Anda di halaman 1dari 22

. .

Page 1 ~f 22

I JGS 210-120-1-643 1
I Rev.1 DATE in.-31-'96 1
.

CONTENTS
PAGE
1. SCOPE ........................................................................................................................................................ 2
2 . WORK PROCEDURE................................................................................................................................ 2
2.1 Input to the Design ......................................................................................................................... 2
2.2 Output from the Desigrr....................................................................... :............................................... 2 .
2.3 Work Steps ....................................................................................................................................... 2
2.4 Computer Program ............................................................................................................................... 2
3. DESIGN .....................................................................................................................................................
.
3
3.1 Selection of Agitator ........................................................................................................................ 3
,. 3.1.1 Purposes of Agitation ................................................................................................................ 3
3.1.2 Types of Agitatoi-s...................................... :................................................................................. 3
3.1.3 Major Heat Transfer Systems .................................................................................................. 3
3.2 Agitator Sizing ..................................................................................................................................... 3
-
3.2.1 Liquid Volume ............................................................................................................................. 3
3.2.2 Vessel Dimension ......................................................................................................................... 4
3.2.3 Impeller Dimension...................................................................................................................... 4
3.2.4 Power Input (PN) ........................................................................................................................ 4
3.2.5 Power Number (Po) .................................................................. ............................................4
3.2.6 Impeller Speed.......................:...................................................................................................4
3.2.7 Standard Agitator Assembly .........................................................................................................4
3.3 Heat Transfer Coefficients for Agitated Vessels ['I ............................................................................... 5
3.3.1 General ........................................................................................................................................ 5
3.3.2 Inside Coefficient at Jacket Vessel ............................................................................................... 5
3.3.3 Outside Coefficients at Jacket&xsel (Annular Jacket with Spiral Buffling) ...................................6
3.3.4 Inside Coefficients at Internal Coils ..........................................................................................7
3.3.5 Inside Coefficients of Internal Coil ..................................................... :....................................... 8
4 . RELATED DOCUMENTS.................................................................................................................... 14
5. ABBREVIATIONS .................................................................................................................................. 15
6. REFERENCES......................................................................................................................................... 15
A. APPENDIX .......................................................................................................................................... 16
.-- -
A .I.+TransferMedium Pressure Drop ................................................................................................... 16 .
-.
A.1. 1 Anqlar Jacket with Spiral Baffle................................................................................................16
A.1.2 Annular Jacket without Baffle....................................................................................................17
A.1.3 Half-Pipe-Coil Jacket .................................................................................................................17
A.1.4 Dimple Jacket ............................................................................................................................17
A.2 Scale Up of Agitation Vessel ............................................................................................................18
A.3 Shaft Seal for Agitation ....................................................................................................................19
A.4 Agitator Speed Reduction System ...................................................................................................... 20
A S Speed Change Systems and Features ..................................................................................................21
A.6 Type of Buffle Plate Used for Agitated Vessel .................................................................................... 21
A.7 Structure of Agitator .......................................................................................................................... 22

@ JGG GORPORRTION
-
-
- Page 2 of 22
STANDARD PRACT I CE CONFIDENTIAL^ - 1 JGS 210-12G-1-64E I
1. SCOPE
(1) This standard practice provides the guidelines of selection and design of agitated vessel in refinery and
chemical plants.
(2) Specific instructions in the ~ r o j e &Specifications given by%e client or licenser shall take precedence over
the requirements in this standard practice.

2. WORK PROCEDURE
2.1 Input to the Design
The datato be used for the agitator design are as follows:
(1) The classification of the agitation problem
Applications of agitators in the process plants involve one or more of the following objectives:
(a) Bulk mixing : Combining process liquids. of dissimilar composition and properties.
(b) Chemical reaction : Distributing reactants and products to promote desired reaction.
(c) Heat transfer : Increasing convective motion adjacent to the transport surfaces.
(d) Mass transfer : Promoting contact between separate phases and different compositions.
(e) Phase interaction : Suspending solids or dispersing gases and immiscible liquids.
(2) Operating Conditions
- Fluid name
- Temperature -

- Pressure
- Physical properties such as density, viscosity, suspended solids concentration
- lowr rate
- Operation mode (Batch or continuous)
(3) Construction data
- Material selection data
- Corrosion and, or erosion lnformation
2.2 Output from the Desipn
The agitator design should ensure the system perfoipplance of desired condition with the following output.
(1) Skeleton of vessel
(2) Data sheet of agitator
(3) Estimated utility requirement
(4) Time table of operation cycle, if necessary
(5) Information of P & ID Preparati,on
.-- -
2.3 Work Steps
The followings are the guidelines of work steps of agitator design.
(1) Confirmation on the client or licenser's requirements
(2) Classification
- Blending
- Suspending solids in liquids
- Dispersing gas into liquids
(3) Sizing of vessels and selection of agitator
(4) Preparation of skeleton of vessel
(5) Preparation of agitator data sheet for issuing to vendors
(6) Estimation of utility consumption
(7) Preparation of time table if necessary
(8) Evaluation of vendor's design results
(9) Reflection on P & ID drawings
2.4 Computer Propram
Software of FMP (Fluid Mixing Processes) 12] can be used. The softwares are listed in the Technical Report.

@ JGO CORPORATION
-

1
STANDARD PRACTlCE CONFIDENTIALJ I JGS 210-120-1-64~ 1
3. DESIGN
Various conditions shall be considered before design of agitator.
-
3.1 Selection of ~ e t a t o r
3.1.1 Purposes of Agitation
The purposes of agitation shown below shall be determined before commencing design.
(1) Liquids Blending
The design procedure for liquids blending applies to agitation problems where fluids behave as a single
phase and where a predictable level of fluid motion shall occur. The procedure indicated here may be used
-
for the design of agitators in applications ranging from storage vessels requiring very littkagitation to
critical reactors needing great deal of it.
(2) Suspended Solid
The presence of a two-phase, solid-liquid system classifies an agitation problem as a solid-suspension one.
In such problems, the suspension of solid particles having settling velocity greater than 0.25cmIs within a
continuous liquid phase is the purpose of agitation.
(3) Dispersing Gas into Liquid
.+ ,:. Turbi~e-agitatedgas-liquid systems are basically contacting devices, which create large interfacial surface
k- y:l
area between the gas and liquid phases. A common application involves mass transfer of a sparingly soluble -

gas into a liquid where a reaction may occur.


3.1.2 Types of Apitators
Agitators used in common are the following types.
(1) Edged turbine
(2) Propeller
(3) Turbine
(4) Paddle
(5) Anchor
The basic configurations of agitators are indicated in Fig. 3.1.2 for reference, and also the Table 3.1.2 shows the
typical shape of agitators and their performance.
*
3.1.3 Major Heat Transfer Svstems
Major heat transfer systems used for agitation vessel are shown in Fig. 3.1.3.
3.2 A~itatorSizing
...-.,. 3.2.1 Liquid Volume
(-..,.;;:z
.. .. ,
.....-,
C..:- ..,
.. ..
For batch operation : V = unloading rate =_(Batchhittime)-(Agitatingtime)
For continuous operation : V = (Feed rate)-(Residencetime)
Here, V = Liquid Volume (m3) -
-

@ JGC GORPORflTlON
3.2.2 Vessel Dimension
Standard dimensions are as follows.
(1) T = Z -
(2) 2 = 0.8 H (general)
Z = (0.6 -- 0.7) H (for dispersing gas system)
(3) The shape of bottom head is 2: 1 ellipse.
x
V, = - . T~ . Z(shel1)
4

Tc
. Vb = -.T~(bottom)
24

3.2.3 Impeller Dimension


D = (DIT) - T
(Dm) should be selected by using Table 3.2.3
3.2.4 Power Input (PN)
For the purpose of estimation, power of agitator (P) may be obtained using power input (PN)
from Fig. 3.2.4
P = ( P N ) - V (kw)
-
3.2.5 Power Number (Po)
Po (dimensionless parameter) defined as power number is a function of NRe7NFr,and shape of vessel, impeller,
baffles etc. ilrr

-
In turbulent flow ( N R>~ lo4 lo5) , PObecomes free from the change in NRe.
Po is shown in Fig. 3.2.5 (rearranged from FMP data).
N R , = ~ 2 ( n / 6 0 ) p. -(1000/ ,u)
For the impeller speed 'n' , reference is made to the next section (3.2.6)
3.2.6 Impeller S ~ e e d * - .-

In general , the fbllowing equation is established.


P = 0.001 Po . p (n /60)i3. D5
Thus ,the following equation is obtained.
n = 60 ( 1000P / (Po. p , D5)}lf3
3.2.7 Standard Agitator Assembly
Other supplementary details are shown in Table. 3.2.3.

@ JGC CORPORRTION
STANDARD PRACT I CE 1 CONFIDENTIAL^ I JGS 210-120-1-64~ 1
3.3 Heat Transfer Coefficients for Agitated Vessels ['I
The typical -equationsfor heat transfer of agitated vessel are listed in this paragraph.
3.3.1 General -
The overall heat-transfer coefficient can be calculated by the following equations:
(1) 1/U= lkl+ff,+ x l n +ff,+l/h, (Jacketed vessel)
(2) 1/Uo = l/h, + ff, + ( x 1n (dcddcm) +(lkcJ (4ddcJ + ff, (Internal-coil vessel)
(3) NNU= h1 X IK
3.3.2 Inside Coefficient at Jacket Vessel -
- -
(1) Flat Blade Turbine
(a) NRe< 400
0.14

N, = O . S ~ A ( N , ~ ) O (N,)' 3i (L) ------ ---............................... (1)


Pa
'
(b) N R ~ 400
0 14
< .-
.t N, = 0 . 7 4 ( ~ , ) ' ~(N,)031
~ (k) ------------ -----------------
?
.

@: (2)
Pa
Note : Both equations apply to vessels of"Standard" geometry that is Z D = l .O and TD=1/3 , -

and Tw = tj - {(tj - tb) I [1 + (hj .Ao 1 hi .~ i ) ] )


(2) Retreating-blade turbine
(a) Mixing in a jacketed vessels (6-blades)

N, = 0.68(~,)'"~ (N,)"~~(k.-J. ------------------------------- -------------------- (3)


Pa,
(b) Glass-steel impeller (3-blades)

(c) Alloy impeller (3-blades)

N, = 0 . 3 7 ( ~ ~( N~, ) "~~ .~ ~ ~ (It_)Pa


................................................. (5)
;.,;-
7 '.%

,..-.
;!".:. (3) Paddle .-- -
(a) 20 < NRe< 4000

@ JGC CORPORflTlON
- Page 6 of 22 -

STANDARD 1
PRACT l CE CONF?IDENTLALJ I JGS 210-120-1-64~ 1
(4) Helical Ribbon
(a) NRc< 130

T-D
Where, e = 7
L
(b) NRe > 130

(5) Anchor
-
(a) 30 < NR, < 300
\

Note : Anchor-to-wall clearance of less than 1 inch.


(b) 300 < NR, < 4000

-
Note : Anchor-to-wall clearance of less than 1 inch.
(c) 4000 < NRe< 37000

3.3.3 Outside Coefficients at Jacket Vessel G$nnular Jacket with S ~ i r aBuffling.)


l
(I) N R<~ 2100

(3) In the transient region, 2100 < NRe< 10000, obtain hj from the greater resulmf the equations (13) and (14) .

Note : (I) NRe = DeVpIy


(2) NNu= hjDek

@ JGG CORPORATION
-
-
Page 7 of 22
STANDARD PRACT I CE CONFIDENTIAL^ I JGS 210-120-I-ME 1
3.3.4 Inside Coefficients at Internal Coils
(1) Flat-blade turbine
(a) Six blades at 400 < N, < 1.5 *lo6

Note : For q, reference is made to Fig. 3.3.5.


(b) Four-bladed turbine and vertical tubes as baffles at 1300 < N,,< 2.0 *lo6

FIG. 3. 3. 5 Viscositv C o r r e c t i u e s to
-

Bulk viscosity,
- -
CP

(2) Retreating-brade turbine with internal helical coils and impeller of &retreating blades

(3) Propeller

(4) Paddle-(For mixing with a paddle)

@ JGG CORPDRRTION
-
- Page 8 of 22
STANDARD PRACT l CE CONFIDENTIAL^ 1 JGS 210-120-1-64~- 1

@ JGGCORPORATION
..C...
'
.., ,
'$3 f.'

Page 9 of 22
STANDARD PRACTI CE ( CONFIDENTIAL^ JGS 210-1 20-1 - 6 4 ~

v Fie. 3.1.2 T Y Dof~Agitator 8

I
H O W N T A L CUT VERTICAL CUT
SPIRkL CUT

AXIAL FLOW TYPE RADIALn o w


CONBINATION

BAR TURBINE
-
RADIAL now
AXIAL FLOW TYPE

BLUE MARGIN

MARME

HELICAL RIBBON

@ JGCCORPORATION
Page 10 of 22

Table 3.1.2 Tvaical Shape of Agitators and Their Performance

NAME EDGED TURBINE i PROPELLER TURBINE PADDLE ANCHOR


I
,

FLOW PATTERN

I
I DISC CAPACITY
I
A
SHEARING STRESS 0 0 I A I A
FAN IDNESSEL ID 0.25 - 0.35 0.25 - 0.50 LOW IS 0.35 - 0.50 0.70 - 0.95
(MAINLY USED) HIGH IS 0.65 - 0.90
ROTATING PITCH (RPM) 500 - 3000 50 - 300 20 - 100 : 10 - 50
(MAINLY USED)
VISCOSITY RANGE LOW - HIGH >OW- MID -OW - HIGH LOW - HIGH MAINLY HIGH
(MAINLY USED) MAX. 50000 CF MAX. 3000 CP MAX. 30000 CP. MAX. 50000 CP. MAX. 200000 - 300000 CP
MAIN PURPOSES HIGH DISPERSION, . EQUALIZE, MIXING, EQUALIZE, DISPERSION, EQUALIZE, MIXING, EQUALIZE, MIXING,
EMULSIFY, CRUSH, HEAT TRANSFER, REACTION, MELTING, PREVENT SETTLING, HEAT TRANSFER,
DISPERSION, EQUALIZE PREVENT SETTLING PREVENT SEPARATION, CRYSTALLIZATION,
PREVENT SE'ITLING

@ JGC GORPORRTlON
-

- -
Page 1 1 of 22
STANDARD PF~ACT 1
I CE CONFIDENTIAL/ - JGS 21 0-1 20-1 - 6 4 ~

Fip. 3.1.3 Maior Heat Transfer Svstems Used for Agitation Vessel

-
Jacket System . Jacket System Coil System Plate Coiled System
(With Partition)

~p
d

Hairpin Coiled System External Heat Exchanger ieflux Condenser-System


System

@ JGC CORPORATION
Page 12 of, 22
1
STANDARD PRACT ICE CONFIDENT^ A L ~
I
JGS 210-120-1-64? 1
Fig. 3.2.4 Tvpical Relation between Blendinp Motion and Power I n ~ u t

Reaction

Gas-Liquid dispersion

Liquid-Liquid Extraction

Suspension

Crvstallization

Solid Sus~ension

Dissolution

Blending
1

Power I n ~ u (P)
t KWM'

@ JGC CORPORRTION
Page 13 of 22
I
STANDARD PRACT lCE CONFIDENTIAL/ I JGS 2 1 0 - l 2 0 - i k ~ I
,
F i g . 3 . 2 . 5 Relation Between Reynolds No. and Power No. Po '

+Po Rushton
*[POFlat Blade
+Po Pitched Blade
+Po Prope 1 1 ers
+Po Round B 1 aded Anchor

1. OOEtOO 1. OOEtOl 1.00Et02 1.00Et03 1.00Et04 1.00Et05 1.00Et06


1 Reynolds Number

(Much detailed relationship should be referred to Fluid Mixing Processes latest edition)
-
- Page 14 of 22 -
I
STANDARD PRACTI CE CONFIDENTIAL\ - I JGS 210-120-1-64~ I
Table 3.2.7 Standard Agitator
- Assembly

-
Round Anchor
Ag~tatorType Disc Turbine Flat Blade Pitched Blade Propeller Blade
Var~ablename Standard values Standard value Standard value Standard value Standard value
Tank diameter (T) lm lm 1m 1m Im
Number of baffles 4 4 4 4 0
Baffle wldth TI12 TI12 TI12 TI10 , -
Baffle spacmg TI60 TI60 TI60 nil. s 0 88T
Impeller diameter (D) TI3 - TI3 TI3 TI3 a -
Impeller clearance TI3 - - - - -
Impeller submergence 2T/3 2T/3 2T/3 2T/3 -
L~quiddepth T T T T T
Number of blades 6 6 4 3 2
Blade angle 90" 90" 45" - 90"
Blade width D/5 Dl5 Dl5 -
Blade length , Dl4 - - - -
Blade th~ckness Dl50 - Dl60 - -
Disk thickness -
Dl50 - - - -
Dlsk diameter 6D/10 - - - -
Tank base shape Dished Dished Dished D~shed D~shed
Bottom clearance - T/3 T/3 TI3 0 06T
Impeller pitch - - - D -
Arm w~dlh - - - - 0.1D
Impeller height - - - - D
Edge clearance - - - - 0 06T
*-

The detail of agitator type is refereed to F.M.P .


*
4. RELATED DOCUMENTS
The following publications constitute a part of this standard practice. Unless otherwise specified, refer to the
latest edition.

JGS (JGC Standard Practice)


JGS 2 10- 120- 1-04E Basic Engineering Design Data
JGS 2 1 0- L20- 1- 1 8E Determination of Design Conditions
JGS 2 10- 120- 1- 19E Material Selection in Basic Design
JGS 2 10- 120- 1 - 2 2 Basic
~ Design of Drums
FORM 437 Skeleton of Vessel - Vertical Vessel
FORM 438 Skeleton of Vessel - Horizontal Vessel
FORM 1779 Data sheet - AGITATORS

@ JGC GORPORflTlON
- - Page 15 of 22
-
1
STANDARD PFNCT I CE CONHDENTIAL~ I JGS 210-120-I-64~ 1
5. ABBREVIATIONS
A = Heat-transfer area (m?
B = Number of buffles (->
Cf = Correction factor for dismeter of pitched blade turbine (-1
C, = Specific heat of fluid in jacket (kcaVkg.deg-C)
Cp = Specific heat of vessel contents (kcaVkg.deg-C)
D = Turbine impeller diameter (m)
DT = Impeller diameter for turbulent regime (m)
N = Number of 90-deg. bends in coil
NNu= Nusselt number (hi y 1 K ) (-1
No = Pumping number (-1
Npr= Prandtle number (Cp ,u 1 K ) (-1
NR, = Impeller Reynolds number [D2 N p 1,u (in vessel), De v p 1/11(in jacket)] (-)
NRe= Reynolds number (->
P = Power of agitator (kw)
Po = Power number of agitator - (-1
P, = Pitch of buffle spiral (m>
Q , = Required pumping capacity (m'f s)
Rb = Bend resistance due to one 90-deg. bend in L/De' (-1
Re = Resistance due to length of one 90-deg. bend in LDe' (-1
.' Rt = Total resistance due to one 90-deg. bend in LDe'
L-
y :,::
A -
S, = Specific gravity of liquid (-1
(->
T = Inner diameter of vessel (m>
U = Overall heat-transfer coefficient in a jacketed vessel (kcaVh.mL.deg-C)
Uo = Overall heat-transfer coefficient in an internal coil vessel (kcaVh.mL.deg-C)
V = Liquid volume or Calculated velocity (m') or ( d s e c )
Z = Liquid depth (m)
d,, = Inner diameter of pipe or coil (m>
d,, = Log mean diameter of pipe or coil (m>
d,, = Outer diameter of pipe or coil (m)
e = Clearance, (DT-D)l2 (m)
ff = Funning friction factor (-1
ff, = Fouling factor on coil side referred to inside coil area (h.mL.deg-Ckcal)
ff, = Fouling factor, inside jacket (h.mL.deg-Ckcal)
ff, = Fouling factor, inside vessel (h.mL.deg-Ckcal)
f, = Moody friction factor (-1
g = Acceleration due to gravity 1.27X 10' m/hL
h,, = Coefficient on coil side referred to inside coil area (kcaVh.mL.deg-C)
h, = Coefficient on process side of heat-transfer area (kcaVh.mL.deg-C)
h, = Coefficient on inside surface of jacket (kcaVh.mL.deg-C)
i = Agitator ribbon pitch (m>
n = Shaft speed (rpm)
c7..,- vL= bulk fluid velocity
(rpm)
(ds)
A P = Pressure drop in straight pipe or passage- (kg/cmLlm)
7 = Viscosity correction exponent -. (->
IC = m r m a l conductivity (kcaVh.ddeg-C)
,u = Viscosity at bulk temperature (CP)
,u ,= Viscosity at wall surface (CP)
p = Density (kg/m')
y = Wall thickness of vessel or coil (m>
w = Width of conventional or spiral jacket (m)

6. REFERENCES
LITERATURE
[l]Fedrick Bondy and Shepherd Lippa, "Heat Transfer In Agitated Vessels", Chem Eng, April 4, 1983
[2]FLUID MIXING PROCESSES (Design Guide for Members of FMP)

@ JGC CORPORRTION
-
-

-
Page 16 of 22 I
-
1
1
- .- JGS
STANDARD PRACT t CE (CONFIDENTIAL] . 210-120-1-64~

A. APPENDIX
--
A.l Transfer Medium Pressure Drop
A.l.l ~ n n u l a rJacket with Spiral Baffle
The fanning equation (1) can be used for calculation in the following conditions:
(a) An equivalent diameter for fluid in a rectangular cross-section is used.
. , A suitable multiplier is applied to the friction factor (or equivalent length is used) to account for the
(b)
curvature of the helical flow passage.
- .-

(A- 1)

Here,
cross - sectional flow
D,, =
Wetted perimeter for flow

-
- (A-2)
2Pt + 2 0
Fig. A-1 gives the resistance of 90-deg.
- vends to the flow of fluids in terms of equivalent length of straight pipe.

FIG. A-1 Resistance of 90-dev . bends to fluid flow

Relative radius, y / d
- - Page 17 of 22
- STANDARD PRACT l CE /CONFIDENTIALI JGS 210-120-IME I

However, considering leakage around spiral baffles, the velocity in equations (1) and (4) recommended to use
60% of the total flow rate which is effective.
A.1.2 Annular Jacket without Baffle
The fanning equation can also be applied. Thus, from equation (A-2) :

A.1.3 Half-Pipe-Coil Jacket


The equivalent diameter for calculating fluid flow, De', for 180-deg. half-pipe-coil jackets can be found from:

- For 120-deg. half-pipe coils, De' = 0.321 dci


A.1.4 Dimple Jacket
Calculation of pressure drop is complex and may not yield accurate results.
It is advisable to obtain such data from the following equation:

Here,
A P : Pressure drop unit length (kg/cm2/m)
V : Calculated velocity ( d s e c )
-
-
Page 18 of 22
STANDARD PRACTI CE 1 CONFIDENTIAL^ 1 d% 210-120-1-64E 1
A.2 Scale Up of A~itationVessel
Scale-up methods for agitation use the results of small-scale tests and duplicate the fluid behavior that is
necessary to achieve equivalent proceq results in large scale equipment.
The details of scale up method can be referred to Fluid ~ i x i n c ~ o c e s s(FMP).
es
However, the typical example of scale up configuration is shown on Table A-2.

Table A-2 Standard of Scale Up Method

- I
Purpose

Agitating time
1

Liquid circulation frequency per time unit '

'Dragging from free surface


Fixed heat transfer area
Heat transfer coefficient between liquid
(Floud number : Constant)
Shearing distortion velocity -

(Velocity gradient)
Droplet diameter
(Shearing field of turbulent flow)
Suspended solid
Mass transfer coefficient in liquid
Bubbling
Volumetric transfer coefficient in liquid (*)
Floating dispersion of suspended solid
(Density of rarefied solid)

Liquid velocity
Floating dispersion of suspended solid
(High density solid) .--
Liquid drorjiet diameter
(Searing field between fan and vessel plate)
(Fan velocity is constant)
Cohesive dispersion of suspended solid

I L
(*) Gas superficial velocity in a column.
The details of scale up method can be referred to Fluid Mixing Process (FMP).
Page 19 af . 22
[ JGS 210-120-1-64~ 1
Where,

V, =-VL2
. VL,
:
.Ratio of agitated fluid -
: Geometrically similarity

(6)[ ) = : Power ratio per agitated fluid volume

'
=L'
(9, Q2 L'

/VL, 1 ,
: Discharge flow ratio per agitated fluid volume -

(3. =[HI I',,


L
''

A.3 Shaft Seal for A~itation


1 : Discharge head ratio per agitated fluid volume

Shaft seals perform the basic function of isolating the process environment. Fig. A-3 indicate the basic
4%- ;
;(: ; principles of selection of shaft and seals for agitation systems.
.--
Fig. A-3 Types of Mechanical Seal for Agitator Drive

Typical sketct:
Grand Packing Single Mechanical
I
Double Mechanical - Water Seal

:haracteristics (I) Shaft seal bycontacting ) Shaft seal by thin liquid film (1) Basically same as single I) Seal vapor by cylinder
.* pressure between shaft orshafi :irculation at running seal mechanical s+ system. which is rotating together wit1
sleeve and packing. :) Expensive However. cost is much shaft and liquid in the vessel.
(2) Ejsy installation and 8) Applicable for high expensive. But is used for 2) Simple construction
maintenance by simple emperature and high pressure much higher press. 3) Low cost
construction ) Maintenance is difficult 1) Not applicable for high
(3) Low cost ) Seal liquid is needed. velocity services.
(4) Not applicable for high
pressure services
Pressure Only applied for atmospheric 111 vacuum to about Based on pressurizing method asically applied for 100 to
pressure setvices. kg/cm2-G of seal liquid. 200 mmAq
Even if V-Ring etc. is inserted, Equalizing pipe method
max pressure is about I kg/cm2. Below 10 kg/cm2
200 degC
Pressurized pipe method
Below 30 kg/cm2
200 degC
Oil unit method
Below 100 kg/cm2
I 500 degC
- . Page 20 of ' 22
STANDARD PRACT l CE [CONFIDENTIAL]

A.4 ~ ~ i t a t 'Speed
o r Reduction Svstem
The advantage as well as disadvantage collesponding to agitator reduction system are indicated in Fig. A-4
below.
Fip. d-4 A~itatorSpeed ~eductionSystem

Gear Speed Reduction Belt Speed Reduction Concurrent Use of Gear and
Belt
Schematic
Diagram

Advantage Comparatively compact Variable rotating speed Refer to the advantages of


High transmission efficiency Less noisy both gear and belt speed
Large speed reduction ratio Reliable reduction
A variety of types according Adjustable agitator height
to purpose or equipment Comparatively less expensive
arrangement
Disadvantage DifficulZ to change the speed Limited speed reduction ratio :Refer to the advantages of
of rotation , Requires belt replacement both gear and belt speed
Much noise Generates belt friction gas reduction
Requires lube oil control - Results in high cost
-
- - - - Page 2 1 of 22 -

I
STANDAW) PRACT I CE CONFIDENTIAL] -

A.5 Speed Change Svstems and Features


Spead change systems corelating to their features and typical models are indicated in Table A-5 below.
Table. A-5 Speed Change Svsterns and Features

Mechanical Electrical Hydrostatic or Pneumatic


Features Comparatively narrow speed - Wide range of speeds Wide range of speeds
change range - Easy speed change Unsatisfactory efficiency
Torque becomes larger during - Torque generally remains Requires maintenance
operation at low speeds, constant or becomes smaller Compatible with explosion-
- compared with rhe electrical during operation at low speed proof requirement
system - Does not, in many cases , Results in a compact agitator
Much noise require maintenance
Requires maintenance' - Not completely compatible
Compatible with explosion- with explosion-proof
p r o d requirements requirements
- Results in a compact agitator
'ypical Mode Bayer non-stage transmission - Overcorrect coupling type Hydraulic motor
Bayer cyclo non-stage (VS motor, AS motor, EC Air motor
transmission motor, etc.)
Ring cone non-stage I-
Inverter motor -

transmission - Pole change motor


-
Cup non-stage transmission
Disc non-stage transmission
Variable pulley

A.6 T v ~ of
e Buffle Plate Used for Apitated Vessel
Type of Buffle Plate used for Agitated Vessel shall be indicated in Fig. A-6 below.
Fip. A-6 Tvpe of Buffle Plate Used for Agitated Vessel

Flat Buffle Plate Sloped (Towered Horizontal Axis) Sloped (Towered Vertical Axis)
Buffle Plate Buffle Plate
A.7 Structure of A~itator
The following figure shows a typical example of an agitator, which consist of a body ,an agitation vessel, and
accessories.

Components of agitator
Agitator 3 Driver I electric motor, speed reduction / change gear
3 Body I coupling, bearing ,frame
3 Shaft Seal Part gland packing , mechanical seal
3 Agitator,Shaft -
3 Agitator Blade propeller, turbine , paddle
Vessel 8
- Bodv I

3 Buffle
Heat-transfer Device I iacket .coil ,etc.
3 Other Accessories I manhole , valves, etc.