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# 5/22/2019 METBD 450: Nonlinear Analyses, Part 1

## Text: Building Better Products with FEA,

Reference: ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide
Chapter 8: Nonlinear Structural
Analysis
Chapter 9: Contact

## "... most of the world is nonlinear."

"In many cases, simply understanding the effects of the
nonlinearity can enable a design engineer to make sound
design decisions on linear results".
When you start doing nonlinear analyses:
move slowly
have a "coach"
All problems could be run as nonlinear analyses, but is that
necessary ?
A nonlinear solution is a series of successive linear steps
(iterations) along a path that is not straight.

## WHY USE NONLINEAR ANALYSIS ?

when the answer cannot be found in linear solutions.
nonlinear solutions require more data
can take more time to setup and solve (= more costly)
Types of nonlinear behavior:
yielding/plasticity (beyond Hooke's law: s = Ee)
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5/22/2019 METBD 450: Nonlinear Analyses, Part 1

## changing contact or interference

large displacement, large rotation, large strain, stress
stiffening (fishing pole, guitar string, drum head), sin(q)=q and
tan(q)=0.
manufacturing processes (mold filling, forging, rolling,
stamping, welding, coating)
Beware: yield stress in the handbook is an estimated quantify,
may vary around some mean and may be subject to experimental
error.
LOOK AT YOUR RESULTS: check for large displacement,
penetration/interference

SOLUTION APPROACH

## Iterative solution: uses previous step results, to correct behavior

and try again (Newton-Raphson)
In ANSYS, Load steps: user selected points which describe
the load history (convenient to the analyst).
In ANSYS, even though we are doing a static analysis, time is
used simply as a counter during the solution. If the analyst
doesn't set the value for time, ANSYS increases time by one
for each load step (i.e. time always increases during a
solution).
In ANSYS, Substeps: incremental solutions within a load step
(for stability and accuracy); too small = long runs; too big =
error or divergence.
linearly from the previous step's level to the current load
In ANSYS, Equilibrium iterations: solutions without increment

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## behavior. To establish a "stable" solution (equilibrium) before

General guidelines:
The first load step should not cause yielding
Take small steps at an abrupt transition.
"Mildly" nonlinear problems can take larger steps
LET THE FEA PROGRAM ADJUST THE STEPPING
PROCESS. Author: this may slow down the run. Mr. J:
better to get a solution with less of your time spent trying to
control it. ANSYS does a fairly good job.
Ever since ANSYS 5.5 the default setting for SOLCON = ON
(automatic solution controls). Based on the types of and severity
of nonlinearities in your model, ANSYS sets many solution
options in a manner which is usually appropriate for success in
solving.
Solution Controls makes automatic settings for:
convergence tolerances
convergence enhancement "tools" (algorithms)
reasonable limit on equilibrium iterations
activates prediction of contact changes and onset of yielding
ANSYS makes these settings based on years of experience in
solving nonlinear analyses. However, the analyst can override
any of the automatic settings.
During a nonlinear analysis, ANSYS writes a solution monitor text
file (extension: mntr) which you can view to check on the progress
of the analysis.
Graphical Solution Tracking: during an interactive nonlinear
analysis, ANSYS shows a graph of convergence norm values vs.
criteria.

NEWTON-RAPHSON
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## method for correcting the stiffness matrix between solution

iterations based on the nonlinear behavior experienced.
uses a "tangent" modulus corresponding to the previous
iteration.

## Material Nonlinearity: plasticity

based on a yield criteria (Tresca, vonMises, Mohr-Coulomb,
Drucker-Prager)
isotropic hardening (no Bauschinger effect) compressive
yield = tensile yield
kinematic hardening (w/ Bauschinger effect) tensile
yielding changes the compressive yield
Bi-linear (two straight lines); elastic modulus, tangent
modulus, meet at the yield point
Multilinear ( > two straight lines); enter the stress vs. strain
points along the curve.
temperature and strain rate can effect the material data
true stress-strain vs. engineering stress-strain data
In ANSYS 5.7: Preprocessor > Material Props > Material Models
... >
click on the material number you want to add data to
double-click "Structural"
double-click "Nonlinear"
double-click "Inelastic"
double-click on the hardening rule choice (e.g., Kinematic
hardening),
double-click on the data format (e.g., Bilinear)
pick the appropriate stress-strain options (e.g., to account for
stress relaxation with increasing temperature)
for each temperature, enter the yield stress and the tangent
modulus
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## "Exit" Material Models, once you have entered the data.

You can graph or list the nonlinear data that you defined in the
material model tables from the ANSYS Utility Menu:
Plot > Data Tables ...
List > Properties > Data Tables ...

Geometric Nonlinearity
accounts for changes in stiffness that are not from
material properties (things like large deflection, large
rotation, large strain, stress stiffening).
In ANSYS, Solution > Analysis Options >
Large Deformation Effects = ON (or NLGEOM,ON)

Boundary Nonlinearity

CONTACT ELEMENTS

## you can specify "contact pairs," ANSYS: Contact wizard for

elements TARGE169, 170 and CONTA171, 172, 173, 174
point-to surface contact, ANSYS: CONTAC48, 49
point-to-point contact, ANSYS CONTAC12, 52
slide line contact, ANSYS CONTAC26
Contact can be difficult to set up. Often it is used "only when
necessary". Use it "judiciously", but don't be afraid to use it !
ANSYS contact models (element options, real constants, material
properties):
formulation: penalty method or penalty + LaGrange multipliers
predictions: for best performance
specialty: sticking, hook, initial interference, sliding with
friction, bonded, and more
open = no stiffness, closed = stiff spring (stiffness may default
or may require user specification)

## Guidelines for Target/Contact Surfaces:

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## if a convex face will contact a flat or concave face, the flat or

concave face should be the target surface.
if one surface has a coarser mesh, it should be the target
surface.
if one surface is stiffer than the other, it should be the target
surface.
if one surface is higher-order and the other is lower-order, the
lower-order surface should be the target surface.
if one surface is larger, it should be the target.

FOLLOWER FORCES
Loads can vary in large displacement/large rotation analyses.
Should the load follow the part as it bends or keep its original
orientation ?
In ANSYS, with large deformation effects ON, pressure loads
follow the surface as it bends, while force loads keep their original
vector direction.

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