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Flow Chart To Select Non-Damaging

Cased, Cemented &


Horizontal Drill-In Fluid Perforated Completion
Needed Drill-In Fluid:
Zonal Conventional Drilling Fluid
Isolation With Elevated Low Shear Rate
Start Here Rheology
Clean-Up/Stimulation:
Acid
Not Required Frac Fluids

Permeability Open Hole Completion


Type
Drill-In Fluid:
Highly Needs Bridging Particles
Competent Polymer Additives
Fracture Formation
Clean-Up/Stimulation:
Acid
Brine w/ Polymer Breakers
May
Collapse Preopened Liner
Completion
Rock Type
Drill-In Fluid:
No Needs Bridging Particles
Sand Polymer Additives
Production Easily Removed Filter-Cake
Chalk or Limestone
Fractured Shale
Clean-Up/Stimulation:
Drill-In Fluid:
Acid
Clear Water Drill-In Fluid:
Polymer/Water/Salt Oil Based Fluid
Yes Brine w/ Polymer Breakers
Low Solids Inhibitive-Water Base Fluid
Prepaked Liner or Screen Completion
Clean-Up/Stimulation:
Acid Treatment Drill-In Fluid:
Clean-Up/Stimulation:
Needs Bridging Particles
Acid for CaCO3 Particles
Polymer Based Fluid
Undersaturated Brine for Sized Salt
Soluble Filter-Cake Salt or CaCO3
Polymer Breakers
Ultrafine Particles

Sands and Sandstones


Matrix Permeability
Clean-up/
Completion Method Drill-in Fluid Stimulation Fluid

Cased Hole with Conventional Drilling Fluid Acid


Perforation Elevated LSR Rheology Frac Fluids

Open Hole Bridging Particles Acid


Polymer Additives Polymer Breakers

Preopened Liner Bridging Particles Acid


Polymer Additives Polymer Breakers
Easily Removed Filter Cake
Prepacked Liner or Bridging Particles Acid
Screen Polymer-based Fluid Undersaturated Brine
Soluble Filter Cake Polymer Breakers
Ultrafine Particles
Gravel Pack Polymer-based Fluid Acid
Soluble Filter Cake Undersaturated Brine
Polymer Breakers

Fluid Categories Horizontal Wells


Conventional

Gel / Water
PHPA/KCl Rheology
Oil/Water Engineered
All Oil
Synthetic
Biopolymer
Clear Sized Salt
Sized CaCO3
MMH
Water, Brines
VLS Polymer

1
Monovalent Salt DIF

Monovalent Salt Base

Rheology engineered, non-damaging


Drill-In fluid for horizontal and deviated wells

Monovalent Salt DIF


FLO-PRO Drill-In Fluids are designed for optimum drilling and
maximum productivity. These systems are engineered to handle :

Drilling Completion
ROP Formation damage
Wellbore stability Clay hydration
Hole cleaning Fines migration
Solids removal Incompatible water
Lubricity Solids plugging
Inhibition Emulsions

Monovalent Salt DIF


DIF systems are formulated to minimize formation
damage by selectively using the proper components for
a specific reservoir.

FLO-
Fluid TROL
Loss reducer
Calcium Carbonate Filtrate

Sandstone

Non-damaging, easily removed DIF filter cake

2
Monovalent Salt DIF

Temp.Stab.
DIF DESIGN CHART

Rheology
Density
FLO-PRO can be designed to meet
all drill-in targets

NaCl, KCl, Heavy Brines 1 1 2


Viscosifier 1 1
Caustic, KOH 1
Fluid Loss Reducer 2 1
CaCo3 2 1
LUBRICANT 1
SHALE INHIBITOR 1

DIF Density Ranges

Field Brines

K-Formate

CaCl2

K-52

NaBr

NaCl
Possible
KCl Optimum

Freshwater

8.4 9.4 10.4 11.4 12.4 13.4 14.4 15.4


Density, ppg

Salts
z NaCl, KCl, Field Brines, Seawater,
CaCl2, K-52, Formates, NaBr
z Provides Wide Density Range
z Improves Polymer Temperature
Stability to > 325°F
z Provides Inhibition
z Improves Polymer Yield

3
Calcium Carbonate Sizing
z Mix CaCO3 sizes, such as fine and
medium, to the get desired median
(average) size
z Total amount of CaCO3 for bridging
should be about 10 - 30 ppb
pp
z For example: Pore throat 50 microns,
median CaCO3 25 microns. Use 38% SAFE
CARB F (7 microns) and 62% SAFE CARB
M (36 microns)

Bridging Particles
Particle Size (microns)
100
Sand
80

60
Silt

40

20

0 Clay
0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500
Permeability (md)

Viscosifier

z Clarified Xanthan Biopolymer (XC)

z Provides LSRV

z Temperature Stable to 280°F

4
DIF Fluid Properties
LSRV- Low Shear Rate Viscosity
z Zone Between 3 Rpm and 0 Gel

z Fragile Suspension, No Crosslinking

z First Indicator of What Is Going on

z Run Brookfield Viscometer Until

Flattens Out
z Keeps Operation Out of Trouble

z No Cuttings Beds in Horizontal Section

z Suspends Milled Steel

LSRV Advantages

z Hole Cleaning

z Suspension

z Lubricity
y

z Lower Pump Pressure

z Fluid Loss

Measuring LSRV

z Brookfield Viscometer
z 0.3 RPM - 0.0636 sec-1
z Spindle
2L - max. 100,000 cps
3L - max. 400,000 cps

5
LSRV: Biopolymer vs. HEC
Fann rpm
40
Viscositty, 1000 cp

3 6

30 1.5-ppb
FLO-VIS
20

10
2.5-ppb
HEC
0.01 0.1 1 10
-1
Shear Rate, sec

Berea Sandstone Core

Fluid Loss Reducer

z Hydroxypropyl Starch

z Provides Fluid Loss Control

z Temperature Stable to 250°F

6
Other Components
z Biocide - Glutaraldehyde
z Glycols - Lubricant, Inhibition
z Thermal Stabilizers
z S
Scavengers
z Breakers
z pH Modifiers

pH Modifiers

z Don’t Burn up Polymers, Keep pH


Below 10.5, Preferably <10
z Do
o Get Better
ette Yield
e dWWith
t pH
p 9.5
z Calcium Should Be Low
z Calcium / pH Balance

Formulation
z FLO-VIS, 1 - 3 ppb, around 2 ppb, Get
All the Shear Possible
z FLO-TROL, 0 - 8 ppb, around 2.5 ppb
z Magox, 2-3 ppb, or Caustic after
P l
Polymers, to
t gett pH
H up Around
A d 9.5
95
z SAFE CARB, 30 - 120 ppb
z KLA-GARD, 4 - 8 ppb
z Lubricant, If Required

7
Experience
z Over 500 Wells Worldwide for 18
Operators
z 17.5” to 2.125” Hole Diameters
z 0 - >100° Angle
z 300 - 5,000’ Horizontally
z 10 Md - 6 Darcy Permeabilities
z Slotted Liners, Gravel Packs and
Pre-Packed Screens

Advantages

z Flexibility in Density
z Flexibility in Inhibition
z Flexibility
l b l in Formulation
l
z Environmentally Safe
z Non-Damaging
z Cost Effective

Advantages
z Eliminated Packoffs, Need for Sweeps
z Dramatically Reduced Stuck Pipe,
Lost Circulation Occurrences
z Increased Liner Footage Efficiency
From 86% to 99%
z Reduce Torque and drag
z Reduce Pump Pressures
z Enhanced Ability to Slide

8
DIF Limitations

z Temperature ±325° F, Depending on Brine

z Bacteria Degradation, Mostly Polymers

z C
Cement,
t pH
H With C
Calcium,
l i Cit
Citric
i AAcid
id

z Elevated Soluble Iron - Workover Fluids /


Field Brines, Trivalent Ion

Solids Control Equipment


z Best Linear Motion Shakers Available to Keep
Solids Down - Low COF for Fluid
z Solids Will :
z Increase COF Value for Fluid
z Coat Out Lubricants
z Increase Potential Formation Damage
z Increase Pipe Drag - Pump Pressure

Keys to Successful DIF Application

z Design for Well / Formation

z Plan With Drilling and Completion

z Keep Clean

z Destroy at End

z Keep Simple