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Unit 4 – Abstracts

Punctuation

1-) ​Watch the video “​All punctuation marks​” and match names with their symbols:

1. Comma; a. ! ​ ​5
2. Semicolon; b. . ​ ​4
3. Colon; c. ? ​6
4. Period; d. … ​ 14
5. Exclamation mark; e. [ ] ​13
6. Question mark; f. / ​11
7. Quote marks; g. : ​3
8. Apostrophe; h. – ​10
9. Hyphen; i. “ ”​ 7
10. Dash; j. * ​15
11. Slash; k. ‘ ​ ​8
12. Parentheses; l. ; ​2
13. Square brackets; m. ( ) ​12
14. Ellipsis; n. , ​1
15. Asterisk; o. - ​9

2-)​ Now, read the abstract below and add punctuation:

This  study  explored  the  pattern  of  video  game  usage and video game addiction 


among  male  college  students  and  examined  how  video  game  addiction  was 
related  to  expectations  of  college  engagement​,  college  grade  point  average 
(​GPA​),  and  on-campus  drug  and  alcohol  violations​.  Participants were 477 male​, 
first  year  students  at  a  liberal  arts  college​.  In  the  week  before  the  start  of 
classes​,  participants  were  given  two  surveys​:  one  of  expected  college 
engagement​,  and  the  second  of  video  game  usage​,  including  a  measure  of 
video  game  addiction​.  Results  suggested  that  video  game  addiction  is  a) 
negatively  correlated  with  expected  college  engagement  b)  negatively 
correlated  with  college  GPA  even  when  controlling  for  high  school  GPA 
and,  c)  negatively  correlated  with  drug  and  alcohol  violations  that  occurred 
during  the  first  year  in  college​.  Results  are  discussed  in  terms  of  implications 
for  male  students​’  engagement  and  success  in  college​,  and  in  terms  of  the 
construct validity of video game addiction​. 

3-) ​Read the abstract below about coffee and answer the questions: 

Coffee is a beverage used worldwide. It includes a wide array of components that can
have potential implication on health. We have reviewed publications on the impact of
coffee on a series of health outcomes. Articles published between January 1990 and
December 2012 were selected after crossing coffee or caffeine with a list of keywords
representative of the most relevant health areas potentially affected by coffee intake.
Caffeine, chlorogenic acids and diterpenes are important components of coffee.
Tolerance often acts as a modulator of the biological actions of coffee. There is a
significant impact of coffee on the cardiovascular system, and on the metabolism of
carbohydrates and lipids. Contrary to previous beliefs, the various forms of arterial
cardiovascular disease, arrhythmia or heart insufficiency seem unaffected by coffee
intake. Coffee is associated with a reduction in the incidence of diabetes and liver
disease. Protection seems to exist also for Parkinson's disease among the neurological
disorders, while its potential as an osteoporosis risk factor is under debate. Its effect on
cancer risk depends on the tissue concerned, although it appears to favor risk reduction.
Coffee consumption seems to reduce mortality. The information gathered in recent
years has generated a new concept of coffee, one which does not match the common
belief that coffee is mostly harmful. This view is further supported by the discovery of a
series of phyto-components with a beneficial profile. Reasonable optimism needs to be
tempered, however, by the insufficiency of the clinical data, which in most cases stem
from observational studies.

Available in: <​http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/23465359​>

a) Could  you  separate  this  abstract  in  four  parts  (objective,  methods, 
results and conclusion)? Highlight the different parts. 
 
b) How is this text different from the texts you read last class? 

 
4-)​ Now, read the definition of an abstract b​elow:

An abstract is a brief overview of the key points of an ​article​, ​report​, or ​proposal​.


Positioned at the head of a paper, the abstract is usually "the first thing that
individuals read and, as such, decide whether to continue reading. It is also what is
most accessed by search engines and researchers conducting their own ​literature
reviews​" (Dan W. Butin, The Education Dissertation, 2010).
Disponível em: <​ ​https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-abstract-composition-1689050​>

According to Huckin (2001):


1.​ They function as stand-alone mini-texts, giving readers a short summary of
a study-s topic, methodology and main findings.
2.​ They function as screening devices, helping readers decide whether they
wish to read the whole article or not.
3.​ They function as previews for readers intending to read the whole article,
giving them a road-map for their reading.
4.​ They provide indexing help for professional abstract writers and editors.
(SWALES and FEAK, 2009)
a) ​Based on that, write a paragraph about the characteristics and information
expected within an abstract.

b)​ T
​ he abstracts you read in activities (2) and (3) fit the definitions above? Why?

5-) ​Search for an abstract from your area and make comments about the verb tense
(simple present, simple past, etc.), the voice (passive voice/active voice), organization
of the topics, etc.