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EXERCISE: NOMINALIZATION

Fill in all the gaps with nominalizations.

The ____________________ (diversify) of life has been driven in part by ____________________ (vary) in the physical

environment. No single kind of living thing can perform well in all environments. The differences among living things that

enable them to live in different kinds of environments and adopt different lifestyles are called ____________________

(adapt). For a long period of time, there was no life on Earth. Then there was an extended period of only uni-cellular life,

followed by a ____________________ (proliferate) of multi-cellular life. In other words, the nature and diversity of life has

changed over time. ____________________ (identify) of the processes that result in biological ____________________

(evolve) was one of the great scientific advances of the nineteenth century.

Workers in a wide ____________________ (vary) of jobs are rewarded for their effort on observed

____________________ (measure) of ____________________ (perform). The intuitive logic for performance-based

____________________ (compensate) is to provide ____________________ (motivate) to individuals for an

____________________ (increase) in their efforts and the output of their labor.


EXERCISE: NOUN-BASED PHRASES
Rewrite the following sentences using a noun-based phrase instead of the “wh” clause.

Many futile attempts have been made to teach animals to speak how humans speak.
Many futile attempts have been made to teach animals to speak in human fashion.

I cannot avoid the feeling why we were disenchanted was simply because of the kinds of problems we were given.
I cannot avoid the feeling that the reason for our disenchantment lay simply in the kinds of problems we were given.

1. On the surface, why women and domestic architecture were associated were obvious.
On the surface, ________________________________________________________________________________ were obvious.

2. But even in this he is a failure as he can't remember a word, nor does he know why he is going to be executed.
But even in this he is a failure as he can't remember a word, nor does he know __________________________________________.

It is essential to discuss how much cultural and biological evolution can be explained by similar principles.
It is essential to discuss the extent to which cultural and biological evolution can be explained by similar principles.

3. It follows that the key issue is how much there was a significant Soviet threat to those supplies.
It follows that the key issue is _____________________________________ there was a significant Soviet threat to those supplies.

4. Anthony Eden, the Foreign Secretary, asked them how much the full internationalisation of civil aviation was possible.
Anthony Eden, the Foreign Secretary, asked them __________________ the full internationalisation of civil aviation was possible.

5. How much precaution is taken is regularly reviewed in the light of the patient's progress.
__________________________________________________________ is regularly reviewed in the light of the patient's progress.

6. Many factors must be considered in explaining how fast the population has grown in the developing countries.
Many factors must be considered in explaining ____________________________________________ in the developing countries.

7. How long the prisoner stays in prison is determined by someone who has not heard any representations by or on behalf of the
prisoner on grounds which the prisoner does not know.
________________________________________________________________________________________ is determined by
someone who has not heard any representations by or on behalf of the prisoner on grounds which the prisoner does not know.

8. How big this group is varies in different centres.


________________________________________ varies in different centres.

9. Menzel (1973) has shown that non-speaking chimpanzees can convey where food is to one another.
Menzel (1973) has shown that non-speaking chimpanzees can convey ___________________________________ to one another.

The week following admission appears to be when the risk is greatest.


The week following admission appears to be the time of greatest risk.

10. It is important to remember that whatever type of subsequent care is to occur, the period after discharge may be when things
are particularly difficult.
It is important to remember that whatever type of subsequent care is to occur, the period after discharge may be
________________________________________________________________________________________________________.

When I was fifteen or sixteen none of my peers were interested in such matters.
At the age of fifteen or sixteen none of my peers were interested in such matters.

11. When the riots occurred, 36 per cent of the workforce in Handsworth was out of work.
______________________________________________________, 36 per cent of the workforce in Handsworth was out of work.

12. These star charts were provided to enable the deceased to tell what time it is and what day it is.
These star charts were provided to enable the deceased to tell ________________________________________________ and
____________________________________________________.