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Basic Theory of Elasticity: Problem Solvability

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Basic Theory of Elasticity: Solvability

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Basic Theory of Elasticity: Solvability

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Basic Theory of Elasticity: Material Properties

AE221 Flight Vehicle Structures / L3-4 / DRM


Basic Theory of Elasticity: Material Properties

AE221 Flight Vehicle Structures / L3-4 / DRM


Basic Theory of Elasticity: Material Properties

AE221 Flight Vehicle Structures / L3-4 / DRM


Basic Theory of Elasticity: Material Properties

AE221 Flight Vehicle Structures / L3-4 / DRM


Basic Theory of Elasticity: Material Properties

AE221 Flight Vehicle Structures / L3-4 / DRM


Basic Theory of Elasticity: Material Properties

AE221 Flight Vehicle Structures / L3-4 / DRM


Basic Theory of Elasticity: Material Properties

AE221 Flight Vehicle Structures / L3-4 / DRM


More Generalized Definition of Strain and Stress

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Review some of the basic quantities and their definition

• Engineering Strain (uses original length) and


True Strain (uses current length)

• Engineering Stress (uses original reference configuration),


True Stress (uses current configuration),
Material
ate a Models
ode s (usua
(usually
y de
defined
ed in o
original
g a configuration)
co gu at o )

• Strain Energy: Recall virtual work definition

AE221 Flight Vehicle Structures / L3-4 / DRM


Review Strength and Stiffness related Quantities

- Stiffness indicates the Elastic constants, Tangent modulus

- Strength indicates: yield stress, fracture stress, critical buckling stress

Critical state of stress from material failure point of view


- Look at the sleep planes in the material, principal stress, principal strain etc.
y
Ty Principal plane is a plane on which there exists only
Tn normal stress.
 zz T  n  n x  n y  n z
 xx Tz Tx x  Tx  Ty  Tz  n x  n y  n z

 ( xxn x   xy n y   xz n z )  ( xy n x   yy n y   yz n z )
 yy
z  ( xz n x   yz n y   zz n z )  n x  n y  n z
 xx    xy  xz   n x  0
    
   xy  yy    yz  n y   0
  xz
  yz  zz     nz  0
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y
Characteristic equation:
Ty
Tn  xx    xy  xz 
 zz  
Det   xy  yy    yz   0
 xx Tz Tx x   xz  yz  zz   

 yy  3  J1 2  J 2  J 3  0 In (x,y,z) ref. frame


z
 3  J1' 2  J 2'   J 3'  0 In (x’,y’,z’) ref. frame
So, J1, J2 and J3 are invariants of stress Chosen nontrivial solution

J1   xx   yy   zz n x2  n 2y  n z2  1

 xx  xy  yy  yz  xx  xz
J2   
 xy  yy  yz  zz  xz  zz

 xx  xy  xz
J 3   xy  yy  yz
 xz  yz  zz
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Principal stress for Plan Stress Problem
y E ilib i
Equilibrium equations:
ti
n Tx   xx cos   xy sin 
  Fx  0 

 xx  Fy  0  T y   yy sin    xy cos
x
 xy
Rotation of reference frame:
 yy
   cos sin   Tx 
   T 

    sin  cos   y 
So
So,
 x  y  x  y
  cos 2   xy sin 2
2 2
 x  y
 sin 2   xy cos 2
2 2 xy
If this is the principal plane, then  0  tan 2 
 x  y
Substituting back, the principal stresses are
1/ 2

 x  y  x  y  2 
   2 
   xy
2  2  
  AE221 Flight Vehicle Structures / L3-4 / DRM
Maximum Principal Stress Theory

• Applicable to mostly porous solid which undergoes failure under hydrostatic pressure.

• This does not apply to most crystalline and amorphous solids


like metals and alloys.
1
Failure criteria:   ( xx   yy   zz )  p   yield
3

Maximum Shear Test Theory

Applicable to ductile solid having plastic flow initiation by shear stress.


 xx   yy  yyield
Maximum shear stress at yield point  max  
2 2
where  yield is the yield stress under tension.

Maximum Elastic Strain Theory


 yield
11  11  ( 22   33 ) 
1
E E
Not applicable to material undergoing triaxial compression.
AE221 Flight Vehicle Structures / L3-4 / DRM
Von Mises Failure Criteria
k is a parameter which is constant
f a virgin
for i i material
t i lbbutt d
depends
d on
• Widely applicable to ductile solids. J2  k 2 the amount of plastic strain otherwise.
In terms of principal stresses, (1   2 ) 2  ( 2   3 ) 2  ( 3  1) 2  6k 2
In terms of component of stress tensor,

( xx   yy ) 2  ( yy   zz ) 2  ( zz   xx ) 2  6( 2yz   xz
2   2 )  6k 2
xy

Drucker Prager Failure Criteria


Drucker-Prager

Incorporates the effect of hydrostatic pressure in the Von Mises criteria.

J1  J  k

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Principal Components of Strain and Stress, Application in Design

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Principal Components of Strain and Stress, Application in Design

AE221 Flight Vehicle Structures / L3-4 / DRM


Principal Components of Strain and Stress, Application in Design

AE221 Flight Vehicle Structures / L3-4 / DRM


Model Simplification, Model Reduction

AE221 Flight Vehicle Structures / L3-4 / DRM


Model Simplification, Model Reduction

AE221 Flight Vehicle Structures / L3-4 / DRM


Model Simplification, Model Reduction

AE221 Flight Vehicle Structures / L3-4 / DRM


Model Simplification, Model Reduction

AE221 Flight Vehicle Structures / L3-4 / DRM


Model Simplification, Model Reduction

AE221 Flight Vehicle Structures / L3-4 / DRM


Model Simplification, Model Reduction

AE221 Flight Vehicle Structures / L3-4 / DRM


Model Simplification, Model Reduction

AE221 Flight Vehicle Structures / L3-4 / DRM


Model Simplification, Model Reduction

AE221 Flight Vehicle Structures / L3-4 / DRM


Model Simplification, Model Reduction

AE221 Flight Vehicle Structures / L3-4 / DRM