- Which teel-making process would you
moved from the soaking pit? incorporate into this ncw plant? How
18. Exptain the diffeff'nce behveen a batch would the geographic location of the
furnace and a continuous casting furnace. plant affect the selection uf the process?

'-= t >t .....1 ,,-"

: '4 / 1 , ' , I ".

. !,1!',

7 r I'.,
I .
. .

lUter studying tlds clmpler, YOll "{Dill be able to:

o Explain hm'\' a cr"stal i formed in metal.
j fl'f 'f./'
o Dicuss the formation uf space lattice
structures and dendritc.
o Describe the appearaJlce of atomb mside
;,,'.-r '.J.IJi'\:>!
.'« "

o Eplain how temperature affects the

grmvth of a crystal.
o Tell what is meant by grain size.
Have you ever admired the crYbtalli ne
pattern of snowflakes or frost on a \vindO\v?
",'"<'-i .."'.y,k}."f4)',:.?;rJ
-"',.-f. ".,
. oP- ""!I!(i. ;"." 't-
.(-<'. ,;.!Y,>B'""'.. .' '.'Cv'
. -...-? Yo:' /r fA' . r--.
Iron and steel form crystalline patterns the Figure 7-1. Tllis pl1Otomicrograpil repeals the
ame way snvapor
oW and ice foinrm ththeese strair.
500v. .- crychanges
stals and frost pattthe
erns begiliq-n as l-rystnlIinc pattem of a 1020 steel ferrite structure
ivitlt somc pearlite. Magnification is lOOX
(Bue11Icr Lid,)
uid water .vapor to solid crYbtals. Crystalline
patthanterns ofthefrost foutside
orm when wateair.r vapor con- denS€b on a window pane that is \varmer
Iron and steel melt into liquid form at
high temperatures. When thi liquid gradu-
ally cools, crystals slowly begin to form and
the steel solidifies. Tiny crystals form first.
They "-cep grO\ving until the crystals all tand
next to oneyOUanotthink
ht'r, "ethat
lbow toatterelbow.these
" See Ficrystals
gure 7-1-
sohdify, their atoms would appear in a regu-
lar, precise formation, or all mixed up? The
answer may surpric you, Figure 7-2. The in-
ternal structure is vcry regular and precise;
the atoms line up like a military band march-
ing in a parade. Different crYbtals may not be
Figure 7-2. Atoms il1 a crystal 01'I1t?ar 111 a nx/- lar, precise formation.
120 Sechon Three Ferrous Metallurgy

in the same formation with respect to each . Close-packed hexagonal.

other. However, the tiny atoms form long, . Body-centered tetragonal.
neat rows in all directions \vithin each cty-s.tal. Atoms assume many different crytal fOr-
mations, but these four structures are the most
common types in the study of metallurgy.
Space Lattice
The organized arrangement of atom in a Body-centered cubic space lattice
cryta I is known as a space latticc. Some cxam- The unit cell of a body-centered cubic span'
plcsarehown inFigurcs 7-5, 7-7, 7-9, and 7-11. lattice is diagrammed in Figure 7-4. The cell
Atoms in a space lattice are bO bmall that has a cubic shape, with an atom located at
they are invisible. Not long ago, scienti<;ts each of the eight comers. In the center of
\vere unable to see them with the most pow- thee eight atoms is a ninth atom, which com-
erful microscopes. Today, electron micro- pletes the formation. When a number ot
SCOpeb are used to vie\'\' particles as small as body-centered cubic unit cells are grouped,
ten billionths of an inch. This permits scien-
they produce the space lattice formation
tists to faintly see the atom. Re5t'arch is ongo- shown in Figure 7-5.
ing to develop more pmverful micnJSL--opes so H should be pointed out that the black
that someday ,ve will be able to see atoms lines appearing between these atoms do not
close-up. Not all metab have the same pat- exist. They are merely showll to help you vi-
tern of atoms (or space lattice). sualize the spatial relationship between the
atoms. The atoms arc also considerably closer
Unit Cell to one another than Figure 7-4 suggests. The
The mo<;t fundamental arrangement ot atoms depicted here as balls are packed so
atoms in a space lattice is the lInit cell. A space closely together that they nearly touch.
lattice is simply d group of unit celli.-per- Metals that commonly have a body-
haps biUions-in which each unit cell is iden- centered cubic formation include chromium,
tical. Each type of metal has its mvn space molybdenum, tantalum, tungten, vanadium,
lattice formation, so there are many different niobium, dnd the ferrite form of Iron_
baic unit cells. TC! help you visualize hmv unit cells be-
The following arc tour common types of come part of a space lattice, refer to Figure 7-5.
unit cells tor metals (ee Figure 7-3): Here, a series of body-centered cubic unit celb
. Body-centered cubic. are connected in a small space lattice Next.
. Face-centered cubic. visuali7.€ billions of these unit cells side by side

\ //

IIf.I d\r-f\f 7
" "

[tj;J \. ,: /'
, "

_:/ \ I
--!-\ ---- , ,: /' ,
;.-, ---- 1/ _-*' - -00
":'_L_ I

. ,/ -::--. -

I3ody-centered Face-centered Closc-packed

/ ., -t-:;. - - . :_ - -'

- "'

cubic cubic hexagonal tetragonaJ
Figure 7-3. Unit cells for common space lattice formations in metal.
Chapter 7 Crystal Structure 121

Figure 7-6. A jace-ccntem.t LulJic unit cellllCls

Figure 7-4. A unit cell for a lJ(Jtt1f-cetltered cubic
"pact' lattice.



Figure 7-7. A space lattice of face-centered cubic
Figure 7-5. A space lattice made up of 11<Jtty- t1l1itcells.
.entem1 cubic unit cellt..

Metals tnat commonly take tN., formation

are aluminum, copper, gold, lead, nickel, plat-
instead of just he tew that are shown. Bil ions of tnese cens are ne ded to form just one cubic
inch of iron.
inum, silver, and austenitic irOH.
Close-packed hexagonal space lattice
Face-centered cubic space lattice The close-/JflCked l1CY:ilgtl1lal space 'attice is a
Tne jace-centered Lubic space lattice is an- very brittle formation. It is found in metals
that have Uttle ductility. The structure of
otthener veeight
ry commoncornersunit cel found iand
n metalsonc
. The uniatom
t cel is cubilocated
c in shape, witinn atothems at atoms 1S quite differet from tne body-
centered and face-centered cubic btructures.
A close-packed hexagonal unit cell
micelld le ooff eacah oface-centered
f tne six faces. See Figure 7cubic
-6. Thus, thspace
e total numblattice
er of atomsisin th14e unit consists of 17 total atoms-seven on each of
two hexagona\ ends and three more in the
A spries of face-centered cubic unit cells forms center of the .,tructure. See Figure 7-8. A
tne small space lattice shown in Figure 7-7.
122 Section Thrcc ferrous Metallurgy

Figure 7-8. A closc-packeli hexagonal umt cell

11l1$17 total atoms.

close-packed hexagonal pace lattice is hown

in Figure 7-9. Figure 7-9. A closc-f'ach.'d l1cXaKOYll11 t>paCl"
Metals that commonlv take a close- lattice.
packed hexagonal space lattice formation
include cadmium, cobalt, magnesium, tita-
nium, beryllium, and Line.

Body-centered tetragonal space lattice

A lJody-celltercd tetragonal space lattice is
similar to a bodv-centered cubic lattice. How-
ever, the faces of each tmit cell are rectangular
instead of square, Figure 7-10. The same num-
ber of atoms (nine) make up a basic unit cell.
The space lattice for thi structure is shown in
Figure 7-11.
The body-centered tetragonal space lat- Figure 7-10. A lJildy-cmtered tctragonallimt cell
tice is the hardest, strongest, and most brit- re.'mbles a bo..iy-centered cubzc unit cell, but thl'
tle of the four space lattIce structure we have faces of tile structure are redangular instead of
discussed. There is onlv one ferrous metal
tnat takes this formation-=-martellsihc iron.

Space Lattice Structures in Ferritic iron (ferrite) takes the body-

Iron and Steel centered cubic space lattice formation. Ferrite
It may have surprised you to see tnat iron is basic iron at room temperature that has not
was li'ited three times when we discussed tne been previously heat treated
Austenitic iron (austenite) has a face-
four Jifferent unit cell types. Iron is unusual
in that it can take three different "pace centered cubic space lattice structure. Auy
lattice structures. As iron goes through a tenite IS the structure iron take at elevated
temperature change, its atoms realign into temperatures. In other words, ferrite becomes
new geometric patterns. fhis has a greal austenite when it is heated to a high tempera-
effect on the strength, hardne, and ductility ture. During the transformation to austenite,
of iron. the atoms are reshuffling within the crystal.
Chapter 7 Crystal Structure 123


figure 7-11. A lx1dy-centerro tetragonal space

"'''hen the autenite is allowed to slowlv cool,
II returns to tne ferrite structure. . Figure 7-12 Ferrite, austeuite, and martensite
Martensitic iron (martensite) has a bodv- irol1 structures are produrot by heatil1g, slow
crntered tetragonal space latticc. Martensite cooling, and qUl'llching.
is formed when steel is heated and then Ferrite Austenite Martensite
rapidly quenched. This process produces Body--<:entcred
e body-centcred tetragonal struch1ft'. Heat-
mg and sudden quenching tend to harden Body--<:entered l'acc-centered tetragonal
cublclattice cubIC lattice lattIce
metaL Therefore. martensite is the strongest, furmatlon format1on formation
hardest, and most brittle of tnf;' three iron Exists at EXists at Exists at
st:ructures. low high low
The heat-treating processc that produce temperature !m!,-=r tem...rerature
ferrite, austenite, and martensite arc summa-
"MaJ!;nctIC Nonn:i_g nIC
rized in Figure 7-12.
Wbilc most metals tend to have one baHic Less hardness More hardness
than £ssentJallv than
avstallattice structurc at all times, iron and mostste€ls no hardncs most steels
steel are different. Iron assumes different
Less strength More strength
properties when it is heated and its atoms re- 'han E'>5t:'I1hally than
align into different space lattice structures. moststeds o re.!?t mo&tsteels
ron can beistranot
into fer iteThe
, austenitcharacteristics
e, or martensite. In other words,of"irontheis not Ductile (NP2ile) BrIttle
Less internal Moreiflternal
three basic forms of iron are summarized in stress than stress than
moststcd<; (Not applicable) moststecls
Figure 7-13.
Figure 7-13. This chart compares the characteris-
Transformation tics of ferrite, austenite, and martensite.
emperatures . The lawn transformatiorl temperature is tne
As ferritic iron changes to austenite,
tnere are two important temperatures to
temperature at which tne body-centered cubic structure starts to change to the
124 Section Three Ferrous Metallurgy

face-centered cubic :.tructure. It is the tetragonal), instead of returning to ferdte. See

temperature at which ferrite start to Figure 7-15.
change to austenite. The lower transformation temperature for
. The upper tmnsformation temperature is the .111 iron and steel is approximately 1330 0 P
temperature at which the body-centered (72O"'C). The upper transformation tempera-
cubic structure has completely chaned ture varies for each metal. It may be as low as
to face-centered cubic. At this tempera- 1330°F (720°C) or as high as 2000°F (1l00°C).
ture, no ferrite exists. The iron structure
that occurs above the upper transforma-
tion temperature is 100"/f1 austenite. Crystal Growth
As austenite i cooled back down to room Assume that some iron is heated above its

temperature, it tarts changing at the upper upper transformation temperature. Assume,

transformation temperature. When the upper in fact, that it has been heated above its melt-
transformation temperature is reached, ing temperature. The iron has become liquid.
austenite (face-ccntered cubic) starts to change If the iron is left at this elevated temperature.
it will remain molten. If it is cooled, the struc-
back to fer ite (bodv-centered cubic). When the steel has cooled J to the lower transforma- ture will begin to slowly solidify, unit cell by
tion temperature, tne structure is 100'''0 ferrite. unit cell, until the entire mass of metal has
solidified and become ferrite.
The heating and cooling cycles are .,hown in
Figure 7-14. The tage:. of solidifying (or crystal
If the metal is quenched rapidly, tne aus- growth) are shown in Figure 7-16. The iron
tenite changes to martensite (body-centered begins in a molten state. When the tempera-
ture is lowered very lowly, one pot in the


100"" AusteOlre 100"0 Austcuite

Upper transformatiun temperature Uppcr transformation tempe-raturt:

r -Q()",.Austemte,lO" Ferntc
-70"" AllstenJte. 3O""Fcrntc Slow
r -<Jtr'., Al.1stenitc. Hr'" Martensite
-70"" Austenite. 30°" MilrtenSlte Fast co....hng
-50"/' Allstt'llltt:,Sfr"Martenslte or qllcnchmg
50"..AusteOlte,5O""Fcrrite J
+ 30"..Austenite,70",,[1crrite
RJsmg _ 10"" Austenite, 90".. Fernte
tempera tun.
. -30"" Allstenlte,7(,!'0 Martcnslte J
Rlsmg_lono Austcnite. 90".. Martensitc

lower transformation temperatille l.ov,.er transformation tempffature

IOU.... Ferrite LOO",.MilrtensJte


Figure 7-14. Ferrite IS tmnsformed to austenite Figure 7-15. Marter/silt' IS transformed to

and back to farite in stages between the IOil1f!r {justenite and back again in stages betu.'Ccn the
transformatioll temlJt'roture and the upper lmlocr transfomwtion tempert/tllre and tlte uppa
transformation temlJ{rature. transformatim1 temperature durmgfast cooling.
Chapter 7 Crystal Structure 125

otep 1 MolteD irofl (far above upper

Step 4 As tnc mcIal continue 10 coo1.
several colunlEs (called dcndntes) form.

o . Step 2. As moltefllrofl coul., slowly.

Step 5boufldancs
As ..ohddicatlon n('i!r C01l1plettoI\.
contact each utner

(0 @fJ Step 3. Brancl1es devt'lop <IS

the lion COfltlITUCS to cool

Figure 7-16. Tlte crystal growth procf's,>.

Step 6. After complebl"'l1 uf the <iOlid.fic,]t!on,
tile non NS Illi'Iny grains

mass of iron eventually cools enough to solid- perature is lowered very slowly, many of
ify. A unit cell is formed at this puint. As the
temperature continues to drop, mote unit
these colonies grow quite large. As the colonies grow, they grow larger and longer
ls are fotnem!>elv€s
rmed throughout tne molteonto
n iron. Sometheof thfirst
c!>€ newlunit
y solidifcell, ls at- brananchunfimshed
ied unit celand es and resemble a skelefrost
ton. Thesepattern,
sprouts or growiare
ng coloniknown
es, which resemblase
branches develop.
As more unit cells solidify, they tend to dendri t es. The growtl 1 of the dendri t es conti
solidification near completion, the bl)"lUldaries
n ues. A<:.>
.:ollect in group, or small colonies. If tne tem-
126 Section Three Ferrous Metallurgy

of some of the colonies contact each otner. Here

a moflict exists. The unit cell aXI of each
colony b different; as a result, the colonies tend
to copete for tne membership of the last few
formed.TheSIzeofeachcol n\'islimted uetothelargenumberofcol ies.Ther fore,rapidco lingproducesasmal grainsize.The
effects uf slow and rapid cooling on metal are
unsolidified cells. shuwn in Figure 7-17.
When the entire mass of iron finally be-
comes solid, there are boundaries beteen Effect of Grain Size
the colmlY groups. These buundaries are visi- Grain size has a profound effect on the
ble lU1der a mlclO5Cope. In fact, in many mate-
rials, the boundaries behveen colony groups
are visible to the naked eye.
h, hardness,it from
brit leness,one
and ductedge,
il ty of metathe
l.lf yuu tpaper
ake a sheet ofhas
paper andlittlestart
Each colony within a boundary is known
as a grain. A grain is any portion uf a solid that has external boundaries and an internal atomic resistance to prevent tne tear from moving across the entire surface. On the other hand, if
a tear is started on a sheet formed by several
lattice arrangement that is regular. A grain bits of paper glued together, Figure 7-18, it is
could also be called a "fulJy grown dendrite." more difficult for the tear to move smoothly
The term crystal has several meanings and rapidly across the sheet.
when it is used to describe structures. Most Meta Is behave in the same manner. Met
uften, "crystal" means tne exact same thing a
"grain". Huwever, in a technical sense, a cr}'S- tal can be anything from a unit cell to a ful y £lis with large grain size are easier to tear, break, or fracture. Metab with small grain
grown grain. Thus, crystal can mean grain,
unit cell, or dendrite.
si z e have a hi g her r e si s t a nce t o f r a ct u r e . A smal l cr a ck i n met a l has mor e di f i c ul t y muv-
Grain Size Versus Cooling Time
ing acrThe
oss a sersmaller
ies of small grtheains tgrain
han acrosssize,
one largthee opengreater
field, Figurethe7-19
The grain size uf metal is affected by the strength; the larger the grain size, the lesser
rate uf coo'ing after the metal is heated. If the strength. Therefore, in metaUurgy, efforts
metal is cooled very slowly from a molten are made to keep the grain size as small as
state, the colonies have more time to add on possible when strength is important.
members. Therefore, in slow cooling, tne Since strength, hardness, and brittleness
colunies have time to grow larger and larger, dre related properties, small grain size not
and very large grain size results.
[f, on the otner hand, the material is only yields better strength characteristics, but also results in a harder and more brit le mate-
cooled very rapidly, many mure colonies are rial. Therefore, if it is important for a material

Slow . Large ,. grain
cooling sizto'

Mcmysmallcoloilles gram
fast coolmg size

Figure 7-17. Slow cooling product'" large grain SIze. RapId cooling small grain size.
Chapter 7 Cn.'btal Structure 127

Formation of Crystals

Snowflake!" and different lowed. If the drug store does

not sell alum, ask tne drug-
Dip the cluster on the end j
of the string gently intu tne
ctures of metal are exam- alum solution. If tne string is
Ies of crystal formation.
.rystals can also be glOwn gist to recommend anotner powdered material tnat wil
crystallize. There are many
left in tne solution for a long I
period of trrne (such as sev-
hm several household prod-
ucts These crystals have the different materials that win eral days), tne crystal on the I
work, but alum is one of tne end of tne string will grow.
same behavior and appear-
easiest to find. The crystal serves as a "seed"
a\CeS that arc produced in for crytallinL" grow tn.
otals and otner structure&. Pour some of tIw' alum
into a glass of water and tir If the string is left in the
Purchae a small jar of solution for a longer period
until the water is saturated
alum from your local drug of tlrn£ (such as beveral
lore. Alum is a powdered or shghtly oversaturated.
Next, dampen the end of weeks), a large crystal will
naterial that is relativelv in- eventually form.
dpensive. It is commoly a string and dip it into a small amount of powered After Jgrowing the crystal,
JSed in home pickling and examin it::. shape. Are the
xmlams ammonium alu- alum until a small crYbtaUine
ball or duter of alum forms surfaces of tne crystal flat
-ninum sulfate. Warning: and mooth?
"-Iurn is hmful if swal- on the e hc ,tnng.

to have strength, a wise metallurgist will metallurgist win want to attain a large grain
attempt to produce a small grain size. If duc-
tility i more important than strength, the

Figure 7-18. Paper is more dif icult to tear when it is made up of many small pieces glued Figure 7-19. Cracks lIave marc dif iculty movmg acros a series of small grains tflan acros large
128 Section Thret' Ferrous Metallurgy

5. WI--uch common type of pace lattice is

Ferrite and Martensite Properties
not typical of any iron structure?
Some properties of ferrite and martensite 6. What is tne difference between a body-
centered tetragonal space lattice and
are compared in Figure 7-20. Note that the fer ite lat ice structure has the advantage of body-centcred cubic space lattice?
being more ductile_ Therefore, ferrite b more 7. What type of space lattice structure
easi1y machined and less prone to cracking. occurs in ferritic iron?
The small crystal structure of martensite,
8. What type of sprlce lattice structure
all the nther ha.;l.d, has greater trengtn and occur'> in martensitic iron?
hardness. Martensite b also more brittle and 9. Slow cooling will produce _Hon.
more prone to cracking and distortion than Rapid cooling \\i11 produce _ iron.
ferTite, due to the rapid cooling process re- 10. Explain the different space lattice struc-
quired to attain tne small grain size. tures and forms of iron that occur at the
lower tran.<;formation and UPPtT transfor-
mation temperatures.
11. What are dendrites?
C() m6()n of Ro()m- Temperature bOll
Ferrite Martensite
12. Whatisagra1l1? 13. What is another name for a grain, lUli.t
Grain size - CJmall - -
cell, or dendrite?
14. A large grain size is pn'K-iuced when
Coolinpeed S10\'\' 1- meta I is cooled _' A small grain size
St rength Lower Higher is produced when metal is cooled_.
Hardness Lower Hiher 15. What grain size is best suited for an
_Ductility Ductile Brittle
application in which strcngtn is more important than ductility?
16. In the manufacture of a motor home,
DistortlOn/ Little Greater cki tendency tendcncy which steel parts in the vehicle would
Machinabihty / most likely be made of ferrite and which
formability Good DiffIcult parts wold be made of martensite?
Figure 7-20. This tnNe compares two types of 17. What grain !-.izc would be best suited for
room-tem/Jl'rnturt' irOl1 structures. ferrite and the steel required in each of the applica-
martensite. tions listed below?
a. A long lever in an exerCIse machme.
b. The linkage partb in a hardness tester.
c. The framework for a seat in a space
Test Your Knowledge vehicle.
d. The framework for the support of a
Write your m15wen: on a separate sheet of
paper. Do not write in tI,ls book chiropractic adjusting table.

1. What is a space lat ice? 2. What is the most fundamental arrange-

ment that shows the basic structure of a
space lattice?
3. How many atom are in the unit cell of a
body-centered cubic space lattice?
4. Which form of i.nm has a faL"L"'-centered
cubic space lattice? How many at arc
in a face-centered cubic llilit cell?
-Io.o ..,.
t,l .t " :- i' '/_
. (I'J . Failure and
8 , iit. Deformation
. .
of Metal

Examples of frachlre and deformation are

After studying tl,is chapter, you will be able to:
o Explain what happens inside a piece of
metal when it break':;"
shown in Figure 8-3. The materials are shown before and after testing. Aluminum, low-
o State what is meant bv ddormation of
carbon steel, nylon, and polyethylene are ductile materials. They stretch considerably
o Summarize the different types of metal
failure or break.."lge.
before failure. Cast iron is a brit le material because it does not stretch before it breaks.
o Describe work hardcmng and it::.
applications. Ductility and Brittleness
A ductile matenalstretches much before it
When a material is stretched, it deforms.
ails (refer torTh"1terial
Chapter 4). The magnilacks
tude of theductility.
Joad at failure mayItbestretches
small Or great. A
Deformation b the amount tnat a matcrial in- very litt]e before it fails. .
creases or decrease> in lengtn when it is loaded 500 lb.
(when force is applied). Matenals uch ill> cast
iron, concrete, and peanut brittle afe very
unwil ing to stretch. They have lit le defor- mation. Other materials-such as aluminum,
y1c n e, and ruabberpiece
-stretch farofmormetal
e. They havefractures,
a high degree of defitormay
stretch a lot or it may stretch very little. The
roa tecial shown in Figure 8-1 break when
the force on it reaches 500 lb. Before it breaks,
the metal does not stretch at all.
The metal shown in Figure 8-2 also fails
y" hen the force reaches OO lb. However, be-
fore it faib, it stretches considerablv. TIlUt>, the amount of deformation that a m;terial goes
U 00
through before failure does not indicate the Figure 8-1. Tllis brittle materia! does not streich
total amount of force it is able to take before
before breakiflg.

130 Section Three Ferrous Metallurgy

L .f'S

i I

oQ,iginalAVlengthU rol}'elhyl<.... Nylon


-I .ft' i, r
500 lb.

Figure 8-2. This ductile material stretchl'S consid- erably before breaking.
Brittle matcrials fail in cleavage. Ductile
l .,
materials fail in shmr. The table in Figure 8-4
compares brittle and ductile failures. :t 0. .. " .
Cleavage-Brittle Failure
A material tnat failed in cleavage is shown

n Figure the
8-5. Breatoms
akage in cast simply
iron is a typicalbreak
example of tapart
his type of fafrom
ilure. In aeach
brit le fail- Figure83.Tht'sefiI'csamplesIwvethesamelcngth,diametcr,andgeneralconfigurationlJC{tlJ'etesting.Afterf acture"somcmaterials how
eater ductilihj than otl1ers. Polyethljlcnc has the
greatest ductility. Cast iran has the least ductility
otner andOccasionally"
separate. This type of failure appear s br i g ht , r
ductile materials may
o ugh" and gr a nul a T, Fi g me 8- 6 . and most brlUJClll':'6.

exhibit a ""brittle'" failure. This OCCUrS when

tne material i subjected to a rapid shock IOEld Shear will sometimes cause materialH to
and dOt:"'5 not have time to begin to stretch. "'neck down" or become tninner and longer

Shear-Ductile Failure near the failure point. See Fif;Ur€ 8-8. Shear failures appear dull, smooth, velvety, and
When a ductile material is IOElded and
Shear failures take one ot two fonn, slip
fails, the atoms slide past each otner within
tne clystals. This type of stress" called s11car,
causes the materia] to stretch, Figure 8-7. fmlures or twinning failure, depending on huw atoms are displaced within the material.
Chapter 8 FailuTc and Deformation of Metal 131

l..ompanson ot Brittle d Due Failures

Brittle Failure Ductile Failure if if

;: :;re Cleaag j Shear

<,:,tretchmg M ch
.!:';;e NegligIble stching
\-faterial ast Iron Low-carbon

l'yumples ete R:lr

figure 8-4. This chart compares the characteYls- tic.,; re1akd to brit le and ductile faiIUit'S.
shcanng shearing
action action

Figure 8-7.1Mtemal shenring causes a ductile
material to stretch. The c(frct of shearing is
exaggemted in tlris illustratiml.

Figure 8-5. This brittle cast iron sample failed in

leal 1 aKe.



Figure 8-8. Steel and nylon both Irave a teudCl1cy

to "neck down" btji.1re failure.

Slip failures
A shear failure for aluminum, a ductile
material, is shown in Figure 8-9. This type
gure 8-6. A brgranular
it le failure occursappearance.
when atoms break apart and separate. This tY1-J(' oj break has a of shear failure is known ab slip. Instead
of dividing in the middle of a crystal, the
132 Section Three Ferrous Metallurgy

iI!".... ..,.<" r
.' . ,

r-...... -... --f-.....__...- -.... -..--,

....., >j
/' ".

. . .- ., ,1.."

Figure 8-9. Aluminum is a ductile material that '\.'".,
fails by shear.

atoms slide past each other and move down T
one row at a time. As they slide past each
other, the part deforms, becoming longer and
thinner. Eventually, a break may OCCur.
Slip takes place along certain crystal lines Figure 8-10. A slip failure mopes fmward one
caned slip planes. When failure occurs, an en- step at a time.
tire block of atoms moves over another block
of atoms. This action takes place through scv-
eral thousand atomic layers. The movement hvinning deformation than slip deformation
moves forward one step at a time, Figure 8-10. Some metals deform as a result of both hvin-
A body-centered cubic space lattice structure I1mg and slip.
that has slipped two atomic layers is shown
in Figure 8-11.
As a materia I stretches, several slip planes
may be in action at the same time. A group of
slip plancs is callcd a slzp band, Figure 8-12.
When many slip planes are present, it ic; rela-
tively easy for deformation to OCcur. When
fewer slip planes are involved, it is more dif- 00000.0 00
ficult for slip to occur. The metal is stronger OOOOO'Q,OOOO
but less ductile.

Twinning failures o 0

Til'inning is very similar to slip. Both are

considered ductile failures. Both result from Figure 8-11. This body-centered cubic SlJace
shear. Some meta Is are more susceptible to lattice structure has sliP11Cd two atomic layers.
Chaptcr 8 Failure and Deformation of Meta] 133

...," .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. :f:-o/
,,,............ .#,
'it::::::: :::. ,,o,

/: : : . . . 'V /' : :
/' /- ".: : : : : : : : : : <; 4". " . . if;

, ;f: : : : / <f : : :
,/'./-/!....... Q)'/ <'-

, ".i,:&y

.. .. .. o... .. .. .. .. ....

!,lv'IlL . . .: J,'l '.
.....r.... Figure 8-13. A twinmng failure l11il(1ll'l'S 11m
'mirror lines (or twinning pl£mes).

Figure 8-12. A slip band is a group of slip planes tl at form during failure. Twinning causes a new space lattice struc-
ture in the nvinning region. This region may consist of miHions uf atoms. Essential y, a
In nvinning,. a zooe within a crystal struc- long block or plane of atoms is displaced. The
ture is deformed from its original space lattice atoms move forward and slide past other
formation. The two lines that separate the de- atoms (in a pattern similar to the movement
formed zone from the original structure are of atom in slip). As nvinning progre"'es, a
known as mirror lines or twinmng planes. See separation failure may a I!->o take place.
Figure 8-13.
The formation of atoms on either side of Large and Small Crystals
the twinning plane is the same. If a mirror The size of crytals (or grains) in metal has
were placed on the edge of the nvinning a direct effect on the strength and ductility of
p'ane.. the image in the mir or wou1d be iden- heal to the orientation of the group of atoms the material. This was covered in Chapter 7. A materia] with small crystals is stronger than a
behind the mirror, Figure 8-14.
134 Section Three Ferrous MetalJurgy



Figure 8-14. In a twinningfailure, the illlagton

either side of the mirror line IS identical.
" . . . . . ' \; \t\:;:.
Figure 8-15. Sl1p IJCct111les more difficult wilen
the slip plane reaches tilt' end of a crystal.

similar material with large crystals and is able

to resibt more force. SmaH crystal rcsist crack-
ing better. Slip and twinning heJp clarify why
small crystals formed in quenched metal arc much more resistant to failure than the large
this is true. crystals formed by slow cooling.
If slip or nvmrung occurs, a slip plane can
move rapidly across a crystal. However,
through small
when the slip plane [caches the end of a crys- tal and must continue acf()<;S a second crvstal. crystah.
fracture or additional slip becomes mor dif-

ficult. See Figure 8-15. The second crystal will
have a different direction of lattice orienta-
tion, so the crack must change direction. Fail-
ure be;:'comes more difficult each time a crystal

boundar y b r e ached. Ther e f o r e , a mat

capable of resisting fracture than a material
e r i a l wi t h many smal l cr y st a l s i s gener a l y mOTe
through large
with large crystals. See Figure 8-] 6. crystals
The effects of crYbtal si7.e emphasize the
impmtance of couling metal rapidly. With Figure 8-16. Small crystals can noslst fracture
rapid cooling, small crystals are formed. The better than large crystals.
Chapter 8 Rnlure and Deformation of Metal 135

. \ ark Hardening
As materials afe stretched out ot their
3rru..mal shape,p aisuniqdiscussed
ue phenomenon caned vrbelow.
Consider two machine parts. One part is
subjected to a force. Before it breaks, the force
is removed and the part relaxes. The force is
again applied, then removed, and the part
relaxes. The force is again applied, then
k hardcning (or strain hardening) occurs.

removedbeforefaiJuretakesplace.Iftheap licationof orceisrcpeatedoverandover,doyouthinkthismaterialwil ev ntualyfail

' D T DDO _! ,. ,- I ,- I 3000# 3000# 6000#

D' S'',;'Ie O
at a lower force level than a second machine
part that is loaded until failure the first time?
In other words, does the repeated application and removal of force weaken a material or 5500#
mengthen it?
When a materia] receives a tew preliminary t

4>plicano ns of force, it work hardens. This make:;; Figure 8-17. Work hardening callses a material to
h materia] stronger and harder (although tl1f' ffl.'Comt' str011ger, harder, and more brittle.

material also becomes more brit le). Thus, in Figure 8-17, the work-hardened machine par Test Your Knowledge
AI) wil brfailure
eak at a highertheforce first
value thantime.
the second machine part (Al), which i!-> loaded Write your an5lW'S on a separate sheet of
The reason why work hardening occurs is paper. Do not write ill this book.
1. Define deformation.
no ful v understood. However, it is sumcd lhat as toms are forced into a stretched POSI- 2. Name two metals that have a high degree
of ductilitv and resi&tancc to frachtre.
ion, they tend to loctakec:,
k into a formatpake,
ion that is ssome
tronger thanatoms
the originalareformattorn
ion. As 3. Name on metal that shows a very low
degree of deformation.
4. If a metal stretches before it breaks, is it
from their origina' lat ice structure and move to a new spot in between lip planes. Then, morc likely to fail in shear or cleavage?
5. Under what circumstances will a ductile
they become a roadblock and prevent one material fail in cleavage instead of shear?
plane tronl sliding over another. Thus, there is an. increase in strength and hardness, but some 6. What type of failure occurs when the
atomb inside a crystal slide past each
ducility and elasticity is lost. other, one row at a time?
In manufacturing. the phenomenon of
work hardening is often a blessing. In processes
such as forging, extruding, drawing, and
7. What is a slip band? 8. What are twinning plal es?
9. What is the difference between smal1 crys-
rolling, "cold working" takes place as the tal structures and large crystal struchtres
in relation to deformation?

metalisrepf'atedlycompresd.Thead edstrength atoc ursasaresu1tofworkhard-€flingcanbeconsider danaturalben fit.

136 SectJon Three Ferrous Metallurgy

10. Wnich 1S generally stronger, a material portant consideration in tne deign uf

with all, fine crystals or a material equipment.
with large crystals?
15. Discuss two applications where the de-
formation of materials would be comnd-
11. Which is generally able to resist cracking ered an asset.
better, a material with small, fine crystals
or a material with large crystals? 16. Diocu..'-S two types of manufacturing in
which the deformation of materials
12. What size crystal structure is formed by would create a severe hazard.
rapid cooling?

13. What is work hardening? 14. Di.<;cuss three medical applications for
which deformation would be an im-
\ :Jtf-oJ/
" ... #-l('A.-"

J IIlI".ti 1./'./. ,";

9 Iron-Carbon



material at room temperature.

After studying this c1wpter, you will he able to: Steel that ie; heated to an elevated temper-
o Decribe five important structural fOTm ature is called austenitc. This was briefly dis-
of steel and Iron.
o Identify the transformation regions and cussed in Chapter 7. When austenite is cooled
other major elPlllcnts of an iron-carbon from the upper transformation temperature
back to room temperature, it is transformed
o Use an iron-carbon diagram to determine into other structures (such a ferrite, cemen-
the stcel structures that oo__--ur at various titc, and pearlite).
combination of temperature and percent-
ages of carbon. Ferrite
o Explain how different cooling tcchmques Ferrite is ahnost pure iron. It has Jitile ten-
are used to produce mechanical proper-
ties in steel.
o Use an iron-carbon diagram to determine
dcncy to disolve carbon when carbon IS added. Therefore, lit le carbon i in fer ite.
Since carbon gives steel the ability to become
the temperahtrc to which teel must be
heated to cause it to harden. strong and hard, fer ite i a very weak steel. Fenitc exish. at low temperatur,> only, and it
is magnetic.

Structural Forms of Steel SteeJ Cast Iron

Steel is iron with morc than m-:. carbon

butbonle.; thincreases
an approximately 2°from
Steel behaves very dif erently as the amount of car- c2c
to 2"... Cast iron ":011- . .s .
tams mOfi::' than approximately 2"0 carbon.
This was covered in Chapter 5.
Structural forms of steel are common)y ] 211
.€ .g
'" (j U

cJa<;sified by the amount of carbon in steel. Steel that has very lit le carbon is called fer ite.
I) 0.40.8121.620

Percent Carbon
Figure q-l. Steel that has approximately 0.8 0 /0
carbon is called pearlite. Steel that has a Figure 9-1. Steel call be clasified ns {t--rrite, pelll ilte,
carbon content above O.8o contain some or cementite, {h--pt'11dlllg 011 its pern'Jlta'{' of mrboll.
..t'nlcntite. All three of the"e forms of steel- Cast lro" ("(lIIwins more tl11m lwproximntcly 2""
ferrite, cementite, and pearlite-represent the
138 SectIon Thrl'{' Ferrou,> Ml.tallurgy

Cementite (al'>O called iron carbide) is actu-
ridges. If there I lL than 0.8% carbon, the steel wil be a mixture of fer ite and pearlite,
ally a compound of iron and carbon. Its chem- ical formula is FeC. Pure cementite contairu. andcacbon,
only certain itparwill
ts of thebeviewawilmixture
appear as ridges.ofIfcementite
the bted ha more thand
an 0.8°
6.67 fJ £) cacbon by :vt:'ight. Howt:'vcr, dif erent amounts of cementite are present in steel that pearlite. Figure q-3 shows the relationship of the composition of steel at variou& percent-
contains bt:--tv.'een 0.8"" and 2.0"£) carbon.
ages of carbon.
As the percentage of carbon increases,
more and more cementite is present. At 6.67f/"
carbon, tht:' entire mixture is cementite. I3elow
Austenite is the structural form of steel
approximately 2°£) carbon, the aHo) is stil considered to be steel; above that percentagt:', that occurs only at elevated temperatures. It
is not magnetic.
it becomes cabt iron.
CCll1t:'ntite exists at room temperaturL', When steel is heated to an elevated tem-

and It is magnetic. After heat treatment, cementite can become very strong and hard. perature and becomes austenite, its structure changes from body-centered cubic to facl"-
-, I
Pearlite is a mixture of ferrite and ccmt:'n-
tite. It exists at room temperature and i mag- -g 'E'Q)
netic. Under a microscopt:', pearlite appears as '"g
Q;;.S H.E
. eries of laridges
yers, rmbingare
an aericementite,
al view of newly plowedandfields.the
Sce Fig",...hite
urt:' 9-2. The Q; ;E .1
Q; .w..8 'reu
.p.. p..

ridges arIne festeel

r ite. Thus,with
pearlite approximately
is made up of alternating laycr0.8':'"
of fer ite andcarbon,
cemt:'ntite. o fL2 04 0.6 o. 1.0 12 14 1.6 1.8 20
rercen\. CTbor\
the ferrite and cementite are sufficiently bal-
anced so the entire microscopic view contains
gure 9-3. TIl S candhart showsl'Cmentite
tile effect of dijfLin'ft'l t persteel.
centages of carbon on the pn'SCllce offer ite,
, 'o<' _ 'IFc';i-.,r-;- '. "-.$ ,c hJ."!<..;,1-'

f: ( -- -<. j ferrite Aut('nite

. Low temperahtrf' . High temperature

II'p -" r . . Body-centered cubic . Face-ct'11tered cubic
I, I; II I '

, - .?- , f
Figure 9-2. Tltis miclOscopic view 1l.''ilt'als the
<= c ' ..... A, 6;J '---- -___ "".v: '
,. ---- I.... - -:.--
/" '" I I:::--
Figure 9-4. This diagram COl1lpaff:>S tile struc-
tural differences in 10w-telnll{'111Wre and high-
11('arlite structure ofW9S steel. Magnification is
SOaK (BI/ellier Lid.) tempcrahlre steel.
Chapter 9 Iron-Cinbon Diagram 139

however, you must know the following

centered cubic. See Figure 9-4. If it is slowly cooled back to room temperature, the face- informatio:
. The temperature of the steel.
centered cubic struchtre changes back to body-
centcred cubic and the steel becomes ferrite,
pearlite, or cementite.
. The perThere
centage ofare
in the stimportant
eel. . The history oflines
heat treatshown
ment for the stoneel.
Iron-Carbon Phase Diagram an iron-carbon pha5£' diagram. The lower of the two lines is the lower transformation
An iron-carbon phase diagram is used to
jentify the different structures of steel that ttemperatures
emperature line. The upper were
line is the upperdiscussed
transformation teinmperChapter
ature line. Transf7.ormatAtion
occur at various temperatures for a given
the lower transformation temperature, the
centage of carbon.version
A simplified verissionshown
of the diagraminis shown in Figure 9-5. An
Figure 9-6.
transformation of iron to austenite begins. At
the upper transformation temperature, the
from the iron-carbon phase diagram, you transition to austenite is complete. tell what structure iron takes at any Any steel structure that occurs above the
gh en temperahtre-if you know the percent- upper transformation temperahtre line is
age of carbon present. The diagram allow">
"'OU to determine whether the steel is ferrite, pure austenite, Figure 9-7. Any steel tructure that occurs below the lower transformation
temperature line contains no austenite. Iron
pearlite, cementite, austenite, or any com- bination of these four structures. First, structurC1' that occur below the lower

"C "F

1100 2000
1900 e,\..e ./ '\.'t'
1000 1800

- 1nOO

f '/ ,e<' 1J.\.\-o #'<;\O
g- "00 1500
1400 I
700 1300
Lower tranSfOrmation temperature line

600 1100

0.9 1.1 1.5 L.7

0.1 0.5

Percent carboll

figure 9-5. A basle Iron-carbon phase diagram. A temperature scale for steel is on the vertical axis. TIle
pt'reel1tagt' of carboll is on the Ilon::llntal a..1:is.
140 Section Three Ferrous Metallurgy


;1,,;1 ..00
...Iv 1392'" ......-



I ligblr'"

i doMryrod

! -

"2 -

&'{" I
-p)L 3001
jot '" :-
'" .....- Verypolor olk7w


1 2
L \ J_ _...L-.I
o ro m
CEMoone comENT IN W!lGtfI rucEm

Figure 9-6. An il dustrinl verSlOn of tl e iron-carbon phase dingram. Tllis dwgram is extended to mclude higher temperatures. Note tl C dif erent ypes of crystal structures sJIOWI1 at left. (StrUe1S Sciel tif c
Chapter 9 Iron-Camon Diagrillll 141
"C 'F

1100 2000
1900 ,\e Austenite ,<>,'\:v."te
lOOl) 1800

< 900
'\:J1.1. c 't\5
# , { ( e ; ) . \ ) . 0 < : - , p I P " "
- 800 1'i(J\)

700 1300 Lower transformation temperature line


600 1100

1.1 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.9

0.1 0.3 0.5 0.7 U.9

Percent carbon

figure 9-7. Ab.cll'c tile upper transformatiOn temperature line, steel fakes the structure of austenite.
the steel is below the lower transforma-
iIDsformatioJl temperature Ime are fer ite, arlite, cementite, or combinations of these tion temperature, it contains no austen-
_ ructures. See Figure 9-8.
In the two triangular areas between the ite. Point A is nearly midway between the 100'\, fer ite li t1ng lin and the
pper and lower transformation temperature "1e5, a mixture of austenite with either fer ite, ]pearlite.
00"" pearlite line. The material is approximately half fer ite and half
arlite, or cementite occurs. See Figure 9-9.
:.t the left of the ferrite and autenite transfor- 2. Next, assume the material is heated to
ldtion region is rl smaller triangular area. about 1CXXY'F (54lfC) at point B. What
.his is thf' 1001j ferrite region. In this area, all structure is it now? Is it austenite, ferrite,
f th:o Glrlxm added is dissolved in the iron. pearlite, or cementite? Since the steel i still
below the lower transformation tempera-
there is no pearlite or cementite.
ture line, no austenite is present. Point B is
Using an Iron-Carbon Phase Diagram sltheightly cl1oserOl)"to the 1(ferrite
XJ" fer ite liline
miting linhas
e than itm0\7cd
is to the lUlJ:o pearslightly
lite line, sintoce
One at the best wa,,'S to learn to use an

mm-carbon phase diagram is to take a sample of steel and fol ow it journey through the tNow
he right. Thiassume
s structure contthe
ains 50"material
0-51 "to fer ite isand heated
49o-scr.n pearltoite.
dI.1g ram . The following steps illustrate how to
read a typlCal diagram and identify different
5IrUctures of steel.
I Assume that the steel is at room temper-
1330°F (720"C) at point C. At 1330"F, the structure is 52[o fer ite and 48n, pearlite
ature and contains 0.4"" carbon. This is (point C falls just to the left of the 50";' fer-
represented by point A in Figure 9-10. Since rite/pearlite line). However, at this
142 Sction Thrce Ferrous MctlIurgy
almost completely changed to austenite.
temperature, some key changes start to take place. Above 1330°F, the pearlite Perhaps 10"" ferrite is left, and the rest of

hangB' to austenitate_ Theora temperature
etical y, all of the pearlHenear
changes to taustenite
he material ha changedandto 10"'0
austenite. Thus,ferrite.
the steel is now appoximately 90 0 ,.
7. At 15500F (8-ltK), the material is at point G.
In realil), the change occurs over a mall
r a nge of t e mper a t u r e near 1330° F ( p er - haps 13I O ° F - 1 350° F ) . It ha been completely transformed into austenite. No fer ite or pearlite lemains.
8. As the material is heated higher to
4. Next, the material b heatec1 to 1360°F 1700 0 P (930°C) at point H, there is no
740°C) atapproximately
point D. All of the pearlite has52ochangedferrite
to austeniand
te. The s48"u
tructure is further structural change. It remains
]OOo) austenite.

Now, assume the steel is slowly cooled
5. At 1400°F (760°C), the steel is at point E-
back to room temperature, Figure' 9-11. If
It is closer to the l(}ff'o austenite limiting
the material is slowly cO(Jled from 1700 0 P tc
line than it is to the 100"'0 ferrite limiting
l5500F to 1400°F m{d all the way down to 10000F, it wil change bacK to fer ite and
line. Therefore, the material now contains more austenite than fer ite. It i approxi- pearlite The structures occurring at vari-
ous temperatures during cooling are th(
mately b..1° autenite and 37:" ferrite. same that occur when steel b. heated (in
6. Just before the steel reaches the upper revere order). Thus, when the steel is cooled
transformation temperature line, at point F and reaches 1550°F, the structure is still
(at approximately 145frF or 7':I0 o q, it has

.C "F

noo 20()()
.....s-e 1900 v,e
1O00 ,"t'<>''C
1800 ..;o<c<t:

t <'
800 150U
900 ,o<'i"
Lrro \.(,.'"
,"i 1400
700 1300 Lower transformation temperature line

600 1100 Pearlite


1.3 1.5 1.7 1.0

0.7 U.9 1.1
0.1 0.3 O.'i

Percent carbon

l dq,ictedshinudures
tI,is diaoffC11i
gmm woulte, I1f!arl
d not iIW{1f?
te, andbeen
te occur
the loo1t.T trm1sfncli.r mntion line.
or quendl
Chapter 9 lron-Carbon Diagram 143
'-C F

1100 2UUU

1000 1>'00
,cl" x.. .cf'
" , - . C " , < c f . ' { l >
1700 austenite
\.....3 Cementite
.-s>....'" and

region ff5"5 austenite
-v transformation
0 BOO Tegion

700 1300 Lower transformation temperature hne


bOO 1100

1.1 u 1.5 1.7

0,1 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.9

I"!..-"Tcent carbon

A mimxture of austenite with }i7nte, pearlite, and/or Ci'l1lentite occurs between the UPlifT and
l ation tempernture liut'S. 71Jl' material dl'pictCtf il tbis diagram would not have bel,l
rt'i.,iouslt; heat trclItf'd or quenched.
"( 'F

noD 200!1
1900 ,,\e (
1000 l8O!1 ,\.;!.'f>-...q:
l700 _o«'"
, 9Qn 3'C-C

! 801) 15110 1400

700 BOU

"00 1100

0.2 0.4 0.6

1.3 1.5 1.7 1.9

0.3,e: v.I ,Percent carbon

igure 9-10. Tl is irol1-£(*63arbon phuaseodWFerritd37%
.\'Tam shows Ih£ journeAustenite.
y ofO.4".u cmbon ste**48%
l wilen if is heFerrife/52'
ated to an di" i1ted tC;'lr pPearlite.)
erntl re. Tile n/nterial dl'plcted in this diagram would 1 0t hap(' h."' pm.jously Iwat ht'J.1h,1 or
144 Section TIu-ee Fcrrous MetallulJ{y

100'\, austenite. At 1400°F (point E), the steel cooling would have already started to change to
again is 63"0 austenite and 37"" ferrite. At ferrite and pearlite, this steel continues to cool
1360 c F (point D), there is again ..m',., austenite rapidly in order to achieve a martellsitic struc-
and 52"0 ferrite.
ture. At U(x:r:F, il temperature at which steel
At 1000"F (point B), the entire steel ,>truc- tmder slow cooling would have completely
ture has changed back to ferrite and pearlite changed to fernte and pearlite, this steel contin-
and no austenite remains.
ues to ccx)l rapidly, on its way to becoming
martensite. A completely transformed marten-
Transformation to Martensite sitic structure MIl be reached after fast cooling
If steel is heated aoove the upper trans- to approximately 2OIJ-5OCJ<'F (depending on the
formation temperature and then rapidly type of steel). This will be Ji in mme
cooled, its internal structure changes to detail in Chapter 13.
martensite instead of ferrite. pearlite, or
cementite. Martensite was discLLssed in Identifying Steel Structures
Chapter 7. It is a very hard, brittle form of The iron-catlxm phasecliagram in Figure 9-13
steel. The process of cooling sted rapidly is identifies locationf: of different ">tructllJ:CS of
knOVlrt1 as QIlCIlChiIlX. This technique is cov- steel. The ten points shown are plotted at a
ered in Chapter 11. variety of temperatures, and they indicate dif-
Rapid cooling produces structures of ferent types of steel with various percentage
steel that are harder than the structures of carbon. Can you identify the structure" that
obtained by Iow cooling. The effects of cone.pond to each of the points? Which sam-
quenching teel that contains 0.4"'0 cilrlxm ples are austenite? Which are ferrite? Which
are shown in Figure 9-12. At point H (1700"'F), are pearlite? Which are cementite? Which
the steel is 100"" aUstenite. At point C ..amplcs are a combination of the four?
(15500F), the stmchue is stil1100"u austenite. At The samples at point A and B have been
1..l(X)°F, a temperature atwhich ,>teel under slow heated to temperature above the upper


1100 21J1JO

]<1(1U 100'. ..." ("IJ......,;)

IOIJO Im dlJsterute cP ....c<t regIon

'"0 1700 ('o-"""'i)>;Y.

'''''' e'
E 800 150ll ",,<I".
'" 1.100
7110 1300

wo 11011

0'. 2.0
01 (l ,\ o.} I]
I P('rcentcarbol1

Figure 9-11. This diaRram falhvs the path of O.4U carbon-steel wIlen it is cooled to room temperature. The material depicted inlhis diaRmm would not hat'L' been pn'1.iol sly heat treated or qUl'nched.
chapter 9 lron-Carbon Diagram 145
- -
Effects of Heating and Cooling
Different Types of Steel
Increase the temperature which type of steel should
Obtain five smaH pieces reach its maximum firbt?
of the fmn..l.ce to 1400°F
_ each of several different Did the samples
-pe<> of steel, including 1018,
5, 1095, 4140, and 52100 (760°C) and hold it for 15 minutes. Remove one sample quenched at 1300"'P show a minimal change in hardness?
1. H other types of steel are of each type of steel and
Normally. the hardness values
ilistituted, try to obtain an plunge the samples immedi-
osorb-nrot tt indude low-
rbon.. medil.lm-caroo n , and
atelv into cold water. Record
the hardness values when fthe
or theseoriginal
samples shoulmaterial
d incIe<L-t:;€ slighad
htly. However
, i f
the samples have cooled
igh-carbon steel. Repeat this procedure at previously hardened, there
First, test the hardness of may even' be a deerea.'.:;e in
Mhofthesampwsonilie 1500"F, 1600°F, and 1700°F, hardness. If the furnace tem-
P'OCkwell C scale and record recolding the hardness values
he hardnes.... values.
Load an the amp'es into
of all the samples in chart form.
Plot the hardness values on perature is not accurate, a major increase in hatd11ffo<;
an iron-carbon phase diagram. cauld take place for some of
metallurgical furnace and Did the hardness of each these samples.
leat it to 1300°F ('i(X)0C). After Did your results agree
tolding this temperature for sample increase 8b the
quenching temperature was with your expectatioR"i ba..",ed
on the different tr.msfOlma-
, remove one pple of eachphmge
type of sttheeel increased? Was the tempera-
ture of maximum hardening
tion temperatutes on an iron- carbon phase diagram? Why
different for the variom;
mples into cold water. After types of teel? According to can you expect to see some
e ..amples have cooled, the iron-carbon diagram, discrepancies?
record each hardness value.

lU00;' cementite location (at 6.6T.. carbon).

transformation line. Thus, both structures are point G i closer to the WOo 0 pearlite line than
t(KJ'''" austenite.
The sample at points C, 0, E, F, and G point 0, but botn points arc closer to this line
contain no austenite becaube they arC below tccmentite.
han they are to the 1cxrpoint
.;, cementiteClocathas
ion. Poinant 0 cont89:11
ains 81 u ;, pearratio
lite andof19':
the lower transformation temperature Jine. Since point C is far to the left and hab \,'ery lit- pearlite to cementite.
Point H is in tne ferrite and austenite
iIe carbon,pointit is almEostib100'located
!:, fer ite. A smonall perthecenta0.8";'
ge of pearcarbon
lite is also prline,
esent. transfonnation region. Theoretically, all the
.tuch represents 100':0 pearlite. Point F is pearlite has changed to autenite. Since this
sample is approximately midway between
Jilfway between the pure ferrite and pure the pure ferrite line and the pure austenite
lite lines. Ther0 and
efore, itGib madeareupboth
of proximlocated
ately 50°, , febetween
r ite and 50'\) pearthelite. line, its ratio of ferrite to austenite is 50:50.
Point K ib also in the ferrite and austenite
10000 pearlite line (at 0.8" carbon) and the transformation region. However, point K is closer to the pure fer ite line than point H.
146 Section Three Ferrou& Metallurgy

"C 'F Fast cooling Fast cooling Fast cooling

1100 2000

WOO 1800

. :ctl. ",-'3-\.o"t e \.e«e
1700 yOO
: \jv'f
." o{f:' \.t?><:j
8[)() 1500
'" 1400
700 BUll
1200 .! Lowc '-;:;:st mation ",mpem, ",} Ime
600 1100
HXJO f Fast coolin:gFast
Fast coolcooling
ing to marto martellite
teJ.:ite to marFast
e to martensite

oI01211f1i8 1.9

0.1 0.3 1 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.7 PeR,,"t carbon

Figure 9-12. If steel IS quenched rap,dly, It chC/lIges to martensite instead of ferrite, p....arlite, or cementite.

The 5<1II1f'le at point K contains about 67";[ ferrite After rapId quenching, the samples at
and 33°, austerutc.
Pomt J is m the cementite and austenite pomttains C,33'"
D, 12, F,austenite
and C would be lOand
O"!" mar67"'u
tensite. Themartensite.
sample at point K woulThe
d con-
transformation region. ThetJfetically. there is
no pearlite in this structure, since it lie aoove
the lower transfofIIlJtion temperature Ime. sample at pomt H would contain 50'}" aus- tenjte and 5mu martensite. The :-;ample at
Point J is closer to pure austenite ( o car-
bon) than it is t(l pure cementite (6.67'() car- poicontain
nt H would cont19"ain 50°martensite
" austenite and 50''"and
te. The sampl e at
poi n t J wouJd
Ixmt Its structure can be calculated as 81""
austenite dnd 19"" cementite. This calculation
would be c%entiallv identical to the calcula- Transfonllation Regions
tion that produced 81:19 ratio for point D. There are S('\Teral important transfonl1il-
The samples of teel at points C, 0, E, F, tIDn regions on an iron-carbon phase diagram
G, H, J, and K could have been transformed in addition to the regions previously drot5St'd.
into martensite (iru.tead of ferrite, pearlite, These regions arc usro to classify basic struc-
and cemcntite) if they had been rapidl} tures of steel that are produced when material
is heated and cooled. Thev are disl-LlSsed below
quenched. Heating the samples above tbe
The eutectOld point l£ier to the point where
l ppcr transfonl1ation temperature Jine, fol- lowed by rapid quenching would have given the upper transformation temperature line, the lower tranformation temperahtre line, and
them a martensitic structure.
Chapter 9 Iron-Carbon Diagram 147
"c F

1100 2000
. ,\<$'-e Austenite 1\,v.

1000 1800 region '1:'l).

" 1700

l/iOO f
} . > ( : . & - , 0 «' " "
i HUO 1500 1400
700 1300 Lower transformation temperature line
600 noo .

1.1 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.9

0.1 0.3 0.5 0.9

Percent carbon

Figure 9-13. The ten plotted poi1lts il1 this iroll-carbon phase diagram represent diffrn'nt sled structures.
Tile material depicted in this dll1gram ll'flUld not 11I1l't' bren prelJiously lleat trmted or quenched.

he pureonpearlitthee 1i.neiron-carbon
(at Ogu catbon) intersephase 9-]4. nus point is an important loca- fproduces
ct. See Figurediagram. or bteel. Quenching of austenite produces martensite, whi]e s]ow cooling of austenite
ferrite, pearlite, or cementite. The
common effects of different quenching tech-
1he transfer temperafurr range compromises
the two regions bchveen the upper and lower niques illl the tranbformation of steel are dis-
cussed next.
transformation temperature lines. Refer tu
Figure 9-14. Both of tnl" triangular ,)1("38 are
transfonl1ation regions. Here, either austenite Temperature Change and
. changing to onc of thstmcturc
e low-temperaturise strchanging
uctures, or a fer iteto, pearaustenite.
lite, cementite, or Mechnical Properties
The hardnesb, strength, brittleness, ductil-
The l1ypof'ufectold region is the region to ity, and grain size of steel arc gH?3tly affected
by different heating and cooling methods. 1£ a
tishe leknown
ft of the pureaspearlihypoeutectoid
te (O.8() carbon} line, Figuresteel.
9-15. Any sThe
teel thatIlYlfal s in xrclI
this regio-n sample is heated to the austenitic range and
then quenched very rapidly, marten<;ite
forms. This n1akes the steel hard and strong,
lectOld reRim1 is to tne right of the 0.8"" carbon
with small grain size. However, the bteel is
line. AnyAsstdiscusRrl.
eel that fal s inearlier,
thj regiondiffeTent
is known asratCt>
oid steel. also brittle.
If a sample is heated t<l the austemtIC
produce diffcrent typeb uf transformation rangc and then cooled very slowly, it will
148 Section Thrce Ferrous Metallurgy

'L "I'


1000 1800

'\.-$-X- ",2>\'v-".C ,&<'
2>.(. .0" #\{\<S'
..../i" \,". Transfer temperature rangE'
'\J'- (transformatlOn regJOn)
800 1500
'" 1400
7(10 1300 Lower transtormation temperature line

600 1100

0.7 O.Y 1.1 1.3 1.9

01 0.3 0.5

PerCI-'I1t carbon

Figure 9-14. This lrol1-£arbol1 phase diagram SllOWS the eutecfoid point, the upper and h};:L'l'Y transforma-
tion temperature lines, and the transfer temperature range.

. If both strength and ductility are re-

change to fer ite, peclrlite, or cementite. These structures are comparatively softer, less quired, special al]oys can be added to steel. The addition of allovs wil increase
strong, and more ductile than martenite. the cost of the material. Often, however,
They have a large grain SIL:e.
Hardness, strength, ductility, and small the higher cost is justified if both trength
and ductility are very important.
grain size are gcneral y considered to be as- sets in steel. Thus, it would be Ideal to heat A summary of the relationship between
and quench a material in a manner that pro- quenching, slow cooling, and the characteris-
duces hardness and strength without a loss of tics resulting from each process is given in
Figure 9-16.
ductility. MetallurgisTh generally need to choose
from the following three ,>ituations:
. If the material must be hard and strong, Improving Hardness
the steel is quenched. However, this ma- Hardness is \,'ery important for many ap-
terial will also be brittle.
. 1£ great ductility is requin'd. the materiallS pleral
involving steel. . Hardness can be improved by applying the fol owing two gen-
cooled slowJy_ Then, the steel will be very
machinable and formable. However, it . Quenching speed. The fabter a steel is
'-'\Tin not have good strength or hardruc'SS quenched, generally the harder it will be
qualities. after quenching.
Chapter 9 Iron-Carbon Diagram 149

"C 'F

1100 2000
1900 Hypoeutectoid Hypl'reutectoid -<.e \.#
j[)OO 1800
regiOn ..s-(:f.{'O'

1600 ZJ
e' \\'1'
. o < : - \ . o < . ' i . . " . t : ?
"- 1500

2 800 HOO

700 1300 Lower b.n1sformanon temperahtre lin!:'

1200 :
bOO 1100 I
1000 I

1.1 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.9

0.1 0.5 0.7 0.9

Percent carbon

Figure 9-15. Steel tllat falls to tile left of the 0.8°.0 carbon line IS m tile hl/pocufectoid rCKion. Steel that
lllS to the right of the line is in tile Itypercutecfoid region

Thus, if an extremely hard steel is re-

Compari!'>on of Coolin Methods
Quenching woli
Harder Softer
quired, a high carlxm content should be used and a rapid quenching method should be ap-
plied to cool the steel.
tronr ! trong
Brittle Ductile

Ferrite-Pearlite- Test Your Knowledge

Martensite Cementite
Write your mJSWf'lS on a separate sheet of paper.
Small gram SIZ( Large grain izc Do lWt write 111 tillS l(Jk.
1. Cive the name of tne structure of a solid
fIgure 9-16. This table shows llOll>coo!hlg mtes solution of steel at 1200°F that contains a
Ilffed the IlRrdncss, strl'1lgtll, ductility, structure,
(md grain size of sted. very small percentage of carbon (perhaps O.lJ2",). Assume that this steel has not
been predously heat treated.
2. Name the structure of iron at room tem-
. Percentage of carbon. The more carbon perature that contains 6.67°u carbon. As-
sume that this metaJ has never been heat
present in the steel, gencrally the harder treated.
it will be after quenching.
150 ctlon Three Ferrous Metallurgy

3. Name the structure ot a soJid solution of 11. What point on an iron-carbon phase dia-
steel at room temperature that contains
O.8" carron. Assume that this teel has gram marks the intersection of the upper transformation temperature hne, the
ne'\'er been heat treated. lower transformation temperature line,
4. Approximately how much carbon is in a and the pure pearlite line?
sample of pure pearlite? 12. Any type of steel that contams less than
5. What is austemte?
6. What structural change occur when steel 0.8"'u carbon is called steel Any type of steel that contains more than' 0.8':u
carbon is called steel.
is slowly cooled from a high temperature to room'temperature? 13. What structural fonn of steeJ l consid-
ered to be the hardest and most brittle?
7. Of the following types of Iron-carron,..
which is the hardet: austenite, cementite, 14. What characteristics are as,>nciatcd with
ferrite, or martensite? small grain size? What characteristic is
8. Iron at 1800 0 P is rapidly quenched in absociated with large grain size?
water. What structura I form of iron- 15. Name two general guidelines that are
carbon is the most predominant in the used to improve the hardness of steel.
result if the alloy contains 0.Q'"?0 carbon? 16. Sketch an iron-carbon phase diagram.
9. Assume a sample of steel is cooled from Identify the low-carbon steel region, the
an elevated temperahlre to 1200"F and medium-carbon region. and the high-
contain", a very small percentage of car- carbon region.
bon (perhaps O.2°u). The steel has not 17. Discuss three automotive applications
befll previously heat treated. Name the that would require quenched steel.
new struchrral form of the solid ""olution 18. Discuss two fields of applications where
of this steel. quenching of steel parts would seldom be
10. Assume a sample uf stecl has been rapidly necessary.
quenched from an elevated temperature to 19. Name two part tor a medical application
that would require rapid quenching.
room temperature. It contains 0.8";, car- bon. Name the structural form of the solid 20. There are eight points indicated by the
letters on each of the iron-carbon phase
solution of this steel.
ChaptL'l' 9 Tron-Cilrbon Diawam 151
K. HI Half ferrite and half
agram shownof isteet
n Figure 9-Using
17. Thesethe16 poinletters
ts correspondintothedif ereleftnt strucol-
ctural cementite.
L. 11 Haif ferrite and half
umn for this question, match each point to
onc of the 22 structures listed in the right col- M. _12. Over 60 u b austenite with
some cementite.
umn. Some of these structures may be used
more than once; some may not be used at ail. N. 13 Over 60°;, austenite with
some ferrite.

Assume that all points on the diagram repre- sent tecl that has been slowly cooled. not r. 14 O\-Tcr 6£Y''u cementite with
some austenite.
A. 1. All austenite. Q. _15. Overaustenite.
600 ferrite with some
B. 2. All pearlite.
3 All martensite.
R. 16 Over 60°,<, pearlite with
C. borne austenite.
D. 4. Almost all ferrite.
_17. Over 60opearlite with
E. 5. The maximum cementite some cemcntite.
possible in steeJ. 18 Over blY"o pearlite with
F. HaLf cementite and haU some pearlite and some
austenite. austenite.
G. 7. Half fernte and half 19 Over 60" territe with
austenite. Sl.1ffie ferrite and some
H. 8. Half pearlite and half
cementite. 20. A combination of austenite,
1. 9. Halt pearlite and haLf pearlite, and cementite.
152 Section Three Ferrous MetallUl1;)'

Slow COOllllg Slow cooling Slow cooling

'C 'F I I
1100 2000 1900 \....
l00u 1800



!'OO 1500
'" 1400
7UO 1300

600 1100

0.1 03 0.5 0.7 11 1.3 1.5 17 1.9

Percent ca1."blm

Slow cooling

L "F -r' -r
1100 2000


" 900
1900 CD


" 1500 E 800

'" 1.]00
700 L300

6oo 1100

U.5 0.7 0.9 I.' 1.3 1.5 1] 1.9


Percent carbon

Figure 9-17. USl1lg the Iron-carbon phase diagrams for Que:,.tioIJ 2V, match end, of the points to the cor-
responding structure of steel. The material depicted in tllCst' dingrams would not Ilfj've bem pm'iously
heat fY't'ated or t]lIC1lched.
" :a I
I If '-' ',1 1 .
10 ., P.,;! '. . . T' Microstructural

.. I''
. , ....
"ifter studying this chapta, you will be able to: r
o Compare different structures of steel ,,"-....
under a microscope.
o Describe the microscopic appearance of
ferrite, pearlite, cementite, austenite, and
f . :to;,
o Recognize ferrite, pearlite, cementIte, . .. e1, . I
austenite, and martensite by looking at ., . "
their microstructurc.
o Prepare a <;ample of metal for microscopIC
'. t, _
observation. y-l, .....
When steel i mab-rnified, it has a much Figure 10-1. Microscopes arc /lSCtt to examine
different appearance. This can be seen by look- metal samples. (Bllelller, Ltd.)
ing at steel through a micrope, Figure 10-1.
pl Y is the proct:'$s of criseatincaned
g a photograaph fphotomicrograpll-
rom a microscope image. The re- of needles. Austenite looks like broken concrete
sl{jb. The appearance of each type of struc-
Many types of microscopes are equipped ture is diSCUSSE'd in the fonowing section
...."Jt:h photomicrographic att.lChmcnts to show
the microstructure of metal, FIgure 10-2. The Ferrite
microstructure of teel magnified 500 times Ferrite appears white in color in the
pooX) is shown in Figure 10-3.
microscope, Figure 10-4. The small, dark portions are the pearlite <;truch\rt's containing
Microscopic Appearances some carbon. If only fer ite appeared in the <;tructure, the microstructure would be solid
Ferrite, pearlite, cementite, martensite. white.
and austenite look very different from each
other under a microscope Nickname!> are Pearlite

used for particular characteristic. A fer ite structure resembles patc1lcs. Pt'arlite looks like Pearlite is made up of fernte and cemen-
tite. This was covered in Chapter 9. At 0.8'\0
a series of ridgcs. Cementi e resembles white cou try roads. Martensite has the ap earance carbon, the content of ferrite and cementite is
154 SectiOn Three Ferrous Metallurgy

.... -, -
.... 'r-'

'II 5

f -.......
t ' .o
Figure 10-2. Any of the steel structures sl/()''1I in this chapta could be seen and photos-mphed by usinK
these metallursical microscopes. A-An upright microscope with a plwtagraphic attachment.
B-An tn'verted microscope. (Nik(m, Inc.)

and pure cemcntite eXlsts. The dark lines are

cementite. The light-colored ridge are ferrite.
See Figure 10-5.

Ferrite-Pearlite Structure
A composition of ferrite and pearlite in
..teel produces a very striking image. The fer-
rite appears white. The pearlite appears dark
or laminated. The amount of pearlite present
is proportional to the carbon content of the
steel. That is, as the carbon content increase.
the amount of pearlite in the structure also
It can be very interesting to compare sitnl-
lar structures of diffcrent types of steel. In
comparing 1018 steel and 1045 steeL 1045
balanced and the entire metallurgicaL struc- stcel has a hig.her percentage of pearlite
ture appears as pearlitic ridges. At higher per- because it contains mOre carbon. There is
centages of carbon, a combination of pearlite approximately 0.45 U j, carbon in 1045 steel
O1Clpter 10 MicTOstructural Analy<;is 155


,''i. ""'-". -. Y1.R
to."')": : "''fJ
. ".

f " ,&r ,' 'J. .'t, f._., t

t-t....;;.;.,,, J
Vj. ;Ii\?:..:
t i l e
. '.....
11IfBucle bl1l.e,rkLi1111. " " arc
A. \ B
pearl i t e .
,-seleltr itlhestamount
A-A 1020 st e
eel samplof efesrriwitet/.IFerri
el f e rri t e st r uct u re wi t h som, -

carbonte apptcOl-l'utersntI bel. . owhiw Iteppatproxichesml tienlyits0.mi80"crost". The

pearl i t e . Ml g l l f i c at i o n r
i uct
s l u
o re.
(Shuns, Inc.)
d,) B-The mioosfructure afsteel with V.15°" carbon content Vit'l 'Cd at 700X »1agnificatwn.
and ap-PTOXlmately 0.18 u o carbon in 1018 steel. ,
Due to its lower carbon content, 1018 steel ha i . -,\",f
a lighter microstructure. Remember, a the
carbon content increases, the amount of
pearlite increases. This produces a darker
microscopic view.
The photomicrographs in Figure 10-6 illus-
trate the different ap-pearances of ferrite-pearlitc
"J -jr *":
rf1'" " . ';
, < ":Jt:.. >

structures. A"" the carbon content increases, the :e ,), :-- / . "
white ferrite portions diminish and change to @. ."__' !/':.P..:,!,d
darker, ridge-like pearlitic structures.
In Figure 10-6A, at just 0.06% carbon, the
Figure 10-5. A pJlOt01Wcrogrnph illustrates the
steel contains almost all ferrite. As the carbon pearlite structure of 1095 steel. Magnification is
5ooX. (Buehler LId,)
content increases to 0.20",-" as shown in
Figure 10-6B, small colonies of pearlite start Cementite-Pearlite Structure
10 appearSince
as ridges0.36"/"
even thoughcarbon
the fer ite isstrualmost
cture is stil prexactly
edominant. A cementite-pearlite structure is shown in
halfway bernreen pure fernte (£1'" carbon) and Figure 10-7. The portion of cementite resem- bles small, white country roads_ The pearlite
pure pearlite (0.80'-"" carbon), approximately stilI appear in ib characteritic ridge pattern.
half of the structure in Figure 10-fiC is white As the percentage of carbon increases, the
ferrite and the other half conists of pearlitie amount of cementite increases.

. When the carbon contentand
reaches the
0.530u, aswhite
shown in Fiferrite
gure 10-6D, tishe pearre-lite Martensite
Martensite can have many different micro-
duced to thin sections. At 0.86"'" carbon, the scopic appearances. However, it a1ways has a
ferrite has disappeared, Figure 1O-6E.
156 Section Three l-eTTous Metallurgy

Ferrite-Pearlite Structures

lOOOX 500X
Sampe ontent

J ,'."-'.
": ;.... ;. , . ....'.. --
...."\ ,,.. "
A 006 0 0
.< ,. \ -'... - 't,.'
'. .;":....1:
. T t ." " ... .
- - *

'III .-......'(.. ",,"'...... -

B 020""
... r:
.'t', "
::' ..t-,' . :.-.r..'"'f
t..>.1o" iP :' .:r !
_, .--."t:: t __...{JI........

, " -:,.,;(;-"<;..
1 »;0., .:../."-i "
,,,.. if' ,. \."""- .
. " . J.
. ......'r." \ \.. ,
-"..-!!'..---.... .' ,. ._"'.':;t'.t. ")l"" ';.(

t'./ ',:>;..W,c;. '-u ';::" ,t""".(..':it)r ......

g.! '';;;'
c 0.36 0 0
4J.J' S.f
;,' ...t':f.\ 101
tt & ' -5,ri..:i:
........ .,. " 'fI8'
,.. .
, . k .... ",..., Y'\V'

D 0.53'}"

> <':I\" fr" __.. .y. ' 4 t :J ' ' , .I . ).' -1
c'; :'-_"-
. " ".iifl",..":%.,,
'to r..'-'1 't.,
;..; ."
. . -

r. .J. 11. S -:;J' ..... 'iJ<'
,.I ,>..r,:'l. r.,'
- . ...:£.
0.86" ....
. :!if "';" ,fN -
.. ;. t 't.:':
,.. ,,:. "'1;_

Figure 10-6. TIU!Sf! photomicroglaphs show various types offerrite-pearlite structurl'_ Notice that the
amount of femte (wl,ite) decreases liS the carbon content increases_ (LECO Corporation)
Chapter 10 (,TOstructura1 Analysis 157

1:,,_..'.. ":;;
?.'" '_. ',.!:. :...i,.-I!Ct?
... ,!, ,,- .

0#,.. ...r..#1
. .':,-.?:
. :'.: ..:,"i'
. :" . ' . '
-i-Jt-;:.': '%i ]

., .tJC'" ,., ."..';<.,.
'" '-':..' . .. .' -
. 'I:'.::&!i..:
Figure 10-7. A cementite-11f'arlite structure.
Mllgllification is 7VOX. (Sfruers, IncJ ""t'." "-...;" .,., ..; ';:.
fine, needlelike appearance. The sight of martensite under a microscope gives the im-
pres:,ion of pointcd lines, Figure 10-8 Those
\hat look like 5Ill.dll needles in Figure 10--8A
''. :;-.":
ationnd Figuofre 10the-8B womicroscope's
uld lo k similar to the larglens
er ne dlewere
s in Figureincreased.
10-RC if the magnif ca- "').,-:.. . "< B

It is often important to observe the grain
'/': .::.':"
, ''''''''::--:!''.{I ".. :'\,! -
size and grain boundaries of austenite, even if III!II':'.....; j,'t'.{"" -.
t is going to be transunder
formed to maratemicroscope,
nsite. You may wonder since
how austeniitteoccurs
can be pho- ...."q.:--
. _-=
"I \..4."1';0
<!"" . '/" ...
only at elevated temperatures. It docs nut I
j' ...
.1f1. \"ib.
,I:...'. '''' It,j
,., ,...... -."1'
,. ""-
. ,tj ....
seem possible to operate a microscope at
1700°F (930°C).
Austenite can be retained at mom temper-
td. ....J...
-.:./ i .".
I ...."'..., ..
i. (
ature by adding special alloying dements to C
the materiaL A heat treatment technique that Figure 10-8. Martensite has a needlelike appear-
uses carbide tu "decorate" the austenitic ance. A-A 1045 steel martensitic structure uith
boundaries can also be used. This makt:'s the SOf1ft' baiHite. Magnification is SOax. (Buddf.'r Ltd')
grain boundary lines visible. B-A martensitic structure llit'wed at 70aX
A photomicrograph of austenitic stainless magnification. C-Thc nll1rte1lsitic "l1l'edJes"
steel is shown in Figure 10-9. The structure re- can be clearly seen at this greater magnificntion.
embles the broken slabs of an uld concrete (Stlllers, THC.)
158 Sechon Three Ferrous Metallurgy

. The laminated portions are pearlite.

. The very darkest sections are bamite. This

,//-"V".d' ._.,:..'
. 0 y,""
j]: : . '.- .". .... ". -.- . /./ - . . tr1.1cture will be discussed in Chapter 13.

Sample Preparation
'I.. ,' \- or Before a sample ot steel can be viewed and
/1 f ",. "'v,
Figure 10-9. This 303 stllinkss steellws an
photographed, the metal must be carefully pre-
pared. The surface viewed under the micro-
austenitic structure. Magnification is WOx.
(Buehler Ltd.)
scope must be completely flat and smooth. Any ir egularity wil appear as a dark surface and
confuse attempts to analyze the struchrre. In
order to obtain a smooth, flat srnface, several
highway. These "slabs" have a slight resem- preparatory steps are required. These steps in-
blance to ferrite. However, a ferrite formation clude grinding, molding, polig, and etching.
has a rounder and more continuous curva-
ture than austenite. Austenitic lines appear
straighter and more abrupt. Although the mi-
crostruchtres of ferrite and austenite look simi- To prepare a sample for viewing, the sur-
lar, the phyMCal behavior of the two structures face is ground to remove the rough scale and
is still far different. any gross imperfections from the surface of
the material. See Figure 10-11. After rough
Structural Combinations grinding, fine grinding i.. performed on
Many times in metallurgy, a heat-treated .
material may have a combination of structure<>.
Ar1 eXdmple uf thi is shown in Figure 10-10.
The following observations can be made:
The white areas are ferrite.
. The lighter gray area are martensite.

c. .-1'....,.. ?
. ---


Figure 10-10. This sample of1045 stecl n"l't'llls a Figure 10-11. Roogll grindmg lS the first step in
mnrtenslte-bainite structure uth same fernte and preparing a metal sample for microscUl-Jic exami-
pearlite. Mngnificatioll is 500X. (Buehler LtdJ nation. (Buehler Ltd.)
Chapter 10 J\1iCWbtruchual Analysis 159

... '."" Ii.



I .,_T!.- ic. L f
.... ""'-.,. A

,,-- -=""F==e -I.

.... -

I -ti. r'

Figure 10-12. Fine gril dinsfilftl er impmves the .:,urfaCt' of tile sample. (BuellIer LtdJ
.".o ,
'.j' ...

I ,f

Figure 10-14. This hydrcrulic molding press is llsed

...II to mOlmt metallurgICal samples. A-Removal of
the flpper assembly YCl't'tlls the molding afro of the

,. ,V - .-. II
pu'ss. B-Addmg material is Ol1e of fhe first steps
for "wIding the sample il1 plastic. (Strucrs, IncJ

the sample. This improve:> the surface until
.. "'" 4. it bl.:'gins to shine and slightly reflect light,
Figure 10-12.
, "'.

...;- Molding
" The metal specimen is usually molded in
plabtic after TOugh grinding. St>e Figure's 10-13
and 10-14_1hrnakes the sarnplecasier to hold

throughout the polishing procedure. General y, it is best not to mold before grinding the sam-
Fithisgure 10-press.
13. Metal sa(Buehler
mplesnre molded itdJ
in plastic during preparation of the sample using ple. The sample can overheat during grinding if your fingcn> arc not touching it
160 Section Three Ferr01L<; Metallurgy

details of the microstructure more visible.

Polishing Etching i the final step in preparing sample
Metallurgical "iamples are commonly for micrcopic analysis. When acid is
polished in two staC5. First, rough polishing applied to a smooth surface, some metallic
removc the imperfections that grinding has structures will be eaten away by the acid
left. Then, fine polishing produces a mir or- like finish on the surface of the . teel with .111 more rapidly than others. The areas that are
dissolved most rapidly by etching appear
scratches removed. See Figure 10-15. as dark shadows under a microscope. The
surfaces that react slowly to the acid have a
Etching lighter appearance.
Etching involves the application of acid to It takes practice to etch a metallurgical
a smooth, polished metal !-'urface to make sample properly. The procedufC im'olves the
folJO\'l:ing steps:
1. Clean the sUffaCt' with alcohol. Figure lO-lb. the sample air dry_ Alcohol evapo-
rates rapidly. Wiping it off may leave
smear marks on the surface.
2. Apply acid to the sample. Acid can be

j-....f applied by dripping acid onto the sam- ple, by submerging the sample into a dish

\ ,,:.

.. ...
r l
" , "'f!..t-.. ..11
.. d
j" 'I' ,
. ':0> II

Figure 10-16. An alcohol rinse pn->pan--s tile sur-
face for etel1ing. (Buehler Ltd.)

" ;
"" "", :i

F, ,
, --

--...__; t B
Figure 10-15. Polislling metallurgical samples is
a two-step plOCCs..<:;. A-Rollgh polishll1g remon's
imperfections from grindmg. B-Fine polishing
renlO1'f'S all scratches. (Buchler Ltd.) Figure 10-17. During etching, acid is sil' 7bbed onto tIle sample. (Buehler Lld')
Chapter 10 Mcrostrudural Analysis 161
identify the microscopic structure of the steeL
of acid, or by swabbing an acid olutioll A comparison of surface finishe5 througtl
onto the sample. See figure 10-17. The each step of etching is shovm in Figure 10-18.
amount of time the acid should be kept in
contact with the sample varies consider-
ablv for different materialS. The time re- Comparing Light and Vark Structures
quired may \'ary from a few seconds to as Thefe b no absolute rule to use in identify-
long as a few minutes. lng the microscopic structures that appear light
_ . After the acid has had enough time to (white) and dark in steel. However, there are a
erode the surface, wash it away with wa- few general rules that can usually be applied m
ter. It is best to put the sample under a microstructural analysis.
stream of running water to remove aU The structures that have the greatest per-
traces of acid. centage of iron or ferrite wiU generally appear
-\. A"'- soon as the ample is removed from white. The structures that contain a gTeater per-
the Wilter stream, wash it again with alco- centage of carbon wiH generally appear dark.
hoL This will help prevent water marks There are exceptions to this rule, tlowever.
A nitric acid soJution in methyl or ethyl Cementite, which ha a higher percentage
alcohol i l)ften U5£'li.. of carbon than peadite, appears white despite
After etching is completed, the sample is its carbon content. The pearlite in this struc-
ready to be '7iewed under a microscope. A ture appear darker.
properly etched surface win allow you to


).. c

e ]O-]A-SIB. Eilrgfahtceseparafteartegristnadigesng ofwitIhI.180tat/urgrigirtapaper.
t samplB-Surf
e preparaceatiafon.teMagni
r gri n fincatg IwiOtnhfo240r eachgritsurpaper.face
C -Stlr/Uce nfter grinding with 320 grit l"per. D-S,a/Uce nfter gril ding with.j()(} grit pnper. E-Surfa ce
aftergindingWit/I6n gritpa er.F-Rougl potisl ngre">CStileInlperf ctiolSproducedbygrmding.foretchingafterfinepolis ngwitha0. 51I an alu1IilU1l oxideOilI icmc/otl.H-Etc1lingwithacid
This Stl jUce has been polished with a 6 Ullcyon dial lond abmsi, , on nyton cloth. G-Thc surface is rcndy
n'l'enls details in the microstructure of the sample. (Buchler UdJ
162 Section Three FCIIOllS Mctallurgy


\., . -'\I=.iI -".; ...... . A



. ,,", !
.' ,- '.


Figure 10-18. (contmuedJ

11. When a metal sample is prepared for

Test Your Knowledge microstnlctural analysu., four steps are
Write your anS'Wl'rs on a separate sheet of required. List the steps in correct order.
paper. Do flot write in this book. 12. List three method.., used to apply acid to a
1. What does 400X mean? metal sample during etching.
2. Which would show more detail and a 13. Make a freehand sketch of a micTObcopic
closer view of a piece of metal. ,OX or structure that would result from sJnw
200X magnification? cooling of 1045 steel. Sketch the structure
3. Define photomicroKrophy. as it would appear at approximately SOOX
4. Which steel btructure appears as patches macation.
of white in a photomicrograph? 14. Sketch a miCTllSCOpic truch1Te of 1045
5. Describe the microscopic appearance of a steel that ha been slowly cooled after
ferrite-pearlite structure. heat treatment. Sketch the structure at
6. \Alhich percentage of carbon would gen- approximately 1000X magnification.
eratt:' cllightt'l" photomicrograph, 0.18°" 15. Sketch a microscopic stmch.1n:- of 1.8°/0
carbon or 0.36': carbon? carbon steel that has been slow cooled.
7. De,>cribe the appearance of a ferrite- Sketch the structure at approximately
pearlite structure that contains 0.4°" 500X magnificatioll.
carbon. 16. Sketch a microscopic structure of 1060
8. Which steel structure appears to be made steel that has been quenched in cold
up of white country roads and ridges? water after being heated to 1650"E Sketch
9. Which steel btructure has iI needlelike the structure at approximately SOOX
appearance? magnification.
10. How can austerute be retamed at room
temperature for microstructural analysis?
- ..<j;l'
"':''''1'1 ..

/" ,- '.I,
. 'ql.,f;'
I '. ,. .
11 I'"".
Heat Treating
.' and Quenching

\ftcr studying this chapter, you will be able to: Quenching

o Explain heat-treating processes. Quenching is a controlled cooling process
o Describe the effects and purpose of that causes metals to harden. Before quench-
quenching. ing is performed, the material must be heated
o Discuss the tour stage that metal goes to a high temperature. Quenching can be
through a it is quenched. done from any elevated temperature. How-
o Identify common quenching mediums ever, if hardness is important, the material
and techniques and how they should be heated to a temperature above
affect metal.
o Point out the advantages and disadvan- the transfer temperature range. This process was diSCtThsed in Chapter 9.
tages of quenching a material more In quenching, parts may be inserted and re-
o Apply some practical quenching
movmayed indialso
vidually befrom thcarried
e oven or furninace groups
with tongs, Figand
ure 11-3lowered
. Parts to be quencintohed
a quenching tank. See Figure 11-4
The parts are plunged quickty into the
Heat Treating quenching medium and submerged until
Heat freatmg can be defined as any they are cool. During the cooling operation, it
is advisable to agitate or vibrate the parts
metal urgical process that involves heating or cooting. It is widely used in industry_ very rapidly so cooling takCb place as quickly
as possible.
Among t h e many heat - t r e at i n g pr
annealing, normalizing, tempering, and sur-
o ceses ar e such oper a t i o ns as heat i n g, quenchi n g, There are several different quenching
mediums used to cool metals, including
face hardening.
When a metal goes through several heat- watbeer,discussed
brine, oil. air, moltelater
n alt, andinsand.thisThe mostchapter.
common quenching mediums wil
ing and cooling processes, the entire proce-
dure, Heat-treating
or "recipe," is often refeoperations
r ed to as the heatarelreat commonly
for that material. Four Stages of Quenching
Quenching a metal is a complex proce,>. A
formed in an oven or fufurnaces.
rnace. There are manySeedif eFigure
rent sizes, st11-1
yles, and tand
ypts of typical procedure is shown in Figure 11-5. Metal goes through four separate quenching
stages as it cools from an elevated temperature
Figure 11-2.
164 Section Three Ferrous Metallurgy

- , . "

. .1.: - ,

....' .

'Y, .,

. . ' f'! ·
;-, . ..
;..,'" ".
. uti.. ' --.o;n"""l -t '
"T -..--.'
. w ' II '......L:: J"l-_. . ..

-. *; ! . 1ft ..!!;7""'\ -
. .m... . :". . ;(r,4 ' ]1 : '.- - .;.,;...;;;;
_ ,.:' --..;f" f

tJ '"' ..- .
::=- .., - . ' .,;." .(; -:
_ '.. .;,,: _, rl.. :""

" LrI;, ':''., ' , I,:'\

". ..
-::.. . I\ "
',111)1 I ) ) ) ,
....",., ............ ...-........:-
- ,. ' ......
Figure 11-1. Furnaces are wIdely llsed in the l1eot treatment of steel. A-This electrical heat-trt'l.Ihng
furnace is used to lU'tlt treat strip steel. B-71re interior of this roller hearth ht'at-treatingfunlace Ims cast
heating elements on tire top, bottom, and side walls. (Tile Electric Furnnce Company)
Chapter 11 Heat Treatment and Quenching 165

I' tI .....

. t
.. -
;t' " ..... l:1,..'!_.!'__!1t---

1 '."'- f . .
,. ,j.I ,iw.;'
'" .,
.,'!It 1!

-! -, r

k -
, ,,.. ia4:.\.
" ', 1
:I:. ,..' --,..,
! I

FilIlgl ureco1i11-2.
nx andThiheat-treati
s heat-treatngimotor
ngfurnace is Ilsed for anneal
and transformer lammatiingons.coils(TiofletuElbienctrig,crod,Furnace
strip, orCompany)
WIfe and for
to room temperature. Each stage is listed and
discussed below:
IS, \ . I
1. Vapor formation stage.
2. Vapor covering "tagc.
3. Vapor discharge stage.
4. Slow cooling stage.
In the vapor ftlYmatwn stogc, the metal
starts to coot As soon as the metal is plunged
into the quenching medium, the liquid mak-
i \.,.
. ., - II! \ ---

ing contact with the metal boils, forming a va-

por film of bubbles that coat the metal. The
cooling process slow5 down as this vapor film
contmuc to form. See Figure 11-5A.
During the vapor cm't'ring stage, the film of ,\f ..,
apor act<.thelike a blquenching
anket covering the metmedium,
al. The bubble sticFigure
k to the metal and11-5B.
insulate it Figure 11-3. Tongs are "sed to rcm(JV{' samples of
metal from a heat-treatingfurnnce.
Unless thi vapor film is removed quickly, the
metal will not cool rapidly enough.
To reduce the effect of thi vapor and streng\h. Unless the film is removed com-
speed up the quenching process, the metal pletely and evenly, soh spots, warpage, and
hould be agitated as much as possible. Agi- cracking can also occur.
tahon causes some of the bubbles to "faU off," The vapor disclmrgl' stage occurs next,
aUowing the metal to start cooling rapidly Figure 11-5C It is a violent process. At this
again. The longer the vapor is aUowed to in- point, the vapor fIlm begins to collap.e and
sulate the metal. the slower the cooling the metal start:,> to make contact with some of
proc will be, resulting in less hardnes and
166 Section Three Ferrous Metallurg}

t:t. ",. c r

. -L.-r

B-) .2' :I.



Figure 11-4. These cylinders, held by a special fixtllre. arc bemg lowered as a group into a quenching
tank. (T. W. Rex Company)

Quenching Heated LJlscllarged Coohng

medIum metOlI Vtlporfilm vapor met'l]

Heated metal

to brUmehed
([ UU"'cdme'"
o 00 0 00 !
o[ i':l -" : 0 c: > 0
.. .

Vapor formation Vapor coveTIng Vapor discharge Slow C{l()ling

stClge stage stage stagc

Figure 11-5. Metal gOt.'S throuf;h four different stages after its entrance into the qllenclzing 11lt'd,U11l.
A-The metal starts to cool during the 7.'apor formation stagl'. B-BlIbbk--s cif vapor surround the metal UI
the 'vapor cOlwing stage. C- The T'apor film expkJdes during the vapor discharge stage. The greatest
amount of cooling ocellrs during this stage. D- The last stage is the slall' cooling stage.
Olapter 11 Heat Treatment and Quenching 167
FIgure 11-6 plots the cooling ot a typical
the liqUid again. As the film coUapse<;, it tends matcrial as it passes through all four cooling
to "explude" off the surface and more boihng stages Notc from the curve that the most
occurs. This explosive action is VIolent enough rapid cooling occurs during the third stage
to "rip off' the outer scale of the metal. (the vapor discharge stage). During this