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Feasibility Study

for a Domestic set up of Manufacturing


Industry for WIND-TURBINES
and their Components.
Issued by Fritz Fahrner; CEO and owner of the company SETEC Dresden

1. Description of the project objective


Wind turbines should be part of today's and tomorrow's energy source, to con-
serve resources of the fossil energy. For this purpose, a local industry for the
production of wind turbines can be established. Wind does not consume any
resources and investing in modern WT is an interesting investment, as energy
production from wind can be very competitive.
After the stage of development, the project should enable the required tech-
nology to be as fully as possible locally available, or provide a complete access
to the technology, for example with the involvement at a foreign research insti-
tution. But such a project will also help to promote domestic industrialization,
and give good chances for next generations.

2. Description of a project implementation:


Cooperation’s such as joint ventures with large international corporations to
build and run local manufacturing facilities, will never allow the intensive inte-
gration and availability of technology, because there is always a level of secrecy
respected. In order to build an industry that is as independent as possible in a
short time, the only possible solution is a technology transfer.
On the other hand, cooperation based on technology transfer allows also in-
tensive training and education of teams of local engineers and skilled workers.
However, it should be noted that the technology supplier can actually provide
the know-how of the key components, and not only deliver lists from where
and which supplier the special parts can be purchased.
In addition, a technology transfer makes it possible to adapt constructive de-
tails of the wind-turbine systems, to make it possible to respect the possibilities
of domestic components production as far as possible.

Feasibility of wind-turbine manufacturing; © by SETEC-Dresden


4. Short definition of possible steps of the project
Here I briefly write down what steps are possible as example, for starting the
domestic production of wind turbines. The integration of wind turbines in local
wind farms is less complicated, since site planning is already active, and is also
carried out by local companies. With the introduction of wind energy in new
countries, many governments have introduced special feed-in tariffs for energy
when most of the equipment comes from domestic factories. However, this
does not ensure that there is a significant impact on the industry know-how
within the country, as in cases of foreign investors their knowhow completely
will remain to with the foreign company. Due to the goal of achieving the best
efficiency for power generation by wind turbines, yet with the lowest mainte-
nance and service costs, the activation of a project for the local wind power
industry first requires the transfer of know-how and the definition of require-
ments.
The main advantages of the optimised wind turbine result from the R&D of
complete hardware and software, as well as the direct drive generator which
has been developed together with the structural components of the wind tur-
bine. This means the components are all optimally tuned to achieve the best
function and lowest costs. Especially for companies that are new to manufac-
turing wind-turbines, the benefits offered are unique and guarantee a high lev-
el of competitiveness right from the start.
Instead of spending a lot of time on theoretical analyses, it makes the most
sense to start building a production for a first sample directly after agreement
of a contract for technology transfer. At same time the training of local techni-
cians will be executed, and this can be most meaningfully taken into account
with a wind turbine size of about 1.5 MW. This leads to following advantages:
 The technology transfer starts directly with the practical training.
 Since larger systems that may be required later have the same structure
and functions, the start of production with 1.5MW is no disadvantage.
 increased chance to get locally made parts already from the beginning.
 lower requirements for infrastructure than say for a 2.5 or 3.5MW
 no financial disadvantage for investment comparing with larger WT.
 Reduced risk if the manufacturing process requires a correction during
the manufacturing of the first sample due to the availability of material.
Note: A possible project sequence can be seen in the appendix. However, a
detailed statement can only be made after analysis of the local options for pro-
duction and material availability. The description of the innovations in contrast
to the known systems, are also attached as an annex.

Feasibility of wind-turbine manufacturing; © by SETEC-Dresden


5. The factory for assembling the wind turbines
The first step should be to get a factory for assembling the wind-turbine parts.
The technical definitions also include the documents for factory equipment and
are part of the technology transfer.
The sketch shows a possible factory layout for example to manufacture 50 sets
of the direct-drive wind-turbine per year.
The workshop consists of 4 lines for the main assembly:
Line 1 and 2: making the magnet-rotor and stator of the generator
and executing the power test.
Line 3: Assembling the nacelle, including the control-system.
Line 4: Assembling the rotor-hub with rotor-blade pitch-system.

Floor dimensions:
Length: 130m; Width: 4x15m; Height: 15m; 4 cranes between 20-40 t
Note: 70 t cranes are required when manufacturing the 2.5MW class.

If a country has the economic opportunity and the potential not only to see
today's business, but also to think long term, then the production and use of
wind turbines is a step in the right direction.
It enables the generation of energy while conserving fossil fuel reserves. At
the same time it will strengthen the industrial development of the country.
The purchase of finished products from abroad only contributes little to this.

Feasibility of wind-turbine manufacturing; © by SETEC-Dresden


6. Low quantity manufacturing: Special Parts to Import
There is some material which need to be imported as long the quantity of
manufacturing is small. All other main parts of the wind-turbine should be pos-
sible to make it domestically.
a) Rotor-blades: e.g. China
b) Permanent-magnets for generator: China
c) Bearings and gears: Germany or China
d) Electronic system; semiconductor: Design and manufacturing
by SETEC-Dresden, but from a local factory for increased quantity.

7. High quantity manufacturing: Special Parts to Import


After the technology transfer for the complete wind turbine structure with
generator, and after the design has been adapted to the locally possible pro-
duction facilities, and after investing in a factory licensed to manufacture the
rotor blades,
the following parts will probably remain for import:
a) Permanent-magnets: China
b) Maybe bearings: Germany or China
c) Electronic: control technology; semiconductors; microcontroller: Germany.
Note: In a further investment step, a license for the hardware and soft-
ware of control technology and power electronics can also be acquired.
Everything was developed by the engineers of SETEC-Dresden.

Feasibility of wind-turbine manufacturing; © by SETEC-Dresden


8. Local manufacturing and processing of parts.
For the production and processing of the main parts of a direct-drive wind tur-
bines, the work from the following branches of industry is needed.
8.1 Example for foundry, machining, generator assembling
Company IGREK – BURSA/Turkey: Using a license of the SETEC 1.5MW, which is
available for average wind application between 5m/s and 10m/s and rotor 83
to 100m diameter
 thus giving superior economy of investment.

The work in the factory for the 1.5MW wind-turbine: Foundry for cast-iron GJS-
400; machining of rotor-hub, mainframe; generator, shaft and axle for the
bearings.
Assembling of generator, hub, nacelle; test of the complete wind-turbine.
outsourced: coil for generator stator; tower; rotor-blades.

3.8m

Cast iron generator stator-


frame and axle on machin-
ing centre. Option: can
be of S355 welded design

Generator stator attached


to a mounting frame, after
assembling of bearings and
laminated core with coils.

Feasibility of wind-turbine manufacturing; © by SETEC-Dresden


Generator Stator: Installation of
phase modules at frame of stator

Generator complete: Assembling of


stator and rotor by special equipment
for precise centre insertion.

Feasibility of wind-turbine manufacturing; © by SETEC-Dresden


Feasibility of wind-turbine manufacturing; © by SETEC-Dresden
8.2 Casting of rotor-hub and the mainframe of nacelle

Feasibility of wind-turbine manufacturing; © by SETEC-Dresden


8.3 Example for Tower Manufacturing; Bending an Welding

Feasibility of wind-turbine manufacturing; © by SETEC-Dresden


8.4 Nacelle with mainframe

8.5 Wind-farm SCADA

Feasibility of wind-turbine manufacturing; © by SETEC-Dresden


8.6 Rotor-blades: Selection and manufacturing
The development of the
rotor blades and their
production technology is
reserved for specialized
companies. The most
suitable rotor blades for
a project are selected
according to different
criteria.
Since the rotor-blades
can be considered as an
independent system, the characteristic values underlying the development are
included in the calculation of the system structure of the wind-turbine.
In general, it is attempted that different lengths of the rotor blades can be used
for one type of wind energy plant, so that the same plant type can be used for
different wind classes. Since the control of the rotor blade angle depending on
the wind, has a strong impact on the loads and also on the entire wind-turbine,
special controllers have been developed by SETEC. Among other things, also
the low-cost wind measurement developed by SETEC on the front of the sys-
tem will reduce the loads. By selecting of the rotor blades, our system design
allows the efficient use at average wind of about 5.5m/s, but as well it is
adoptable for use in typhoon areas.
Compared to the standard of market, the in-house concept of the rotor blade
control allows almost that existing rotor blades are suitable for a stronger wind
class. (see also the attachment).

Procedure of selection.
a. For a type of plant matching products are selected on the market, al-
ways trying to get the rotor surface in relation to the allowable wind strength
and power as large as possible.
b. In parallel with the selection, it is analysed where appropriate facto-
ries are available for the selected rotor-blades and what is the effort for
transport.
c. In addition, it is also considered whether licenses for the products are
to be obtained, because already with a planned production of about 30-50 WT,
a license may have paid off through a local production.

Feasibility of wind-turbine manufacturing; © by SETEC-Dresden


ATTACHMENT: Time schedule for project of technology transfer:
Direct-drive wind-turbine; 1.5MW; 93 m rotor; tower 100m;
WORK STEPS / MONTH (Temporary) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1
0 1 2 3 4
DEFINITIONS
1 Local requirements at site of installation and operation x
2 Definition of rotor-blade x
3 Tower high / rotor-blades / wind-class / topography x
4 Tower high / rotor-blades / wind-class / topography x
Layout / temporary documents
1 Final wind-turbine layout x x
2 Structure, and components of the mechanical system x
3 Generator components definition x x
4 Draft for installation / operation /maintenance x x x
5 Handling and function of electronic system x x x
6 Factory test and delivery of electronic system x x
Drawings for start manufacturing /purchase of material
1 Hub / Generator / Mainframe / Tower x x x x
2 Yaw-system (planetary gear, motor , limit sensors) x x x x
3 Pitch-system (planetary gear, motor , limit sensors) x x x x
4 Bearings x x
5 Auto-lubrication system x
6 Cover and frame of the tower head x x x
7 Electric material (cable etc.) x x x
8 Top-box including yaw electric system (SETEC) x
9 Pitch-system drive cabinets (SETEC) x
10 Power-converter including main-distribution (SETEC) x
11 Tower detail design; including lift; Tower foundation x x x x
12 Definition of grid-connection (transformer, HV switchgear) x
13 Definition of electric components installation x x
14 Certification process (depending on requirements) x x x
Tools and equipment for manufacturing process
1 Assembling of the magnets x x
2 Fabrication of the stack module for stator of generator x
3 Generator assembling (Stator and Rotor) x x x
4 Generator-test bench. x x x
Wind-turbine assembling and factory test
1 Fixing the coils at generator x x
2 Magnets integration x x
3 Generator assembling x x
4 Pitch drives installation at hub x x
5 Yaw drives and control system mounting X x
6 Cabling of power-lines and signals x x
7 Installation if wind sensors and x
8 Nacelle cover and generator cooling system x
9 Function and power tests x
10 Quality check after each step x
Installation and commissioning
1 Instruction for foundation x x
2 Preparing for transport, and transport to the site x x
3 Lifting ( tower, nacelle, generator, hub) x x
4 Commissioning and power generation x x
5 Optimisation of operation (local and remote) x x
6 Preparation for serial manufacturing and start of it x x
Notes: The follow up of this work depends on requirements for certification; availability of: material; components;
equipment for assembling.
Date: Signed: party A Signed: party B

Feasibility of wind-turbine manufacturing; © by SETEC-Dresden


A German company with comprehensive know-how for design of
direct-drive wind-turbines, offers a R&D base in Germany.
The company was founded in 1989 by the current owner and managing director. Since 1997 the focus
was on R&D for wind turbine technology. Our technology offers the opportunity to achieve a signifi-
cant increase in the competitiveness of wind turbines. Our engineers develop the complete hardware
and software in house, building on more than 20 years of experience with wind-power. The result is
the possibility to manufacture a cost minimized wind-turbine. We provide the details on how to
manufacture these parts. This means that also the generator and the complete electronic system can
be made in the factories of the company, which has acquired the technology. The principle structure
of our design is similar as of international leading companies, but we can prove some advantages to
reduce costs and increase reliability and the efficiency of investment.

A short description of the technical highlights.


1. Design of the wind-turbine
We make the R&D for the overall system except for the rotor-blades. The work of our engineers
starts at the connection for foundation, and ends at rotor-hub. Included are all areas of mechanics,
the electric and the control technology. The control-software and the electronic hardware are also
completely developed by our dedicated engineers.

2. Design of the low cost direct-drive permanent magnet generator


The complete design and the manufacturing process description of the direct-drive permanent
magnet generator are executed by our team of engineers. The modular design allows the manufac-
turing in any factory. We specify the complete process

3. The double safe pitch system.


Our AC pitch system not only allows independent pitching of each blade, but an additional function
can also drive each blade back to the starting position. Compared with the standard pitch systems,
this will increase the safety and prevent the wind turbine from damages.

4. The wind turbine control system


The key here is to perform calculations across all the stations inside the wind-turbine. Due to the
comprehensive and direct bus-connection to each station, there is no need of control by PC and PLC.
Comparing with the competitor's system, this function can give obvious advantages. Our system
includes integrated SCADA and condition monitoring. This substantially reduces costs and improves
performance.

5. The azimuth control


Our low costs wind-sensing will improve the power generation by precise tracking of the wind-
direction. Our latest invention is to install a low-cost measurement in front of the rotor. This will
result in more accurate yawing control without delay and less directional error, in order to achieve
higher power generation and reduce the overall system load.

6. The frequency converter


Our converter for direct-drive wind-turbines are updated continuously since 1997. We supplied the
first converter with water-cooling for wind-turbines available at market. One of the special features is
a function, to eliminate high voltage peaks inside of the windings of generators, without using sine
wave filters.
If you need more information, please be sure to contact me. Thank you!
Fritz Fahrner; CEO of SETEC-Dresden; info@setec-dresden.de

Feasibility of wind-turbine manufacturing; © by SETEC-Dresden