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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

Sl. No. NAME OF THE EXPERIMENT Page No.

Simulation of Transient response of RLC Circuit To an input (i) step


1 2
(ii) pulse and(iii) Sinusoidal signals
Analysis of Three Phase Circuit representing the generator transmission
2 7
line and load. plot three phase currents and neutral current.
Simulation of Single Phase full converter using RLE loads and single
3 12
phase AC Voltage Controller using RL loads.
Plotting of Bode plots, Root Locus and Nyquist plots for the transfer
4 23
functions of systems up to 5th order.

5 Power System load flow using Newton-Raphson Technique. 28

6 Modeling of Transformer and simulation of lossy transmission line 34

7 Integrator and Differentiator circuits using OP-AMP. 38

Simulation of D.C separately excited motor using Transfer function


8 43
approach.

9 Simulation of Buck & Boost converters. 45

10 Simulation of single Phase Inverter with PWM control. 51


Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
Expt. No: 1

PSPICE SIMULATION OF SERIES RLC CIRCUITS FOR STEP,


PULSE & SINUSOIDAL INPUTS
Date:

AIM: To study the responses of series RLC circuits for a given step, pulse & sinusoidal inputs.

SIMULATION TOOLS REQUIRED:


PC with PSPICE Software

CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS:
Series RLC circuit for STEP input
1 R1 2 L1 3 4 R2 5 L2 6 7 R3 8 L3 9
50uH 2 OHMS 50uH 8 OHMS 50uH
1 OHM
V1 V2 V3
C1 C2 C3
10UF 10UF 10UF

0
Series RLC circuit for SQUARE input
1 R1 2 L1 3 4 R2 5 L2 6 7 R3 8 L3 9
1 OHM 10uH 2 OHMS 10uH 3 OHMS 10uH

V1 C1 V2 C2 V3 C3
10UF 10UF 10UF

0
Series RLC circuit for SINUSOIDAL input
1 R1 2 L1 3 4 R2 5 L2 6 7 R3 8 L3 9
0.5 OHM 10uH 2 OHMS 10uH 6 OHMS 10uH

V1 C1 V2 C2 V3 C3
10UF 10UF 10UF

0
SPECIFICATIONS:

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
THEORY:

PROGRAMS:

STEP INPUT

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
PULSE INPUT

SINUSOIDAL INPUT

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
PROCEDURE:
1. Write the program in a new text file in PSpice AD.
2. Save the file using the notation filename.cir.
3. Activate the file by opening it.
4. Run the simulation process using blue button.
5. By clicking Add Trace icon, get the required waveform.

MODEL CALCULATIONS:
R
 
2* L
1
0 
L *C
A).OVER DAMPED (    0 )

0 
B) UNDER DAMAPED (   0 )

0 

C) CRITICALLY DAMPED (    0 )

0 

RESULT:

APPLICATIONS:

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
MODEL GRAPH:

SERIES RLC CIRCUIT WITH STEP INPUT


1.5V

1.0V

0.5V

0V
0s 100us 200us 300us 400us 500us 600us 700us 800us
V(3) V(6) V(9)
Time

SERIES RLC CIRCUIT WITH SQUARE INPUT


15V

10V

5V

0V

-5V

-10V

-15V
0s 40us 80us 120us 160us 200us 240us
V(3) V(6) V(9)
Time

SERIES RLC CIRCUIT WITH SINUSOIDAL INPUT


200V

100V

0V

-100V

-200V
0s 10ms 20ms 30ms 40ms 50ms 60ms
V(3) V(6) V(9)
Time

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
Expt. No: 2
PSPICE ANALYSIS OF THREE PHASE CIRCUIT
Date:

AIM: To study the analysis of simple three phase circuit for balanced and unbalanced loads.

SIMULATION TOOLS REQUIRED:


PC with PSPICE Software

CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS:
Three Phase circuit with Balanced load
7

L1 L2 L3
3MH 3MH 3MH

2 4 6
R1 R2 R3 Vx
20 OHMS 20 OHMS 20 OHMS 0V

1 3 5
VS1 VS2 VS3

Three Phase circuit with Unbalanced load


7

L1 L2 L3
3MH 6MH 9MH

2 4 6
R1 R2 R3 Vx
50 OHMS 10 OHMS 15 OHMS 0V

1 3 5
VS1 VS2 VS3

SPECIFICATIONS:

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE

THEORY:

PROGRAMS:

BALANCED LOAD CONDITION

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
UNBALANCED LOAD CONDITION

PROCEDURE:
1. Write the program in a new text file in PSpice AD.
2. Save the file using the notation filename.cir.
3. Activate the file by opening it.
4. Run the simulation process using blue button.
5. By clicking Add Trace icon, get the required waveform.
RESULT:

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
MODEL CALCULATIONS:
A) FOR BALANCED LOAD
Ir 
Iy 
Ib 
In  Ir  Iy  Ib 
B) FOR UNBALANCED LOAD
Ir 
Iy 
s
Ib 
In  Ir00  Iy  1200  Ib  2400 

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
MODEL WAVEFORMS:

INPUT WAVEFORM
200V

100V

0V

-100V

-200V
0s 5ms 10ms 15ms 20ms 25ms 30ms 35ms 40ms
V(1) V(2) V(3)
Time

BALANCED LOAD CONDITION


10A

5A

0A

-5A

-10A
0s 5ms 10ms 15ms 20ms 25ms 30ms 35ms 40ms
I(L1) I(L2) I(L3)
Time

UNBALANCED LOAD CONDITION


20A

10A

0A

-10A

-20A
0s 5ms 10ms 15ms 20ms 25ms 30ms 35ms 40ms
I(L1) I(L2) I(L3)
Time

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
Expt. No: 3(a)
PSPICE ANALYSIS OF SINGLE PHASE FULL CONVERTER
WITH RL & RLE LOADS
Date:

AIM: To analyze the single phase full converter with RL and RLE Loads.

SIMULATION TOOLS REQUIRED:


PC with PSPICE Software

CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS:
Single Phase full converter with RL load
7

3 4
R
XT1 XT3 10 OHMS
8
1 E
Vs 100V
2 9

6 5 L
100MH
XT4 XT2

0
Single Phase full converter with RLE load

3 4
R
XT1 XT3 10 OHMS

1 8
Vs
2

6 5 L
100MH
XT4 XT2

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
SPECIFICATIONS:

THEORY:

PROGRAMS:
WITH RL LOAD

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE

WITH RLE LOAD


SIGLE-PHASE FULL CONVERTER C IRCUIT WITH RLE LOAD

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS FOR ANALYSIS USING CIRCUIT:

Single Phase full converter with RL load

X1 X3
2N1595 2N1595
R1
10 OHMS

V1 = 0V VG1 V1 = 0V VG3
V2 = 100V V2 = 100V
TD = 3333.34US TD = 13333.34US
TR = 1NS TR = 1NS
VS VOFF = 0V TF = 1NS TF = 1NS
FREQ = 50HZ PW = 100US PW = 100US
VAMPL = 169.7V PER = 20000US PER = 20000US

X4 X2
2N1595 2N1595
L1

100 MH

V1 = 0V VG4 V1 = 0V VG2
V2 = 100V V2 = 100V
TD = 13333.34US TD = 3333.34US
TR = 1NS TR = 1NS
TF = 1NS TF = 1NS
PW = 100US PW = 100US
PER = 20000US PER = 20000US

Single Phase full converter with RLE load

X1 X3
2N1595 2N1595
R1
10 OHMS

V1 = 0V VG1 V1 = 0V VG3
V2 = 100V V2 = 100V
TD = 3333.34US TD = 13333.34US
TR = 1NS TR = 1NS
VS VOFF = 0V TF = 1NS TF = 1NS E
FREQ = 50HZ PW = 100US PW = 100US
VAMPL = 169.7V PER = 20000US PER = 20000US
100 V

X4 X2
2N1595 2N1595
L1

100 MH

V1 = 0V VG4 V1 = 0V VG2
V2 = 100V V2 = 100V
TD = 13333.34US TD = 3333.34US
TR = 1NS TR = 1NS
TF = 1NS TF = 1NS
PW = 100US PW = 100US
PER = 20000US PER = 20000US

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
PROCEDURE:
1. Write the program in a new text file in PSpice AD.
2. Save the file using the notation filename.cir.
3. Activate the file by opening it.
4. Run the simulation process using blue button.
5. By clicking Add Trace icon, get the required waveform.

THERITICAL CALCULATIONS:
A)FOR RL LOAD
2V
V 0  M COS ( )

2V
V 0  M COS (____)

 _______ V
B)FOR RLE LOAD
At t   i.e. at t 

. io = 0

We know t    Vm sin( )  E
E
Min value of firing angle   sin 1 ( )  sin 1 ( )  3
Vm

Max value of firing angle 2  180  1 

RESULT:

APPLICATIONS:
The single-phase full-wave controlled rectifier is used to control power flow in many
applications (e.g., power supplies, variable-speed dc motor drives, and input stages of other
converters)

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
MODEL WAVEFORMS FOR FULL CONVERTER:

INPUT WAVEFORM
200V

100V

0V

-100V

-200V
0s 10ms 20ms 30ms 40ms 50ms 60ms
V(1,2)
Time

OUTPUT WAVEFORM WITH RL LOAD


200V

100V

0V

-100V

-200V
0s 10ms 20ms 30ms 40ms 50ms 60ms
V(7)
Time

OUTPUT WAVEFORM WITH RLE LOAD


300V

200V

100V

0V

-100V
0s 10ms 20ms 30ms 40ms 50ms 60ms
V(7)
Time

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
Expt. No: 3(b)
PSPICE ANALYSIS OF SINGLE PHASE AC VOLTAGE
CONTROLLER WITH RL LOAD
Date:

AIM: To analyze the single phase full converter with RL and RLE Loads.

SIMULATION TOOLS REQUIRED:


PC with PSPICE Software

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Single Phase AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER with RL load


XT1

1 2

R
10 OHMS

XT2 3
Vs

L
10MH

0
SPECIFICATIONS:

THEORY:

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE

PROGRAM:

SIGLE-PHASE AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER C IRCUIT WITH RL LOAD

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM FOR ANALYSIS USING CIRCUIT:


X1

2N1595

V1 = 0V
V2 = 100V
TD = 3333.34US
TR = 1NS
TF = 1NS
PW = 100US VG1
PER = 20000US

X2
R1
VS1
2N1595 10 OHMS
VOFF = 0V
VAMPL = 169.7V
FREQ = 50HZ V1 = 0V
V2 = 100V
TD = 13333.34US L1
TR = 1NS
VG2 TF = 1NS 10 MH
PW = 100US
PER = 20000US

PROCEDURE:
1. Write the program in a new text file in PSpice AD.
2. Save the file using the notation filename.cir.
3. Activate the file by opening it.
4. Run the simulation process using blue button.
5. By clicking Add Trace icon, get the required waveform.

THERITICAL CALCULATIONS(FOR RL LOAD):


Wt=______=______ms
V
V 0  M [COS ( )  1]

V
V 0  M [COS (____)  1]

 ______ V

RESULT:

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE

APPLICATIONS:

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
MODEL WAVEFORMS:

INPUT WAVEFORM
200V

100V

0V

-100V

-200V
0s 10ms 20ms 30ms 40ms 50ms 60ms
V(1)
Time
OUTPUT WAVEFORM
200V

100V

0V

-100V

-200V
0s 10ms 20ms 30ms 40ms 50ms 60ms
V(2)
Time

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
Expt. No: 4

STABILITY ANALYSIS OF LINEAR TIME INVARIANT SYSTEMS


(Bode, Root Locus, Nyquist plots using MATLAB)
Date:
AIM: To analyze the stability of given linear time invariant systems using MATLAB.

SIMULATION TOOLS REQUIRED:

PC with MATLAB Software

THEORY:

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
TRANSFER FUNCTION:

The given system is represented by a transfer function as follows

THEORITICAL CALCULATIONS:

Draw Bode, Nyquist and Root locus plots for the given transfer function.

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
PROGRAMS:
BODE PLOT:

NYQUIST PLOT:

ROOT LOCUS PLOT:

PROCEDURE:

1. Open the MATLAB command window clicking on the MATLAB icon.


2. Click on file menu and open new M file.
3. Enter the MATLAB code.
4. Click on the debug menu and run the code.
5. Then copy the obtained plot.

RESULT:

APPLICATIONS:

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
MODEL GRAPHS:
BODE PLOT

NYQUIST PLOT

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
ROOT LOCUS PLOT

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
Expt. No: 5
POWER SYSTEM LOAD FLOW USING GAUSS-SEIDEL AND
NEWTON-RAPHSON TECHNIQUE

Date:

AIM: To find the power flow solution of a given power system using Gauss-Seidel and Newton
Raphson methods.

SIMULATION TOOLS REQUIRED:

PC with MATLAB Software

SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM:

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
THEORY:

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
PROGRAM:

PROCEDURE:

NEWTON – RAPHSON METHOD:


1. Open the MA TLAB Command window by clicking on the MA TLAB.exe icon.

2. Enter the programs LF-Bus, LF-Newton busout and lineflow in the MATLAB Text Editor.
3. Prepare the line, transformer parameters and transformer tap settings data in a matrix named
line data.
4. Run the programs LF-Y-Bus, LF-Newton, busout and line flow in MATLAB Command Window
to get the power flow solution using Newton-Raphson.

RESULT:

APPLICATIONS:

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
Expt. No: 6(a)
MODELING OF TRANSFORMER
Date:
AIM: To simulate an Op-amp based Integrator & Differentiator circuits using Pspice.
SIMULATION TOOLS REQUIRED:
PC with PSPICE Software
CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS:

THEORY:

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
SPECIFICATIONS:

PROGRAMS:

PROCEDURE:
1. Write the program in a new text file in PSpice AD.
2. Save the file using the notation filename.cir.
3. Activate the file by opening it.
4. Run the simulation process using blue button.
5. By clicking Add Trace icon, get the required waveform.

RESULT:

APPLICATIONS:

MODEL GRAPTH

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
Expt. No: 6(b)
PSPICE Simulation of a Lossy Transmission Line

Date:

Aim: Calculation of lossy transmission line parameters by applying PSPICE simulation.

Software tools required: PSPICE

THEORY:
Procedure:

1. Open PSPICE and create 5 sections of a lossless transmission line by placing 5 inductors (use
values of L=10H) in series, then connect each node between the inductors (and the node after the
last inductor) to ground through a capacitor (use C=1nF) as shown in Figure 1. This is the
lumped element model for a lossless transmission line.

Figure 1
2. Calculate the characteristic impedance for this lossless transmission line model.
3. Place a resistor having a value of the characteristic impedance of your line at the end of your
line in parallel with the final capacitor. This is the load.
4. Place a VSIN source on the left side of your circuit and connect it to the line by means of the
first inductor. Adjust VSIN such that it has amplitude of 10 V, phase of 0 degrees, and a
frequency of 1 kHz. Note that VSIN also requires that you set a “Voff” value. Set this to zero.
5. Determine the phase velocity of the transmission line model.
A. The lumped element model is in terms of segments rather than position, so the phase
velocity will be in units of segments/seconds.
B. Place a marker at the node between L2 and L3, between L3 and L4, and between L4
and L5.
C. Go to the Analysis menu and open the setup window. Find the transient analysis
section and then open it. Set the following parameters: Print Step (.01m), final Time (5m), No-
Print Delay (0), and Step Ceiling (.01m). Run the simulation and examine the trace plots
associated with each marker.

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
D. Divide the number of segment by the time difference between the peak for each
marker.
E. Determine the phase velocity for following three cases (1) between L2-L3 and L3-L4,
(2) between L3-L4 and L4-L5, and (3) between L2-L3 and L4-L5. The phase velocity for these
cases should be approximately the same. (See Figure 2)

Figure 2. The phase velocity between segments 3 and 4 is 1/t.

1. Determine the propagation constant, , for this lumped element model.


a. The propagation constant is the position variable quantity.

b. It is easier to determine the wavelength, , and then calculate the propagation constant
as given by   2  .

c. To find the wavelength you need to place a voltage monitor between each segment and
then measure the voltage on each marker at the same time. (see Figure 3)
d. Add more segments until you can map out more than one entire period of the sinusoidal
wave.
e. Plot the voltage as a function of segment number.
f. Measure the period in terms of segments.

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE

Figure 3
2. Compare the relationship of your calculated phase velocity and wavelength to that derived in
the book (Eq. 2.53).
3. Add resistors in series with each inductor that causes the sinusoid to be visibly damped while
still showing oscillation. This lumped element models the finite resistance of the metal lines of
the transmission line. Describe your new circuit and its values for decay constant. Include a
printout with your description.
4. Add resistors in parallel with each capacitor that causes the sinusoid to be visibly damped
while still showing oscillation. This lumped element models the small conductivity of the
insulator (between the two metal lines of the transmission line.
Describe your new circuit and its values for decay constant. Include a printout with your
description.

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
THEROTICAL CALCULATIONS:
L
CHARACTERISTIC IMPEDENCE Z 0  
C
RESULT:

APPLICATION:

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
Expt. No: 7
PSPICE SIMULATION OF INTEGRATOR & DIFFERENTIATOR
Date:

AIM: To simulate an Op-amp based Integrator & Differentiator circuits using Pspice.

SIMULATION TOOLS REQUIRED:

PC with PSPICE Software


CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS:
INTEGRATOR CIRCUIT

DIFFERENTIATOR CIRCUIT

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
THEORY:

PROGRAMS:
INTEGRATOR:

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE

DIFFERENTIATOR:
RESPENSE OF DIFFERENTIATOR

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
PROCEDURE:
1. Write the program in a new text file in PSpice AD.
2. Save the file using the notation filename.cir.
3. Activate the file by opening it.
4. Run the simulation process using blue button.
5. By clicking Add Trace icon, get the required waveform.

MODEL CALCULATION:
A).FOR DIFFERENTATIOR
dV
V 0  RF * C *
dt


B).FOR INTEGRATOR
1 T
R1 * CF 0
V0  Vdt


RESULT:

APPLICATIONS:

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
MODEL WAVEFORMS:

INTEGRATOR INPUT & OUTPUT WAVEFORMS


1.0V

0V

-1.0V

-2.0V
V(1)
5.0V

0V

SEL>>
-5.0V
0s 0.5ms 1.0ms 1.5ms 2.0ms 2.5ms 3.0ms 3.5ms 4.0ms
V(4)
Time

DIFFERENTIATOR INPUT & OUTPUT WAVEFORMS


1.0V

0.5V

SEL>>
0V
V(1)
5.0V

0V

-5.0V
0s 0.5ms 1.0ms 1.5ms 2.0ms 2.5ms 3.0ms 3.5ms 4.0ms
V(4)
Time

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE

Expt. No: 8

SIMULATION OF D.C SEPARATELY EXCITED MOTOR


USING TRANSFER FUNCTION APPROACH.
Date:
AIM: To Simulation of D.C separately excited motor using Transfer function approach using
MATLAB.
SIMULATION TOOLS REQUIRED:
PC with MATLAB Software

SPECIFICATIONS:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS:

THEORY:

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
PROCEDURE:
1. Open the MATLAB software by clicking on the MATLAB icon.
2. Click on file menu and open new Model file.
3. Add the required blocks from simulink library browser to model file.
4. Click on the start button to simulate.
5. Draw the plot.

RESULT:

APPLICATIONS:

MODEL WAVEFORMS:

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
Expt. No: 9(A)

SIMULATION OF BOOST CONVERTERS


Date:
AIM: To simulate boost converters using Pspice.
SIMULATION TOOLS REQUIRED:
PC with PSPICE Software
CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS:

SPECIFICATIONS:

THEORY:

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
BOOST CHOPPER

PROCEDURE:
1. Write the program in a new text file in PSpice AD.
2. Save the file using the notation filename.cir.
3. Activate the file by opening it.
4. Run the simulation process using blue button.
5. By clicking Add Trace icon, get the required waveform.

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE

MODEL CALCULATIONS:
VS Ton
V0  where 
1 T

RESULT:

APPLICATIONS:

MODEL WAVEFORMS:

Expt. No: 9(B)

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE

SIMULATION OF BUCK CONVERTERS


Date:

AIM: To analyze Buck chopper using Pspice.

SIMULATION TOOLS REQUIRED:


PC with PSPICE Software

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
Buck chopper

Vy T1 Le L

681.82UH 40.91UH
0V

R
RB 3 OHMS
250 OHMS Dm Ce
Vs 8.33UF
110V
Vg Vx 0V
10 V

SPECIFICATIONS:

THEORY:

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
PROGRAM:

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
PROCEDURE:

1. Write the program in a new text file in PSpice AD.


2. Save the file using the notation filename.cir.
3. Activate the file by opening it.
4. Run the simulation process using blue button.
5. By clicking Add Trace icon, get the required waveform.
MODEL CALCULATIONS :

Ton
V 0   * VS  VS
T

RESULT:

APPLICATIONS:

MODEL WAVEFORMS:

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
Expt. No: 10
SINGLE PHASE INVERTER WITH PWM CONTROL
Date:
AIM: PSpice analysis of single phase inverter with PWM control.
SIMULATION TOOLS REQUIRED:
PC with PSPICE Software

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
Single phase inverter with PWM control
1 2

Vy 0V
Rg3 T3 D3
Rg1 T1 D1 12
8
11
7
3 Vx 4 R 5 L

10MH
Vs 0V 2.5 OHMS 6
100V

Rg4 T4 D4 Rg2 T2 D2
14 10
13 9

0
PWM Generator
R4

1 R1
5 100 KOHMS
1k
6 3
Ro
2 R2 75 OHMS
Vr Rin Co
2MEG 10pf
1k

Vc

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
Carrier and Reference signals
15 16 17

Rc1 Rc3 Rr
Vc1 2MEG Vc3 2MEG Vr 2MEG

0
SPECIFICATIONS:

THEORY:

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
PROGRAM:

PROCEDURE:

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
1. Write the program in a new text file in PSpice AD.
2. Save the file using the notation filename.cir.
3. Activate the file by opening it.
4. Run the simulation process using blue button.
5. By clicking Add Trace icon, get the required waveform.
MODEL WAVEFORM:
AMPLITUDE OF ‘VC1&VC2’>AMPLITUE OF ‘VR’

AMPLITUDE OF ‘VC1&VC2’=AMPLITUE OF ‘VR’

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Electrical Simulation Lab Manual EEE
MODEL CALCULATIONS:
CASDE ‘A’:OVER MADULATION (Ar >Ac)
==5>1
>Mr>1
=>Ar/Ac
=
N=number of pulses per half cycle
N=1

CASDE ‘A’:UNDER MADULATION (Ar <Ac)


=>Mr<1
=>Ar/Ac
=
=
N-1=number of pulses per half cycle

N  fc /( 2 fr ) 
N 1 

RESULT:

APPLICATIONS:

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