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Science report of Minh Khôi,

Cas, Finn, Gabriel, Roan TV1E

Index:
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 3
Summary about light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 4
Exhibits about light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 5
Dispersion and refraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 6
The physicists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p. 8
Museum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 9
Epilogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. 10

Foreword
Hello miss Van Eijck,
This is the science report of Gabriel, Cas, Finn, Minh Khôi and Roan from class
TV1E. In this report we will cover our experiences at the science museum, the
phenomena which we chose (light) and the physicist who discovered them. We
thought the Science museum was very much fun because there were lots of exhibits.
We hope you enjoy this, have fun reading it.
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Summary
Visible Light
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic
spectrum, the word usually refers to visible light, which is the visible spectrum that is
visible to the human eye and is responsible for the sense of sight. (Electromagnetic
radiation is emitted by everything, from the sun to our mobile’s screens. It is a way of
losing energy). Light a carrier of energy and the sun is the main energy source of the
earth, and the light of the sun is therefore
the most powerful source of light of the
earth.

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Light dispersion
A triangular prism dispersing a beam of white light. The longer wavelengths (red) and
the shorter wave lengths (blue) are separated.

Sunlight
Sunlight is the visible
part of the total
spectrum of the
electromagnetic
radiation that the sun
distributes. The sunlight
that reaches the Earth
is a small part of the
total amount but it
enough and important
for the life on Earth.
Ultraviolet light
Ultraviolet (uv, also called ultraviolet radiation, black light or uv light) is
electromagnetic radiation just outside the part of the spectrum that is observable with
the human eye. It caries slightly more energy than visible light, so we can’t see it.

Exhibits about light


Coloured Shadows If you hold your hand over the white table, you can see three
different shadows. You can also hold two different paddles over the table and then
you can see the effect.

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Spark Disk If you hold your hand on the wall you can see sparks on your fingers. It
looks like lightning is attached on your fingers.

Plasma Globe If you put your hands on the globe, a stream of glowing gas is going
to your fingers. It looks like lightning is going to your fingers and for some people it
looks very scary.

Light refraction and dispersion


Have you ever seen a rainbow and wondered how it’s formed? Or ever had soap and
blew bubbles with it? You probably would have seen lots of colours. This is a
phenomenon called light dispersion. But before you learn about dispersion, you will
need to understand refraction.
Refraction1
Refer to the image on the on the right. Have you ever
seen something like this? The yellow line is light, and
it is passing through a transparent block of plastic.
When I first saw this, I was confused. Why doesn’t the
light go in a straight line? Below this picture, you will
find another example.

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In the shower you probably would have an upside-
down and distorted version of your bathroom if you
looked through the droplets. The examples I’ve given
are effects of refraction. Shortly, refraction is the
change of direction of light when passing through a
transparent object (scientifically, the transparent object
is called the medium). But that brings us to another
question: Why does light refract at all? The answer is
very complicated and there are lots of optical 2
explanations for it, but those are way too hard to
understand, so I won’t get into it. One thing that I do know is that it has to do with the
fact that light behaves as a wave3.
Waves that carry lots of energy are short, and waves that have little energy are long
(as you can see on the picture below, these distances are called wavelengths. A
wavelength is the distance between each wave). The more energy light has, the
shorter the wavelength, the more it refracts.
Dispersion
So that means, according to the picture and
the text above, that radio waves refract only a
little bit. And gamma rays refract a lot? Correct!
Because gamma rays have huge amounts of
energy, so they refract a lot. And radio waves
almost don’t refract at all, because they have
very little energy. And this is also the case with
visible light: red light is more to the right, so it
has less energy, and purple light is more to the
left, so it has more energy. That means that purple light refracts slightly more than
blue light, and that blue light refracts slightly more than green light, and so on. But
what about white light? White light is the light emitted by the sun and lights, but it isn’t
on the image. As you may know, white light is a mixture of all visible light. So, it
includes all colours. This is exactly why light disperses. We know that when shining
light through a medium causes light to refract, but what if you shine all kinds of light
at the same time through a medium? In other words, shining white light through a
medium? All the colours get refracted individually. All the millions of colours between
red and purple get refracted one by one. And because they each have different
energy levels, the amount of refraction is different for each colour. Basically, the light
gets ripped apart. All the different colours get refracted to different directions. That is
why you get rainbows. Pretend the triangle is a rain droplet. This is also why bubbles
appear to be so colourful.
Notes
1. When I say light in this part, I am referring to all electromagnetic radiations.
2. Optics is the branch of physics that studies the behaviour of light.
3. This is a topic that is still not resolved: whether light is a particle or a wave.

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The physicists
Many philosophers thought of the question of light, some of them believed it was a
stream of particles but also some of them thought light was composed of waves,
Isaac Newton was one of the people who studied light, he performed experiments on
light towards the end of the 17th century. His most famous experiment was with a
prism, where he showed that white light was formed by many colours (the colours of
the rainbow) and that those colours could not re-create white light.

Aristotle proved that light travels in straight lines by observing light going through
super small holes in objects, that light still creates a circle of light on the ground.

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During the 19th century developments in the understanding of electricity and
magnetism involved in the work of James Clerk Maxwell, who showed that there
must be waves of oscillating magnetic and electric fields. These waves were very
close to the speed of light, so visible light is an electromagnetic phenomenon.
But just as the wave theory seemed triumphant, Albert Einstein showed in 1905 that
the explanation where electrons can be knocked out of metals by shining light of high
enough frequency, required light to come in discrete packages.

light can behave both as waves and as particles is a mystery which endures to the
present day.
http://www.light2015.org/Home/ScienceStories/Discoverers-of-Light--.html is the
source I used

The Museum
What is the science observatory centre?
The science observatory centre is a unique centre, because it has a special
connection with astronomy. The buildings were
part of the Royale Greenwich Observatory.
The science museum was founded in 1995, It
was operated by Science Projects Ltd. That is a
company since 1986. There was intention was to
increase the technology and science with active
hands. The intention was also that everyone can
explore new things, discover new things and learn
new things. The science museum has much
things about science and discovery. The science museum has also domes where the
telescopes are. You get there information with a guide who tells you everything about
the telescopes, planets and stars.

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How they moved the science centre to another place
The science museum in Greenwich was operated by king Charles II in 1675.
In the 19th century There was in London to much smog to study the stars for
astronomers.
In the early 20th century the smog was so
big that it even reaches Greenwich. So, the
centre needs another place. In 1933 Spacer
Jones was beginning to plan a new place
for the centre. But they had to wait until the
second world war was over. But in 1944
they go further and then they had 70
possibilities. And They chose one and that
was the Observatory science centre in
Herstmoncaux.

Epilogue
Hello, miss van Eijck, we hoped you enjoyed our report,
Have a nice day
Kind regards,
Finn, Minh Khôi, Cas, Gabriel and Roan from TV1E