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# Problem 1:

## a. Using the data given we can construct the following table:

Flow in the limiting facility Available loading capacity (ALC) Path ATC
Path
(network response) on the limiting facility (MW) (MW)
Area 1 5% 70 1400
Area 2 10% 200 2000
Area 3 14% 130 928.57
Area 4 11% 175 1590.91
Line 1-2 20% 400 2000
Line 1-3 80% 1200 1500
Line 2-3 15% 250 1666.67
Line 2-4 10% 200 2000
Line 3-4 90% 900 1000

## 𝐿𝑖𝑚𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝐴𝐿𝐶

𝑃𝑎𝑡ℎ 𝐴𝑇𝐶 =
𝑛𝑒𝑡𝑤𝑜𝑟𝑘 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑝𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑒

So, the transaction of injecting 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎 𝑴𝑾 at area-1 and extracting it from area-4 is not feasible.

b. The ATC in this case is determined by the limiting facility of area-3 which will be loaded by its
maximum capacity for a transaction of 𝟗𝟐𝟖. 𝟓𝟕 𝑴𝑾.

𝑨𝑻𝑪 = 𝟗𝟐𝟖. 𝟓𝟕 𝑴𝑾

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Problem 2:

i. System on primary regulation: First we calculate the load damping constant and governor
regulation as follows:
0.01 ∗ (3500 − 100)
𝐷1 = = 56.67 𝑀𝑊/𝐻𝑧
0.01 ∗ 60
0.015 ∗ 6000
𝐷2 = = 150 𝑀𝑊/𝐻𝑧
0.01 ∗ 60
1 (3000 + 700)
= = 1027.78 𝑀𝑊/𝐻𝑧
𝑅1 0.06 ∗ 60
1 (6500 + 1000)
= = 2500 𝑀𝑊/𝐻𝑧
𝑅2 0.05 ∗ 60
So,
1 1
𝛽 = 𝐷1 + 𝐷2 + + = 3734.44 𝑀𝑊/𝐻𝑧
𝑅1 𝑅2
Since the areas remain interconnected, they will have the same frequency as follows:
−∆𝑃𝐿 −(−100)
∆𝑓𝑠𝑠 = = = 0.0268 𝐻𝑧
𝛽 3734.44
The steady state frequency is: 𝒇 = 𝒇𝒐 + ∆𝒇𝒔𝒔 = 𝟔𝟎. 𝟎𝟐𝟔𝟖 𝑯𝒛
∆𝑃𝐷𝐴 = 𝐷1 ∗ ∆𝑓𝑠𝑠 = 1.517 𝑀𝑊
∆𝑃𝐷𝐵 = 𝐷2 ∗ ∆𝑓𝑠𝑠 = 4.0167 𝑀𝑊
−1
∆𝑃𝐺𝐴 = ∗ ∆𝑓𝑠𝑠 = −27.522 𝑀𝑊
𝑅1
−1
∆𝑃𝐺𝐵 = ∗ ∆𝑓𝑠𝑠 = −66.944 𝑀𝑊
𝑅2
So,
𝑷𝑫𝑨 = 𝟑𝟓𝟎𝟎 − 𝟏𝟎𝟎 + 𝟏. 𝟓𝟏𝟕 = 𝟑𝟒𝟎𝟏. 𝟓𝟏𝟕 𝑴𝑾
𝑷𝑫𝑩 = 𝟔𝟎𝟎𝟎 + 𝟒. 𝟎𝟏𝟔𝟕 = 𝟔𝟎𝟎𝟒. 𝟎𝟏𝟔𝟕 𝑴𝑾
𝑷𝑮𝑨 = 𝟑𝟎𝟎𝟎 − 𝟐𝟕. 𝟓𝟐𝟐 = 𝟐𝟗𝟕𝟐. 𝟒𝟕𝟖 𝑴𝑾
𝑷𝑮𝑩 = 𝟔𝟓𝟎𝟎 − 𝟔𝟔. 𝟗𝟒𝟒 = 𝟔𝟒𝟑𝟑. 𝟎𝟓𝟔 𝑴𝑾
And the tie line power is:
𝑷𝑩𝑨 = 𝟒𝟐𝟗. 𝟎𝟒 𝑴𝑾 from area-B to area-A.

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ii. For the case when the units are on AGC:
Each area will be responsible for balancing its generation and demand (to maintain its area control
error ACE at zero) and will seek to minimize its effect on the other area. So, only the generation in
area-A will change in response to the new demand. Hence,
The steady state frequency is: 𝒇 = 𝟔𝟎 𝑯𝒛
𝑷𝑫𝑨 = 𝟑𝟓𝟎𝟎 − 𝟏𝟎𝟎 = 𝟑𝟒𝟎𝟎 𝑴𝑾
𝑷𝑫𝑩 = 𝟔𝟎𝟎𝟎 𝑴𝑾
𝑷𝑮𝑨 = 𝟑𝟎𝟎𝟎 − 𝟏𝟎𝟎 = 𝟐𝟗𝟎𝟎 𝑴𝑾
𝑷𝑮𝑩 = 𝟔𝟓𝟎𝟎 𝑴𝑾
And the tie line power flow is:
𝑷𝑩𝑨 = 𝟓𝟎𝟎 𝑴𝑾 from area-B to area-A.

3
Problem 3:

First, we calculate the load damping constant and governor regulation as follows:

## 0.01 ∗ (5000 − 500)

𝐷1 = = 75 𝑀𝑊/𝐻𝑧
0.01 ∗ 60

0.02 ∗ 9600
𝐷2 = = 320 𝑀𝑊/𝐻𝑧
0.01 ∗ 60

0.015 ∗ 7600
𝐷3 = = 190 𝑀𝑊/𝐻𝑧
0.01 ∗ 60

1 (5700 + 500)
= = 2066.667 𝑀𝑊/𝐻𝑧
𝑅1 0.05 ∗ 60

1 (9200 + 600)
= = 2722.222 𝑀𝑊/𝐻𝑧
𝑅2 0.06 ∗ 60

1 (7300 + 400)
= = 2138.889 𝑀𝑊/𝐻𝑧
𝑅3 0.06 ∗ 60

So,

1 1 1
𝛽 = 𝐷1 + 𝐷2 + 𝐷3 + + + = 7512.778 𝑀𝑊/𝐻𝑧
𝑅1 𝑅2 𝑅3

## a. The scheduled power flows are as follows:

Area-A Area-B
PGA = 5700 MW PAB = 400 MW PGB = 9200 MW

## PAC = 300 MW PBC = 0 MW

PGC = 7300 MW
Area-C
PDC = 7600 MW

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b. The scheduled power flows are as follows:
Since the areas remain interconnected, they will have the same frequency as follows:
−∆𝑃𝐿 −(−500)
∆𝑓𝑠𝑠 = = = 0.0666 𝐻𝑧
𝛽 7512.778
The steady state frequency is: 𝒇 = 𝒇𝒐 + ∆𝒇𝒔𝒔 = 𝟔𝟎. 𝟎𝟔𝟔𝟔 𝑯𝒛
∆𝑃𝐷𝐴 = 𝐷1 ∗ ∆𝑓𝑠𝑠 = 4.99 𝑀𝑊
∆𝑃𝐷𝐵 = 𝐷2 ∗ ∆𝑓𝑠𝑠 = 21.297 𝑀𝑊
∆𝑃𝐷𝐶 = 𝐷3 ∗ ∆𝑓𝑠𝑠 = 12.645 𝑀𝑊
−1
∆𝑃𝐺𝐴 = ∗ ∆𝑓𝑠𝑠 = −137.543 𝑀𝑊
𝑅1
−1
∆𝑃𝐺𝐵 = ∗ ∆𝑓𝑠𝑠 = −181.173 𝑀𝑊
𝑅2
−1
∆𝑃𝐺𝐶 = ∗ ∆𝑓𝑠𝑠 = −142.35 𝑀𝑊
𝑅3
So,
𝑷𝑫𝑨 = 𝟓𝟎𝟎𝟎 − 𝟓𝟎𝟎 + 𝟒. 𝟗𝟗 = 𝟒𝟓𝟎𝟒. 𝟗𝟗 𝑴𝑾
𝑷𝑫𝑩 = 𝟗𝟔𝟎𝟎 + 𝟐𝟏. 𝟐𝟗𝟕 = 𝟗𝟔𝟐𝟏. 𝟐𝟗𝟕 𝑴𝑾
𝑷𝑫𝑪 = 𝟕𝟔𝟎𝟎 + 𝟏𝟐. 𝟔𝟒𝟓 = 𝟕𝟔𝟏𝟐. 𝟔𝟒𝟓 𝑴𝑾
𝑷𝑮𝑨 = 𝟓𝟕𝟎𝟎 − 𝟏𝟑𝟕. 𝟓𝟒𝟑 = 𝟓𝟓𝟔𝟐. 𝟒𝟓𝟕 𝑴𝑾
𝑷𝑮𝑩 = 𝟗𝟐𝟎𝟎 − 𝟏𝟖𝟏. 𝟏𝟕𝟑 = 𝟗𝟎𝟏𝟖. 𝟖𝟐𝟕 𝑴𝑾
𝑷𝑮𝑪 = 𝟕𝟑𝟎𝟎 − 𝟏𝟒𝟐. 𝟑𝟓 = 𝟕𝟏𝟓𝟕. 𝟔𝟓 𝑴𝑾
And the tie lines power flows are:

Area-A Area-B
PGA = 5562.457 MW PAB = 602.47 MW PGB = 9018.827 MW

## PAC = 455 MW PBC = 0 MW

PGC = 7157.65 MW
Area-C
PDC = 7612.645 MW

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Problem 4:

a. From the data given we can construct the following cumulative outage probability table:

## X MW or more on outage Probability

0 1
50 0.00048
150 0.00037
250 0.00025

Now, we can convolve the new unit to the old system using the following equation:
𝐶𝑃𝑅𝑂𝐵𝑛𝑒𝑤 (𝑋) = 𝐶𝑃𝑅𝑂𝐵𝑜𝑙𝑑 (𝑋) ∗ (1 − 𝐹𝑂𝑅𝐺𝑇 ) + 𝐶𝑃𝑅𝑂𝐵𝑜𝑙𝑑 (𝑋 − 100) ∗ 𝐹𝑂𝑅𝐺𝑇
The new cumulative outage probability table is:

New GT convolved
X MW or more on outage Old system probability
𝑪𝒂𝒑𝒂𝒄𝒊𝒕𝒚 = 𝟏𝟎𝟎 𝑴𝑾, 𝑭𝑶𝑹𝑮𝑻 = 𝟎. 𝟏
0 1 1 ∗ 0.9 + 1 ∗ 0.1 = 1
50 0.00048 0.00048 ∗ 0.9 + 1 ∗ 0.1 = 0.100432
150 0.00037 0.00037 ∗ 0.9 + 0.00048 ∗ 0.1 = 0.000381
250 0.00025 0.00025 ∗ 0.9 + 0.00037 ∗ 0.1 = 0.000262

The new system capacity is 1100 𝑀𝑊 with a demand of 925 𝑀𝑊. So, from the new cumulative
outage probability table, for 175 𝑀𝑊 or more on outage, we get that:
𝑳𝑶𝑳𝑷𝒏𝒆𝒘 = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟐𝟔𝟐

b. In 2016 (the old cumulative outage probability table), the peak demand is 950 𝑀𝑊 at which
𝐿𝑂𝐿𝑃 = 0.00048.
This means that if this peak demand persists for 𝟓𝟎𝟎 hours, then this load or part of it might
not be served for:
𝟓𝟎𝟎 ∗ 𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟒𝟖 = 𝟎. 𝟐𝟒 hours = 𝟏𝟒. 𝟒 minutes

6
Problem 5:

We’ll use a step of 50 𝑀𝑊 to construct the cumulative outage probability table using the following
equation (total capacity is 850 𝑀𝑊):

## X MW or Gen-1 convolved Gen-2 convolved Gen-3 convolved

Initial
more on 𝑪𝒂𝒑𝒂𝒄𝒊𝒕𝒚 = 𝟐𝟎𝟎 𝑴𝑾, 𝑪𝒂𝒑𝒂𝒄𝒊𝒕𝒚 = 𝟐𝟓𝟎 𝑴𝑾, 𝑪𝒂𝒑𝒂𝒄𝒊𝒕𝒚 = 𝟒𝟎𝟎 𝑴𝑾,
table
outage 𝑭𝑶𝑹 = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟓 𝑭𝑶𝑹 = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟑 𝑭𝑶𝑹 = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟒
0 1 1 1 1
50 0 0.05 0.0785 0.11536
100 0 0.05 0.0785 0.11536
150 0 0.05 0.0785 0.11536
200 0 0.05 0.0785 0.11536
250 0 0 0.03 0.0688
300 0 0 0.0015 0.04144
350 0 0 0.0015 0.04144
400 0 0 0.0015 0.04144
450 0 0 0.0015 0.00458
500 0 0 0 0.00314
550 0 0 0 0.00314
600 0 0 0 0.00314
650 0 0 0 0.0012
700 0 0 0 0.00006
750 0 0 0 0.00006
800 0 0 0 0.00006
850 0 0 0 0.00006

i. Demand of 700 𝑀𝑊: So, for 150 𝑀𝑊 or more on outage, we get that:
𝑳𝑶𝑳𝑷 = 𝟎. 𝟏𝟏𝟓𝟑𝟔
ii. Demand of 600 𝑀𝑊: So, for 250 𝑀𝑊 or more on outage, we get that:
𝑳𝑶𝑳𝑷 = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟔𝟖𝟖
iii. Demand of 550 𝑀𝑊: So, for 300 𝑀𝑊 or more on outage, we get that:
𝑳𝑶𝑳𝑷 = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟒𝟏𝟒𝟒