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Forging of Stainless Steel

Revised by Thomas Harris and Eugene Priebe, Armco Inc.


1. A.M. Sabroff, F.W. Boulger, and H.J. Henning, Forging Materials and Practices, Reinhold, 1968
2. H.J. Henning, A.M. Sabroff, and F.W. Boulger, A Study of Forging Variables, Report ML-TDR-64-95, U.S.
Air Force, 1964
3. Open Die Forging Manual, 3rd ed., Forging Industry Association, 1982, p 106-107
4. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Division I, Figure NB-2433.1-1, American Society of
Mechanical Engineers, 1986
5. The Making, Shaping, and Treating of Steel, 8th ed., United States Steel Corporation, 1964, p 617

Forging of Heat-Resistant Alloys

Revised by S.K. Srivastava, Haynes International, Inc.


THE FORGING INDUSTRY has incorporated numerous technological innovations during the last two decades. The use
of computer-aided design, manufacture, and engineering is particularly significant in the forging of heat-resistant alloys
because of the premium placed on higher quality and lower cost. On one hand, the thrust of alloy development has been to
increase the service temperature, which means lower forgeability of the alloys. On the other hand, near-net shape
manufacturing demands even closer control on the final shape. Machining of these alloys is difficult and expensive and
can sometimes amount to 40% of the cost of production. The complexity of these demands makes computers more
relevant to the portion of the forging industry concerned with heat-resistant alloys. Computers can analyze and simulate
the forging process, predict material flow, optimize the energy consumption, and perform design and manufacturing
functions. More information on the use of computers in the modeling of the forging process is available in the Section
"Computer-Aided Process Design for Bulk Forming" in this Volume.

Forgings of heat-resistant alloys are widely used in the power, chemical, and nuclear industries; as structural components
for aircraft and missiles; and for gas-turbine and jet-engine components such as shafts, blades, couplings, and vanes.
Because of their greater strength at elevated temperatures, these alloys are more difficult to forge than most metals. Heat-
resistant alloys are more difficult to forge than stainless steels (see the article "Forging of Stainless Steel" in this Volume).
Generally, these alloys can be grouped into two categories:

· Solid solution strengthened alloys such as Alloy X (UNS N06002)

· ' strengthened alloys such as Waspaloy (UNS N07001)

The latter group is much more difficult to forge than the former.

Forging of Heat-Resistant Alloys

Revised by S.K. Srivastava, Haynes International, Inc.

Forging Methods