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GOLD

Tugas Sumber Daya Alam Indonesia

Program Studi Magister Teknik Kimia

Muhammad Abdul Ghony 17/422471/PTK/12050

Meutia Ermina Toif 18/434797/PTK/12360

Puspita Khumairoh 18/434805/PTK/12368

Dwi Amalia 18/434789/PTK/12352

Farhah Ayu Fajrin 17/422463/PTK/12042

DEPARTEMEN TEKNIK KIMIA

FAKULTAS TEKNIK

UNIVERSITAS GADJAH MADA

YOGYAKARTA

2019
DAFTAR PUSTAKA

Chapter 1 ..................................................................................................................... 4

1. Background .......................................................................................................... 4

Chapter 2 ..................................................................................................................... 8

2.1. Processing ............................................................................................................. 8

2.2 Examples of Commercial Mining & Recovery of Gold ..................................... 9

2.2.1 Case Study 1: Newmont Mining Corporation ............................................. 9

2.3. GOLD REFINING ............................................................................................. 10

2.3.1 Case Study :Gold Refining in The Perth Mint, Australia ........................ 12

2.4. Gold derivative product..................................................................................... 13

2.4.1 Gold as Electroplating ............................................................................ 13

2.4.2 Industrial Tree.................................................................................................. 15

Chapter 3 Economic ................................................................................................. 19

3.1. Price Of Gold ...................................................................................................... 19

3.2. Price of electroplating ........................................................................................ 19


DAFTAR GAMBAR

Figure 1 Location of the Gold Mine in Indonesia .................................................... 5


Figure 2 Indonesian Gold Production from 2013 – 2018 ........................................ 7
Figure 3 Metal Refining Process .............................................................................. 12
Figure 4 Price of Gold ............................................................................................... 19

DAFTAR TABEL

Table 1 Characteristic of Gold ................................................................................... 4


Table 2 Mineral in Gold ............................................................................................. 4
Table 3 Gold Refining Techniques .......................................................................... 11
Chapter 1
1. Background
Gold is a chemical element that has the symbol Au (Aurum) and atomic number 79.
Gold is a transition metal (trivalent and univalent) that is yellow, shiny, soft, flexible, heavy,
easily forged up to a thickness of 0.00001 mm, and fuses at temperature around 1,000 degrees
Celsius. Gold doesn’t react with other chemicals, but its surface can be dulled by chlorine and
flourine. Gold is formed in a variety of mixtures which mainly contain silver (Ag), copper (Cu)
and lead (pb) metals.

Table 1 Characteristic of Gold


ASPECT CHARACTER
chemical formula Au
Color Yellow, orange, whitish yellow, whitish red
Luster Metallic
scratches / spout Yellow
specific gravity (gr/cm3) 15,5 – 19,3
hardness (Mohs) 2,5 – 3,0
crystal shape Isometric, rare crystals
Hemisphere rough cracks
Flexibility Soft and easy to forge

Table 2 Mineral in Gold


Group Gold Seed Minerals
Native dan Mixed Native gold, Electrum, Auricuprida, Razhkovit,
tetraauricuprida, maldonit, Palladium gold, Iridio gold,
Rhodian gold, Bismuthian gold, Cuprian gold, Cuprian
Electrum, Zvyagintsevil
Tellurida Calaveril, Krenorit, Montbrayit, Mulhmannit, Sylvanit,
Kostovil, Nagyagil, Bogdanovit, Bessmertnovil, Bilbinshit,
Hesil
Selenida, Sulfide dan Fischesserill, Uytenbogaardtit, Sulfide
Antimonide

Location of the Gold Mine in Indonesia

Figure 1 Location of the Gold Mine in Indonesia

Some gold mining sites in Indonesia include:

1. Pujon Village, Kapuas, Central Kalimantan


The potential area of alluvial gold deposits in the Bajuh Village area that has been
mined is 111.6 Ha, and the mined is not ± 10%. The thickness of the gold carrier layer varies
between 1-2 m or an average of 1.5 m. With the thickness of the gold carrier layer averaging
1.5 m, it can be seen the volume of potential alluvial gold deposits in the village area Bajuh
111.6 x 0.1 x 1.5 = 150.66 m3 The gold content in the tailings in the Desa Bajuh area is on
average 80 mg / m3, it can be obtained the remaining remaining gold resources in the Bajuh
Village area of 12 kg per year in 2011.

2. Gosowong, Halmahera
Mining activities at Gosowong itself are managed by state-owned companies under
the auspices of PT. Aneka Tambang in collaboration with Newcrest. since the mine was
first opened, it is estimated that there have been around 20 million ounces of gold ore
removed from the bowels of the earth.

3. Cikotok, West Java


Is the oldest gold mine in Indonesia. The Cikotok gold mine was officially closed in
2005. This is because there is no gold in the area.

4. Batu Hijau, Sumbawa


This mine itself has been opened since 2000. In 2005, the government recorded 2.77
million tons of copper which had an average of 0.69g / ton of gold collected from this mine.
Unfortunately, the Batu Hijau Gold Mine is still managed by foreign parties.

5. Martabe, South Tapanuli

According to data collected by the mine management, mining activities in Martabe


have produced as many as 3 million ounces of gold and 32 million ounces of silver since it
was opened in 2013. Even this mine is believed to still contain 7.86 million ounces of gold
and 73.48 million ounces of silver.

6. Kencana, North Maluku


Mining activities in Kencana have produced as much as 4.63 million ounces of gold

7. Grashberg, Puncak Jaya


This mine itself is managed by Freeport McMoran. Reportedly, this Grashberg Gold
Mine has mined 58,474,392 gr gold and 174,458,971 gr silver
Indonesian Gold Production

Figure 2 Indonesian Gold Production from 2013 – 2018


Chapter 2
2.1. Processing
1. Amalgamation
This is an ancient process which involves the alloying of the gold particles with
metallic mercury to form amalgam and then the separation of the gold from the mercury
by heating in retorts until the mercury is distilled off.

2. Gravity Concentration
Gravity concentration processes rely on the principal that gold contained within
an ore body is higher in specific gravity than the host rocks that contain the gold.
Elemental gold has a specific gravity of 19.3, and typical ore has a specific gravity of
about 2.6. All gravity concentration devices create movement between the gold and
host rock particles in a manner to separate the heavy pieces from the lighter pieces of
material.

3. Flotation
The flotation process consists of producing a mineral concentrate through the
use of chemical conditioning agents followed by intense agitation and air sparging of
the agitated ore slurry to produce a mineral rich foam concentrate.

4. Cyanide Process
It is the most common used process for gold extraction. This process involves
the dissolution of gold (and of any silver present in soluble form) from the ground ore
in a dilute cyanide solution (usually NaCN or KCN) in the presence of lime and oxygen.

5. Heap Leaching
Heap leaching was introduced in the 1970’s as a means to drastically reduce
gold recovery costs. Heap leaching involves placing crushed or run of mine ore in a
pile built upon an impervious liner. Cyanide solution is distributed across the top of the
pile and the solution percolates down through the pile and leaches out the gold. The
gold laden pregnant solution drains out from the bottom of the pile and is collected for
gold recovery by either carbon adsorption or zinc precipitation. The barren solution is
then recycled to the pile.

2.2 Examples of Commercial Mining & Recovery of Gold

2.2.1 Case Study 1: Newmont Mining Corporation


1. Mining
To define the ore from the waste rock, samples are taken at set intervals along
surveyed lines within the pit. These samples are assayed. Assay results are used to mark
out areas of ore and waste rock, which are mined separately. Some of the harder areas
require blasting to loosen the rock prior to excavation by hydraulic diggers. Dump
trucks haul the rock to the primary crushers.

2. Crushing
The primary crushers - two Stamlers and a jaw crusher - located at the mine
site, receive ore and waste at separate times. They break the larger rocks down to a size
suitable for transport on the conveyor.

3. Transport
A rubber belted conveyor transports the ore and waste rock to the mill and waste
disposal area. Large electromagnets remove any steel debris excavated from the old
workings.

4. Grinding and Sizing


Ore is stockpiled at the mill before being fed into a semiautogenous grinding
(SAG) mill with lime, water and steel balls. The larger particles from this mill are
returned to the SAG mill for more grinding. The finer particles receive more grinding
in a ball mill, and are size classified to give a final product of 80% <70 microns.

5. Leaching & Adsorption


A slurry of ground ore, water and a weak cyanide solution is fed into large steel
leach tanks where the gold and silver are dissolved. Following this leaching process
the slurry passes through six adsorption tanks containing carbon granules which adsorb
the gold and silver. This process removes 93% of the gold and 70% of the silver.

6. Elution & Electrowinning


The loaded carbon is fed into an elution column where the bullion is washed
off. The barren carbon is recycled. The wash solution—pregnant electrolyte—is passed
through electrowinning cells where gold & silver is won onto stainless steel cathodes.

7. Bullion Production
The loaded cathodes are rinsed to yield a gold and silver bearing sludge which
is dried, mixed with fluxes and put into the furnace. After several hours the molten
material is poured into a cascade of moulds producing bars of doré bullion.

8. Water Treatment
Some water from dewatering the mine, from the embankment underdrains and
decantation from the tailings pond is recycled for use in the grinding circuit. Excess
water is pumped to the Water Treatment Plant and treated to the required standards
before discharge into the river.

9. Tailings Disposal
Waste rock from the mine is used to build the embankment structures. The
embankment retains the tailings slurry in a pond where solids settle and compact. Water
is decanted off and used in the process plant or treated before it is discharged.

2.3. GOLD REFINING


Gold refining is refers to processes used to extract and separate the precious
metals in mined mineral, dore, and from recycled products (jewellery and electronics).
The main techniques used to remove the final impurities to create high caratage gold
are summarised below :
Table 3 Gold Refining Techniques

The two gold refining methods most commonly employed to derive pure gold
are : the Miller process and the Wohlwill process.
1. The Miller process uses gaseous chlorine to extract impurities when gold is at
melting point; impurities separate into a layer on the surface of the molten purified
gold. The Miller process is rapid and simple, but it produces gold of only about
99.5 percent purity.
2. The Wohlwill process increases purity to about 99.99 percent by electrolysis. In
this process, a casting of impure gold is lowered into an electrolyte solution of
hydrochloric acid and gold chloride. Under the influence of an electric current, the
gold migrates to a negatively charged electrode (cathode), where it is restored to a
highly pure metallic state, leaving the impurities as a separate solution or residue.

The diagram below gives an overview of the key processes involved in the refining
of gold and silver. Please note that this is highly simplified and does not detail the many
sub-processes involved within each key process, the chemical inputs involved in each
process, as well how the waste outputs from each process are handled.
Figure 3 Metal Refining Process

2.3.1 Case Study :Gold Refining in The Perth Mint, Australia

Gold mines process ore using various techniques to produce an alloy composed
primarily of gold and silver, which is called a dore bar. The composition of dore can
vary significantly between mines, but generally the gold dore bars the Perth Mint
processes are composed of between 70-80% gold and 10-15% silver.
Dore bars are first weighed and melted to ensure the metal is homogenous, that
is, that there are no pockets of high or low purity within the bar. A sample is taken from
this melted dore and assayed to determine the exact amount of gold and silver present.
The miner then receives an outturn, which is a statement indicating the weight of the
dore bar, the percentage of gold and silver in the bar, and from these two, a calculated
amount of pure gold and silver. Miners will then either sell this pure gold and silver for
cash, or request a loco swap. The dore bar then becomes the property of the refiner.
The dore bar first goes through a chlorine refining process, also known as the
Miller process. This involves bubbling chlorine gas through the molten dore metal in
which the silver (and most other metals) react with the chlorine to form silver chloride
as a slag on top. This process produces gold to a purity of 99.5%, which is usually cast
directly into odd weight 400oz bars used in the wholesale markets.
The key output of the chlorine refining process is silver chloride, which enters
a silver leaching process to remove the base metals. The silver chloride is then reduced
to metallic silver and is then refined by electrolysis. If there is demand in the market
for a higher purity gold, then the 99.5% pure gold from the chlorine refining process is
cast into anodes to be used in the electrolytic refining process, also known as the
Wohlwill process. The anodes are placed into a bath of hydrochloric acid and an
electric current is passed through it, which causes the gold to dissolve and then deposit
on a cathode at purity of 99.99%.
The resulting cathodes are melted, granulated and the then granules are used to
measure out exact weights of gold for casting into bar sizes from kilo (32.15 ounces)
down to half ounce.
2.4. Gold derivative product
2.4.1 Gold as Electroplating
It is one of the processes of coating solid materials with metal layers using
electric current through an electrolyte solution. The basic principle of electroplating is
the placement of coating metal ions on the substrate which will be coated with the
substrate through the electrolysis method, which is to decompose the chemical
compounds in an electrolyte solution by flowing direct current. Electric current flowing
in the solution causes a chemical reaction, namely the decomposition reaction of ions
in solution. Positive ions will move to the cathode and negative ions will move towards
the anode so that the substrate occurs. Anode is an electrode that produces electrons,
while the cathode electrode that receives electrons is the place of deposition during the
electroplating process.The gold electroplating process is carried out through several
stages, including:

Metal

solvent Lipid removing Solvent + lipid

Water Flushing Output

alkali descalling Alkali

Water Flushing Output water

acid Acidification Acid solution

Metal salt Coating CN solution &coated metal

water Flushing CN, metal, alkali, acid, solvent

Product

1) Fat removal
Purpose: clean metal from fat using a solvent.
The fat attached to the surface of the gold makes the coating difficult to stick to the surface
so that the product is striped during coating (electroplating). Fat removal can use a solvent
in the form of benzene. Then rinse with water to clean the fat and the rest of the solvent.
2) Descalling
Objective: further metal cleaning using a sodium carbonate base solution.
Then rinsing is done.
3) Acidification
Purpose: acidification or stripping aims to remove crust or rust from metal.
Acidification uses a solution of sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid.

4) Electroplating
The working principle of electroplating is to provide a potential difference
between the gold plate (anode) and the ring (cathode) by connecting with the
battery in an electrolyte solution, namely gold chloride.When the current flows,
there will be a chemical reaction in the system. A positive ion in an electrolyte
solution (Au3 +) will move closer to the negative pole (cathode) and negative ions
in the electrolyte solution (Cl3-) will move closer to the positive pole (anode).

AuCl3 (aq) Au3 + (aq) + Cl3- (aq)

Oxidation reactions occur in the anode where the gold plate will release
electrons and the reduction reaction occurs at the cathode where the ring will
receive electrons.

Gold plate (anode): Au3 + (s) Au (aq) + 3e (oxidation)


Ring (cathode): Au3 + (aq) + 3e Au (s) (reduction)

After arriving at the ring, Au3 + receives electrons through an electric current
from the gold plate so that it becomes neutral and attaches to the ring. The
thickness of the gold or gold alloy layer ranges from 0,000.002 - 5 ", the coating
time is 5-30 seconds.

2.4.2 Industrial Tree


1) Gold in Outer Space

Outer space Gold-coated visors help protect astronauts' eyes from dangerous rays
in space. Gold is also used on various surfaces of spacecraft, including the windshields
of jets, as well as modules and space stations because of its high resistance to solar
radiation. Back on earth, city buildings like the Royal Bank Plaza in Toronto, also
benefit from gold's reflective properties. Its 14,000 windows are coated with a thin
layer of 24 carat gold – around 2,500 ounces – to reflect light and reduce power bills.
In Aerospace technology using gold raw materials, the application of gold coatings is one
of them to control temperature in space and gold has become the material of choice for a variety
of uses of temperature control. Heat is transferred without working fluid, only by conduction
or radiation. The use of working fluid involves a pipe, for circulation and radiator facilities. In
this technology as much as possible is avoided to minimize the weight or complexity of the
system, or because of the risk of any system failure that has a moving component. To control
radiation energy in space, US. The engineering team decided to use stable inorganic coatings.
This approach is called "passive temperature control" and in the layers the gold has a unique
utility. The peak radiation wavelengths from various sources depend on temperature, objects
at high enough temperatures (eg 800 ° C to 1000 ° C) have peak radiation in the infrared short
wavelength region (from one to 15 microns).
In addition, gold in aerospace is useful for coating the glass layer of astronaut helmets using
a method for deposition of gold in both metal and non-metallic surfaces, by spraying an
aqueous solution of gold salt mixed with aliphatic amines so that metal and non-metallic
surfaces reduce solution containing hydrazine and adherent layers of metal produced. In
making astronaut glass helmets, the thickness that has been measured using a thin layer of gold
on the glass is around 1000 Angstroms (0.000004 inches). about two grams of gold (worth
around $ 2.50) is needed to cover one square meter with a layer of 1000 A in thickness, in this
manufacturing process it takes a cost of $ 84.50 if it is assumed that the current gold price is $
42. for glass helmets astronauts have been used in military aviation for about a decade. In its
application, the reflective layer doubles its purpose as an additional optical layer to reduce glare
from sunlight and capture enough light.

2) Gold in food and drinks


Gold used in fancy foods is usually called gold leaf. There are various variations of
rust and color, but 22 carat yellow gold is the most widely used. Gold leaf contains
92% pure gold. Gold sheets that are labeled food-grade can be used as decorations for
non-toxic foods and beverages. However, leaves, powder, or gold powder are just safe
to consume, but do not contain any nutrients and do not affect health. Generally, this
luxury object is used to give the impression of being expensive or increasing selling
points. 20 gold leaves (24 Karat - Standard 999/1000), Size of each leaf approx. 1.6" x
1.6" or 4 cm x 4 cm, Food Quality Gold Leaf (EDIBLE), Mask your face for young
skin look and anti winkle, Pure natural gold improves the skin and popular in interior
design and artistic work, Price $ 9,17
3) Electrical conduit
Highly conductive to electricity, gold has been used in telecommunications
equipment since the 1930s. From fuses to switches to microchips in computers and
mobile phones, gold is a preferred material for its high conductivity and its resistance
to corrosion. Even the identification microchip implanted in the family pet likely
contains gold.
4) Gold in the health sector
Nanotechnology Gold’s enduring qualities are finding applications in the 21st
century that the Egyptian pharaohs could never have imagined. The number of
published patents using the words ‘gold’ and ‘nanoparticles’ has grown from virtually
zero in the 1990s to more than 1,500 in recent years.5 Researchers are finding that
gold’s application as a nanomaterial – a nanometre is one billionth the size of a metre
– can be used to deliver drugs into the human body; to create conducting plastics and
specialised pigments; or advanced catalysts which can purify water or air.6 The
nanotechnology boom has opened up a new frontier of early detection, diagnosis and
treatment of diseases. Gold nanoparticles are being used to target and deliver antibodies
directly into cancerous tumors. They are also being engineered to attach to cancer-
related proteins to aid earlier detection of some cancers, such as prostate cancer. In the
developing world, simple and cost-effective diagnostic tests are making inroads into
the detection of malaria.
Gold nanoparticles drive a colour change if malaria is present in a drop of blood
applied to a test strip. According to the World Health Organisation, 319 million malaria
rapid diagnostic tests were sold in 2013. Gold nanotechnology is also revolutionising
health analytics. One company is using gold electrodes and wires just a few hundred
nanometers thick on skin patches that monitor patient hydration and inflatable balloon
catheters that measure a person’s heartbeat. Serpentine gold wires elongate when the
polymers stretch, according to the MIT Technology Review, and the electrodes
measure electrical impedance in cardiac tissue or moisture levels in the skin. 7
Environmental nanotechnology is also gaining momentum, finding new solutions to
old problems.
Specially designed chemical catalysts, which help to break down contaminants
in groundwater into their component parts, are being used by researchers from Rice
University, Stanford University and DuPont Chemicals as an efficient and cost-
effective way of managing groundwater contamination. The gold and palladium
catalyst removes chlorinated compounds from water in laboratory conditions. The trial
was conducted with a plant installed at a site in Kentucky, and the catalyst was
successfully trialled in 2014.8 At nanoscale, gold displays unique properties which
scientists around the world are still unravelling, but the prognosis is good. Gold
promises to be the alchemy of the 21st century and its increasing application in the
medical field, as well as across industry and the environment, indicates demand for
Australia’s gold will remain strong for decades to come.
Chapter 3
Economic

3.1. Price Of Gold

Figure 4 Price of Gold

3.2. Price of electroplating


The price of gold :
The price of gold/grams = $ 41.45
Today's dollar exchange rate = IDR 14,160 / dollar
Gold/grams = Rp. 586,896
On electroplating in the electronics industry
The plating price = $ 0.20/ gilding
Amount must be = 100
Product price = $ 0.92 / item
Total profit = $ 72/100 qty