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Part I: Skills on Sentence Combining

1. Inserting Words 2. Inserting Phrases


1. Inserting Words † Combining two sentences by † Prepositional Phrases
2. Inserting Phrases inserting words: 1. John lives in a house.
1. I like cake. The flavor of cake is This house has a door located on the front.
3. Creating Compound Subjects, Verbs and (Hint: with)
Predicates chocolate.
† John lives in a house with a door located
† I like chocolate-flavored cake. on the front.
4. Creating a Compound Sentence
2. John lives in a house. This house is † I like to go fishing.
5. Creating a Complex Sentence big and white. It is a sunny day. (Hint: on)
† John lives in a big and white house. † I like to go fishing on a sunny day.

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Practical exercise for inserting


Inserting Participle Phrases participle phrases Inserting Appositive Phrases
† The hikers struggled on the mountain. † The ship was badly damaged by the storm. The ship 1. Neil Amstrong is best known for his historic first
finally reached a safe harbor. steps on the moon. Neil Amstrong is a former
They were gasping for breath and nearly † Badly damaged by the storm, the ship finally reached U.S. astronaut.
exhausted. a safe harbor. „ Neil Amstrong, a former U.S. astronaut, is
† Globalization brings people and institutions in distant best known for his historic first steps on the
† The hikers, gasping for breath and nearly parts of the world closer economically. This enhances moon.
exhausted, struggled on the mountain. their opportunities to trade goods, services and labor. 2. The pilot was stranded for twelve hours inside of
† They talked excitedly. † Globalization brings people and institutions in distant his jet. The pilot was a former Air Force
parts of world closer economically, enhancing their mechanic. His jet was a Cessna Skylane.
They were separated for a long time. opportunities to trade goods, services and labor.
The pilot, a former Air Force mechanic, was
† Separated for a long time, they talked stranded for twelve hours inside of his jet, a
excitedly. Cessna Skylane.

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3. Building Compound Subjects, Verbs


Practical exercise for inserting and Predicates
Inserting Absolute Phrases Absolute phrases
† John returned, shuddering, three minutes 1. A volcano begins as molten rock beneath
later. His arms were soaked and red to the † I stood in the doorway of the boxcar, rocking with the earth’s surface. It gradually rises
elbows. the motion of the train.
My ears were full of the rushing wind and the upward.
† John returned, shuddering, three minutes clattering wheels. A volcano begins as molten rock beneath
later, his arms soaked and red to the † I stood in the doorway of the boxcar, rocking with
elbows. the motion of the train, my ears full of the rushing
the earth’s surface and gradually rises
† The hunters rested for a moment in front of wind and the clattering wheels. upward.
the shack. Their breaths were white in the † The woman was busy with her housework. 2. Volcanoes can create land area. Glaciers
frosty air. † The breeze blew through the windows and made her can also create land area. They both can
relaxed.
† The hunters rested for a moment in front of † The woman was busy with her housework, the breeze destroy land area.
the shack, their breaths white in the blowing through the windows, making her relaxed. Volcanoes and glaciers can create and
frosty air. destroy land area.
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4. Building a Compound Sentence 5. Building a Complex Sentence 5. Building a Complex Sentence
† Use coordinate conjunctions when two † Use subordination to help the main idea stand out 4. Children are receptive to computers. They
sentences are about equally important. and to clarify relationships in sentence.
learn about them at an early age.( Adverb
1. Janet received a grant. She wanted to study
† Arteries carry blood away from the heart. thermal science. (Adjective clause) clause)
Veins carry blood to the heart. † Janet, who received a grant, wanted to study † Children are receptive to computers,
† Arteries carry blood away from the heart, thermal science. because they learn about them at an early
but veins carry blood to the heart. 2. Here is a machine called a respirator. The machine
age.
† Arteries carry blood away from the heart; helps patients breathe. (Adjective clause)
veins carry blood to the heart. † Here is a machine called a respirator that helps 5. Someone will arrive first. That person will
patients breathe. get the best seat. (Noun clause)
† Arteries carry blood away from the heart, 3. Sailing ships were sometimes trapped in the harbor
while veins carry blood to the heart. bay. There wasn’t enough wind to sail. (Adverb † Whoever arrives first will get the best seat.
clause)
† Sailing ships were sometimes trapped in the harbor
Technical bay when there wasn’t enough wind to sail.Technical Technical
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1.Add variety to your sentences in


Part II: Skills on writing 2. Add emphasis to parts of your
these ways:
effective sentences sentences by using:
† The following guidelines will help you (1)Structure: Use a variety of clauses and (1.) Parallelism: Items in a series should have
effectively compose or write your phrases within your sentence and vary their the same grammatical form.
sentences: order within the sentence. This will help you Incorrect: Three requirements for good health
1. Add variety to your sentences. avoid beginning each sentence in the same are good nutrition, getting enough sleep, and
2. Add emphasis to parts of your way as well as help you more accurately show to exercise regularly.
sentences. the relative importance of each part of your
sentence. Correct: Three requirements for good health
3. Use concise wording to create are good nutrition, adequate sleep, and
more powerful sentences. (2) Length: In general, use short sentences to
emphasize ideas. Use longer sentences to regular exercise.
4. Put key actions in verbs, not in nouns. explain, define, or illustrate ideas. So, use (2. ) Repetition: Repeat ideas or words (or
5. Use first person pronouns appropriately, or short, simple, and familiar for subject, the words similar in meaning) to emphasize them.
use research scholarly terms as subject in topic of the sentence.
active voice. Example: The child was ready to go, waiting to
6. Avoid using unclear pronoun reference. go, and wanting to go.
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A passive verb will help your readers


move more smoothly from one
Active vs. Passive voice sentence to the next.
† We must decide whether to improve education in the
(3.) Active Voice: In technical writing, use active sciences alone or raise the level of education across the (4.) Structure: Arrange the wording of
verbs rather than passive verbs. whole curriculum. Our decision will be determined by
† Passive: The contest was won by my cousin. the weight we give to industrial competitiveness as the sentence to show the relative
opposed to the value we attach to the liberal arts.
(weaker) importance of ideas.
† Some new questions about the nature of the universe
† Active: My cousin won the contest. (stronger) have been raised by scientists studying black holes in Coordination: Show that two or more
† Note, use passive voice only in the following space. A black hole is created by the collapse of dead
situations: star into a point perhaps no larger than a marble. ideas are of equal importance by using
1. You don’t know who did an action, readers † Explain: The first words in the sentence repeat what we
just read at the end of first sentence, so it will make the
a coordinating conjunction (for, and,
don’t care, or you don’t want them to know. sentences flow more smoothly. In other words, these nor, but, or, yet, so) to connect words,
2. You want your readers to focus on a particular sentences are cohesive when the last few words of one
character. set up information that appears in the first few words of phrases, and clauses.
the next.
3. A passive verb will help your readers move
more smoothly from one sentence to the next.
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To contribute to a sense of “flow” 3. Use concise wording to create
in a sentence, we consider “order” more powerful sentences.
Eliminate all grammatically unnecessary wording and
† Subordination: Put the information you want (5.)order redundancy of content. Use a phrase instead of a
† To emphasize a part of a sentence, place it at or toward dependent clause or a word instead of a phrase if
to emphasize in the main clause and the less the beginning of the sentence. you can do so without losing the effectiveness of
important ideas in a dependent clause or Example: Through the gate and down the road galloped the sentence.
the horse. (emphasize: Through the gate and down ) † Example 1. Omit words:
phrase. † Put informations familiar to readers at the beginning Wordy: I feel that my employer has not recognized the
of a sentence, new information at the end. fact that many of the employees of this company
Example: My neighbor listened to † The loose sentence begins with the main point (an feel they are ignored.
music while he was doing yard work. independent clause), followed by particle phrase or
subordinate clause. The loose sentence, often seen
More concise: My employer has not recognized that
many of his employees feel ignored.
in a technical writing, is simpler, more nature and
While my neighbor was doing yard direct.
† Example 2. Combine words groups:
Wordy: John was frustrated and impatient; he had
work, he listened to music. Example: Several applicants arrived early this morning,
hoping to find positions as engineers.
waited for the bus for forty minutes, and the bus
was long overdue.
More concise: John was frustrated and impatient
owing to having waited forty minutes for the long
Technical Technical overdue bus. Technical
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4. Put key actions in verbs, not in 5. Use first person pronouns


nouns Examples for improving key actions. appropriately.
•Avoid using an empty verb such as have, do, make, or be to † During the early years of the Civil War, the South’s † Almost everyone has heard the
introduce an action buried in abstract noun. For examples: attempt at enlisting Great Britain on its side was
met with failure. (Weaker) advice to avoid using I or we in
•Make a consideration -> Consider
† During the early years of the Civil War, the South academic writing. In fact, It depends
•Make(=draw) a conclusion->Conclude
attempted to enlist Great Britain on its side, but and opens differ on this. Frequent
•Make a reservation of -> Reserve failed. using I or we may make writing
•Make a recommendation -> Recommend † The promotion of creative employees is the policy “subjective” or “personal”. So, avoid
•Perform an assignment of -> Assign of this company. using them too often. On the other
-> This company promotes creative employees. hands, to make writing more actively
•Perform an examination of -> Examine
† The implementation of the plan was successful.
•Perform simulation -> Simulate or lively, others encourage using I or
->The plan was implemented successfully.
•Undertake an investigation of -> Investigate We implemented the plan successfully.
we.
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5. Or, use research scholarly terms as 6. Avoid using unclear pronoun


Occasion using I or we subject in active voice. For examples, reference.
† In introduction: I will show/ argue/prove/claim
that S+V+….. † The study applies a novel approach to solve † Common errors are the unclear use of “which”,
† In conclusion: We have concluded/demonstrated the tough problem. “this,” “that,” “these” and “those” to refer to an
that S+V+….
antecedent in a previous clause or sentence.
† The investigation reviews that ……. † Teresa worked in a national forest last summer,
Note: Sometimes, the all-purpose we that refers to which may be her career choice.
people in genera, including readers. † This project attempts to +V+…..
† This paper aims to +V+… † -> Teresa worked in a national forest last
† On the other hands, researchers rarely use the summer, a forest management may be her
first person for an action that others must repeat † Fig. 1 shows(=indicates) that +S+V+… career choice.
to replicate the reported research. Those words
include “calculate”, “divide”, “examine”, “measure”, † This example illustrates that S+V+… † John loved public speaking, and that greatly
and “weigh”. boosted his popularity.
† This report will cover that S+V+….
† E.g., The coefficient of form drug was calculated.
->John loved public speaking, and his speech
† This topic involves that S+V+… greatly boosted his popularity.
Instead, I calculated the coefficient of the form
drug. Technical Technical Technical
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