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The Antimicrobial activity of Gotu kola towards Staphylococcus Aureus

bacteria and the production of soap using the extract

A Research Paper Presented to the CAPSTONE Project Advisers


Trento National High School
Trento, Agusan del Sur

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of Science, Technology,


Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) 12 Strand
In the subject of CAPSTONE PROJECT

PERLYN JEAN DENOLAN


JOVIN BELTRAN
MARK ALEJO

MARCH 2019
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Bacteria can spread throughout our body and cause some infections that

willaffect into some infections. Doctors, scientist and researchers is making a move to

prevent such problem. We can’t predict where bacteria occurred or why get some

infections specifically, skin diseases. Peoples health are the important key of this

study. As to avoid some bacteria it is initiated to have some antibacterial soap to

ensure safety towards everyone.

Further, this study commenced to make Gotu kola or known as Centella

Asiatica to be the main ingriedients of the soap. In many studies it is found out that C.

asiatica has antimicrobial activity and can be good anti-bacterial soap. According to a

study of Shinomal and Muralidhara (2011), Gotu kola were suggested as a treatment

of dermatoses skin lesions such as, burns hypertrophic scars, eczema, excoriations.

Moreover, C. asiatica contains triterpenoids that can strengthen the skin and bring

vitamins such as Vitamin C, A B1,B2, niacin and beta carotene that is known for skin

brightening.

Gotu kola were used in many cosmetics products such as creams, facial wash

and etc. the role of the soap is to help lessen the problem of expeditious spreading of

the bacteria. Many researches proven the anti-bacterial properties of the plant

effectiveness against a bacteria.


STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

This project endeavors to determine the anti-bacterial efficacy of Gotu Kola

(Centella Asiatica) extract and usinf that extract as on eof the ingredient for producing

soap.

Specifically,this project aims to answer the following questions:

1. Is Gotu kola extract exhibit an antibacterial activity towards

staphylococcus bacteria?
2. Is the soap making using the gotu kola extract feasible?
3. Does soap making using Guto kola extract as main-ingredient cost-

efficient?

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
DEPENDENT VARIABLE

GOTU KOLA (CENTELLA


Reaction of the bacteria on (10
ASIATICA) soap as anti-
ml, 15 ml and 50 ml) GOTU
bacterial
KOLA extract

IMPLICATION

An effective anti-bacterial body


wash soap

HYPOTHESIS
1.The production of soap incorporated with Gotu kola extract as main-ingredient is

feasible.

2.The gotu kola extract exhibits antibacterial activity towards staphylococcus aureus.

3.Soap making using Gotu kola extract as a main ingredient is cost efficient.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

A thorough study on the antimicrobial activity of Gotu Kola and the

feasibility of Gotu kola based soap will generate data that will attempt to help people

who are seeking with cost efficient and environment fiendly soap. Likewise, the data

obtained could serve as the baseline information for future researchers that will

undergo with similar study. Furthermore, this will help also entrepreneurs who are

insisted to engage with the production of plant-based or natural soaps.

SCOPE AND DELIMATATIONS

This study will deal with Gotu Kola (Centella Asiatica) extract, its

antimicrobial activity towards staphylococcus aureus and as the main ingredient for

the soap. Therefore, this study will evaluate the effectiveness of the extract by

measuring tge extent of inhibition towards staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Also this

study focuses on the feasibility of the extract as ingredient in soap-making. The

production of the soap will be limited to bath soap using cold process.

DEFINITION OF TERMS
CENTELLA ASIATICA – Commonly known as Gotu Kola as main

ingriedients of the soap.antibacterial plant against

Staphyloccus aureus bacteria.

STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS- a kind of bacteria that can cause minor skin

infections. This will be used as a test bacteria of the

study.

FEASIBILITY- defined as a possibility on how the plant can be an effective.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 CENTELLA ASIATICA

Centella Asiatica (Gotu Kola) belong to the Family of Apiaceae. C. Asiatica is

native to land of tropical regions of both hemispheres including India, and extend all

over to Sri Lanka, parts of China, Western South Sea Islands, Mexico South East
USA, South Africa, Columbia, Eastern South America, Venezuela and Madagascar

(Zahara etal., 2014).Due to its therapeutic use it is feasible to use use th whole plant

including leaves, stem and roots.( Brinkhaus et al., 2000). C. asiatica are found in the

damp places and wet places such as paddy fields of river banks that can maximixe its

growth. However, the Gotu Kola habitation are in sandy loams rather than clayey

soils.(Eukota & Pramod, 2009). Moreover, madecassic acid , asiatic acid,

triterpenenes are the bioactive compound found in the plant such as the

madecassoside, asiaticoside and triterpene ester glycosides (Zahara et al., 2014).

According to Hamidpour at al. C. asiatica triterpeniods can lift antioxidants in

wounds and raise blood flow in the wound and the surrounding area and built up the

skin elasticity.

2.2 ANTIMICROBIAL

Antimicrobial activity of a substance is the distinct of efficient killer of

bacteria or inhibit growth of bacteria. (Chaudhari, 2016). Mamtha et al.,(2004)

through viable cell counts method, find out that the alcohol extract of its plant shows

the bactericidal action within 2 hours against the Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella

species and Vibrio cholera. Moreover, it is believed that it C. Asiatica has active

compounds and a good Antibacterial activity to constrain the growth of some

microorganisms ( Talabani et al., 2016). Further, Talabani et al. (2016) reported that

Gotu kola leaves where rich in asiaaticoside and Asiatic acid as a good primitive

towards the microorganism such as S. aureus, E coli, S. pneumonia and H. pylori.

Even it is not found the exact scientific basis according to Ullah et al., 2009) it has

been shown that the leafs extract can be credible as an antibacterial agents of
Escherichia coli. In the study of Seeraratnam et al., 2012 states that C. asiatica is a

good agent against many other Bacteria and fungi.

2.3 SOAP SAPONIFICATION

According to the study of Scharf and Malerich, soap is a mixture of salts of

fatty acids and is prepared through hydrolyzing a fat alkaline (basic) conditions

which the reaction called saponification.Saponification is a chemical reaction between

an acid and a base to form a salt which an olive oil, coconut oil or vegetable oil can be

your acid. An acid is a molecule or ion that contributes protons or hydrogen ions (H+)

and/or accepts electrons, and a base is any substance that donates electrons or

hydroxide ions (OH- ) and/or that accepts protons.( Domingues & Schul, 2014)

Further the two procedures for soap making are given “cold” and “hot”. Also in the

study of Debesh Mishra soaps were created by saponification process which is, the

soap has the reacting oil containing the triglycerides with caustic soda or sodium

hydroxide in the soap.

2.4 REDUCE SKIN AGING

Study found by Zahara et al. , 2014, found out the vitamins A,(retinol),

vitamin B1 (thiamine), vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin B5

(niacin) and carotene that is good for skin brightening. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)

discovered as acting role of repairing damaged skin and the stimulator of collagen
production (Boyera et al., 1998; Barneset et al., 1975) and also in the study of

Hashim, 2015 Vitamin C also used as a ppositive control and a probable treatment of

cells. Likewise, in the study of Lee et al., (1992) Vitamin A shown the endothelial

effect proliferation when there is wound healing process. Gohil et al. C. asiatica could

be a good model for reducing skin aging by lowering capillary filtration and meant to

improve microcirculatory paramaters. Also, C. asiatica extracts can decrease

appearance of skin aging , collagen and topical scars due to its dose (Hamidpour et al.,

2015).In addition, it is recognize that the plant extract has the ability to stimulate

wound healing and used in pharmaceutical and skin care applications (Loiseau and

Mercier, 2000). Conferring to the study of Hashim et al., (2011) have reveled the C.

asiatica extracts can improve collagen synthesis anticellulite as well as UV

protectant, and a potential antioxidant.

2.5 COMERCIAL PRODUCTS (GOTU KOLA)

C. asiatica initiated various products in international products such as the baby

lotions, creams and etc. ( Zahara et al., 2014). In accordance to the study of Hashim

(2014) it is introduce as an skin care products that has been claimed as the one who

reconstruct collagen formation and to build up the damaged tissues and leads into

restoring the skins elasticity and firmness as well the improvement of its skin

appearance. Used in some cosmetics products, topical therapeutic preparation and a

feasible wound healing properties.( Hong et al., 2005; Shetty et al.,2006). In detail of

C.asiatica has the new topical preperations for various indications: nourishing skin

creams and moisturizers( Singh et al., 2010).


CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

RESERCH DESIGN

This study will used Experimental design. This study will test the Anti-

bacterial efficacy of a soap towards the specific bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. This

study will go through some laboratory test.

Extraction of the Gotu kola


and using its extract to test
first its antibacterial test
towards staphylococcus
aureus

Soap Production. Addition of


Gotu kola extract(20 ml, 50
ml ,80 ml) to the process.

The reaction of Staphylococcus


aureus bacteria use in the
experiment towards the 20 ml, 50
ml and 80 ml dosage of gotu kola
extract in the soap

After the process of extraction of Gotu kola its extract will undergo the testing

of its antibacterial properties if it is really effective against the staphylococcus

bacteria. Its extract will be added also to the mixture of the soap using it as the main

ingredient of the soap containing its extract depending to its designed dosage. The
experiment will have to make three soap with different amount of extract every soap.

One containing the 10 ml extract, 15 ml extract in the soap and 50 ml amount of

extract added to the soap. These three soaps also undergo the antibacterial test to see

if Gotu kola is an effective main ingeridient of a soap to fight against staphylococcus

aureus bacteria.

MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT

The materials which the researchers will use are Gotu Kola plant and the

NaOH solution, also the oils consisting the olive oil, palm oil and coconut oil and

distilled water. The soap bacteria testing will staphylococcus aureus bacteria.

The equipment are beaker, stirring rod, pot (casserole), analytical weighing

scale, plastics soap molders. Furthermore, this research will use laboratory

experimental method for the evaluation of the Gotu kola extract against

Staphylococcus aureus bacteria by using descriptive analysis. This research will

consist of different stages, the first is the preparation of all raw materials, next is the

extraction of Gotu Kola and lastly, the production of the soap.

3.1PREPARATION OF RAW MATERIALS

First step of this research is to prepare NaOH (sodium hydroxide) with 74.35g

and distilled water with 111.52g to create a 40% solution of lye, then prepare the raw

materials in making the soap including the Gotu kola plant, and oil total of 500g such

as olive oil with 275g, palm oil with100g and coconut oil with 125 g.

3.2 EXTRACTION OF GOTU KOLA

The extraction of Gotu Kola will be performed using water as a solvent. A

fresh 100g Gotu Kola will be chopped and be placed inside the blender. The mixture
will then be added with distilled H2O with 200g. Thereafter, the resulting mixture

will be blended for about 2-3 minutes. This will then be filtered using filter or

cheesecloth.

3.3 PRODUCTION OF SOAP

Dissolved the 74.35g Add the oil 500 g


NAOH (sodium oil(olive oil with 275g,
hydroxide) to the water palm oil with100g and
coconut oil with 125 g) to
the lye concentration

Prepare the extraction of


Add the Gotu kola extract Gotu kola with 200g of
depending to its assigned water added during the
dosage every soap. process
(20ml,50ml,80ml)

Mix them all until you get


the trace of the mixture Place it to the plastics
being sticky molds

Dry it until the soap gets


harden or solidify