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INTRODUCTION

TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING
 Institute of Transportation Engineers, 1987
 The application of technological and scientific
principles to the planning, functional design,
operation, and management of facilities for any
mode of transportation in order to provide for the
safe, rapid, comfortable, convenient, economical,
and environmentally compatible movement of
people and goods
TRAFFIC ENGINEERING
 The branch of transportation engineering which deals
with planning, geometric design, and traffic operations
of roads, streets, and highways, their networks,
terminals, abutting lands, and relationships with other
modes of transportation
 First recognized in the United States in 1921
Milestones in the developing profession of traffic engineering

Year Activity
1904 Traffic survey methods were being employed
1907 Pedestrian islands were used in San Francisco
1908 First driver’s license law was adopted
1911 White-painted pavement center lines were first
applied
1915 Origin-destination studies and accident spot maps
were first used
1916 Speed and delay study was first made by observing
traffic from a high building; pedestrian regulation;
and “No Left Turns” were prescribed; curb parking
was prohibited to facilitate traffic movement
Development of traffic signal control

Year Activity
1868 First traffic signal illuminated by gas in Great Britain
1910 Manually operated semaphore signals
1922 Idea of timing signals for progressive movement
1926 First automatic traffic signals in Great Britain
1927 Earliest known application of time-space diagram for coordination
1928 First traffic-actuated signals
INTERDISCIPLINARY BREADTH OF
TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING
TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
 Functional system in the context of society as a whole
because it provides a service – the movement of
goods and people from place to place – that is
essential to the functioning of the community as a
whole.
 A highly developed transportation system makes
possible the abundance and variety of goods and the
high levels of personal mobility that are hallmarks of a
wealthy society.
TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
 Consisting of the fixed facilities, the flow entities, and
the control system that permit people and goods to
overcome the friction of geographical space efficiently
in order to participate in a timely manner in some
desired activity
TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
 Components
 Fixed / Physical facilities – physical components of the system that
are fixed in space and constitute the network of links (roadway, railway,
and pipes) and nodes (intersections, interchanges, terminals, harbors,
airports)
 Flow entities – units that traverse the fixed facilities, e.g bicycles,
vehicles, containers, railroad cars, fleets, vessels, aircrafts
 Control system / Operating strategies – consists of vehicular control
and flow control; vehicle routing, scheduling, and traffic control
 Operating bases and facilities – vehicle maintenance facilities and
office spaces
 Organizations – classified as facility-oriented organizations (planning
designing, constructing, maintaining, and operating fixed facilities) and
operating organizations/carriers (operating fleets to provide
transportation services)
TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
 Human behavior that are affected by transportation
 Locomotion (passenger, pedestrian)
 Activities (vehicle control, maintenance, community life)
 Feelings (comfort, convenience, enjoyment, stress, likes)
 Manipulation (modal choice, route selection, vehicle purchase)
 Health and safety (accidents, disabilities, fatigue)
 Social interaction (privacy, territoriality, conflict, imitation)
 Motivation (positive or aversive consequences, potentiation)
 Learning (operator training, driver education, merchandising)
 Perception (images, mapping, sensory thresholds)
TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
 Human behavior that are affected by transportation
 Locomotion (passenger, pedestrian)
 Activities (vehicle control, maintenance, community life)
 Feelings (comfort, convenience, enjoyment, stress, likes)
 Manipulation (modal choice, route selection, vehicle purchase)
 Health and safety (accidents, disabilities, fatigue)
 Social interaction (privacy, territoriality, conflict, imitation)
 Motivation (positive or aversive consequences, potentiation)
 Learning (operator training, driver education, merchandising)
 Perception (images, mapping, sensory thresholds)
TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
 Properties of the physical environment that have a direct
impact on human behavior
 Spatial organization (shape, scale, definition, bounding surface,
internal organization of objects and society, and connections to other
spaces and settings)
 Circulation and movement (people, goods, and objects used for
their movement and the forms of regulating them – corridors, portals,
open spaces)
 Communication (signs and symbol, behavior, responses and
meanings that gives users information and ideas)
 Ambience (microclimate, light, sound, and odor – physiological and
psychological functioning of the human organism)
 Visual Properties (color, shape, and other visual modalities)
TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
 Properties of the physical environment that have a
direct impact on human behavior
 Resources (physical components and amenities of a transportation
system – paths, terminals, vehicles – dimensions as the number of
lanes or the square footage of the terminals)
 Symbolic properties (social values, attitudes, and cultural norms
that are represented or expressed by the environment)
 Architectonic properties (sensory or aesthetic properties of the
environment)
 Consequation (strengthens or weakens behavior – costs, risks, and
congestion)
 Protection (safety factors)
 Timing (scheduled cyclical rhythms – daily, hourly, weekly)
TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
 Impact of the environment on aspects of human behavior
relevant to transportation

Social Interaction

Health & Safety


Human Behavior

Manipulation
Locomotion

Perception

Motivation
Activities

Learning
Feelings
Environmental Aspects
Spatial Organization X X X
Circulation & Movement X X X X X
Communication X X X X
Ambience X X X X X
Visual Properties X X
Resources X X X X X
Symbolic Resources X X X X X
Architectural Properties X X X X X X X
Consequation X X X X
Protection X X
Timing X X
TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
 Impact of the environment on aspects of human behavior
relevant to transportation

• Safety
• Security
• Convenience
• Continuity
• Comfort
• System coherence
• Attractiveness
MOVEMENT AND TRANSPORTATION
 Interaction between activities is manifested by the
movement of people, goods, and information
 Reason:
1. Complementarity – relative attractiveness between two or
more destinations
2. Transferability – the desire to overcome distance; time,
money, technology
3. To satisfy demand and supply
MOVEMENT AND TRANSPORTATION

 Mode Choice Trips


 How people and goods move from an
origin to a destination
Transportation
 Time, speed, efficiency, costs, safety, Land Use
Needs
convenience

 Trip Generation
Dictate what transportation facilities Transportation
 Land Value
Facility
will be needed to move traffic

Accessibility

Land Use / Transportation Cycle


EFFECTIVENESS

Three Basic Attributes


1. Ubiquity / Accessibility
2. Mobility
3. Productivity / Efficiency
EFFECTIVENESS

Basic Attributes
1. Ubiquity / Accessibility
 The amount of accessibility to the system
 The cost of getting to and from the mode in question
 Directness of the routing between access points
 System’s flexibility to handle a variety of traffic conditions

2. Mobility
 The quantity of travel that can be handled
 Capacity of the system to handle traffic and speed
 Line – haul travel time and door – to – door travel time
EFFECTIVENESS

Three Basic Attributes


3. Productivity
 Measure of the total cost or amount of transportation provided per unit
time
 Product of the volume of goods or passengers carried and distance
(ton-miles per year or passenger-kilometers per day)

Efficiency
 Relationship between the cost of transportation and the productivity of
the system
 Direct cost: capital and operating costs, and indirect costs comprise
adverse impacts and unquantifiable costs, such as safety
MODES OF TRANSPORTATION
 Four major subsystems
1. Land Transportation 3. Water Transportation
a. Highway a. Inland
b. Rail b. Coastal
c. Ocean

2. Air Transportation 4. Pipelines


a. Domestic a. Oil
b. International b. Gas
c. Other
MODES OF TRANSPORTATION

 Private Transportation
 Not-for-hire services
 Private parties

 Public Transportation
 For-hire services
 General public
 Contract carriers (services under individual contractual
arrangements; taxi, car rentals)
Common carriers (offer scheduled service and are open to all
members of the public willing to pay the posted fare; mass
transit/transportation)
MODES OF TRANSPORTATION
Mode Classification Scheme
Freight Transportation Passenger Transportation
Urban Travel Truck (highway) Private vehicles(highway)
Transit (highway/rail)
Intercity Travel Truck (highway) Private vehicles(highway)
Rail Bus (highway)
Short (<160km)
Medium (160-800km) Ocean Shipping Rail
Long (>800km)
Inland Water Air
Bulk Freight Pipeline
General Cargo
Air
Special purpose Conveyor Belt
Cable systems
TRANSPORTATION GAPS

Demands for Speed Depend on Distance Traveled


TRANSPORTATION GAPS
Theoretical
Distance, Time,
Transport Speed, Transport Alternative
km min
km/hr
0.4 5 4.8 Walking
1 6.6 9.1 Bus (town center)
4 10 24 Streetcar or bicycle
10 13.2 45.5 Car (urban or suburban)
40 20 120 Highway
100 26.4 228 Train or Airplane
1000 52.8 1140 Jet

Transport Function Concept


BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF MAJOR
TRANSPORTATION MODES
TRANSPORTATION POLICYMAKING
Investigate and identify the problem

Develop problem statement


 It encompasses a broad set
of policy variables Establish goals and objectives

 Planning and development of Establish criteria for design and


transportation facilities evaluation

generally raises living Design alternative actions


standards and enhances the
aggregate of community Establish new Collect relevant data
value objectives and
assumptions, and Test and evaluate (effectiveness and
costs
add alternatives

Question objectives and assumptions

NO Satisfied?

Yes

Suggest appropriate action and decision


TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM MODEL
•Land
•Labor Inputs
•Capital
•Materials
•Information
• Vehicles
• Pavements Activity
• Tracks Subsystem
• Right-of-way • Individuals and
• Terminals groups of people
• Riding involved
• Other manufacture • Driving
or natural objects
• Traffic
Physical Control Human
Subsystem Subsystem

Outputs •Movement of people and goods


•Improvement or deterioration of the
physical environment