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CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING

Introduction

Multiple intelligences (MI) are based on the belief that human being

possess a complex set of abilities beyond what is measured through

traditional intelligence quotient (IQ). The theory was developed by

Howard Gardner in 1893 not as an educational model but as a way to

explain the way the mind works. Supporters of the theory believe that

intelligence, as it is traditionally defined, does not take into consideration

the wide range of abilities human beings use to solve problems. Though

the theory has been criticized for having it basis in intuition rather than

empirical evidence, Gardner and his Supporters argue otherwise.

According to Chen (2004) the theory is grounded in comprehensive

review of studies in biology, neuropsychology, development psychology

and cultural anthropology.

However, when it comes to a career choice, individual should

carefully choose his or her desired course. It is very important because it

determines success in the next stages of one’s life (PAMS, n.d). One of the

tasks of high school students is to explore and plan for their postsecondary
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career option. High school students are at the exploration stage of career

development. Many factors affect career choices of high schools

students. Identifying these factors would give parents, educators, and

industry an idea as to where students place most of their trust in career

selection process (super, 1990). Senior High School is two years of

specialized upper secondary education; students may choose a

specialization based on aptitude, interest, and school capacity. Each

student in Senior High School can choose among three tracks. Academic;

Technical- Vocational -Livelihood; Sports and Arts. The Academic track

includes four strands, General Academic Strand (GAS) Accountancy,

Business Management (ABM); Humanities and Social Sciences (HUMSS)

and Sciences Technology Engineering, Agriculture and Mathematics

(STEM). The choices of Career track will define the content of the subject

a student will take in Grades 11 and 12 (Official Gazette, 2012).

With these, the researcher wanted to determine whether the Level

of Multiple Intelligences has an impact or influence towards Strand

Selection of Grade 11 students of Senior High School, at Makilala Institute

of Science and Technology, school year 2018-2019.


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Statement of the Problem

This study will determine the Level of Multiple Intelligences and the

Strand Selection of Grade 11 Students who are enrolled in Makilala

Institute of Science and Technology, school year 2018-2019. Specifically, it

will seek to answer the following questions:

1. What is the level of Intelligence manifested by Grade 11 students?

1.1 Naturalistic Intelligence

1.2 Interpersonal Intelligence

1.3 Musical Intelligence

1.4 Intrapersonal Intelligence

1.5 Bodily kinesthetic Intelligence

1.6 Logical Mathematical Intelligence

1.7 Verbal Linguistic Intelligence

1.8 Visual Spatial Intelligence

2. What is the Senior High Strand Selection of Grade 11 Students?

2.1 GAS

2.2 ABM

2.3 STEM

2.4 HUMSS
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3. Is there a significant relationship between Level of Multiple

Intelligence and Senior High School Strand Selection of Grade 11

Students?

Hypothesis

H0 – There is no significant relationship between the Level of

Multiple Intelligences and Strand selection of Grade 11 students.

H1 – There is a significant relationship between the Level of Multiple


Intelligences and Strand selection of Grade 11 students.

Conceptual Framework

INDEPENDENT VARIABLE DEPENDENT


VARIABLE

Level of Multiple Strand Selection of Grade


Intelligences 11 Students

FIGURE 1 Schematic Diagram of the study

It is conceptualized in this study that this diagram illustrates the

relationship between the level of multiple intelligences and senior high

school strand selection of grade 11 students.


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The first box which is the independent variable: Level of Multiple


Intelligences is connected to the second box which is the dependent
variable: Strand Selection of Grade 11 Students. The line drawn to
connect these two variables, it conveys that these variables are related to
each other and one could influence the other.

Significance of the Study

The result of the study will be beneficial to the following:

Teachers. They will be enlightened and guided about students’ level of

intelligences and their choice of senior high school strand.

Parents. The parents will have an idea and will be aware of their student

preference towards senior high school strand. Thus they may

provide assistance and guidance about this perspective.

Students. They will become aware and would be able to enhance clearly

their choice of strand.

School Administrators. They will be able to guide the incoming students by

providing thorough orientation about senior high school.


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Future Researches. This study will benefit and help the future researchers
to have a guide for further researches involving another variable.

Scope and Limitations of the Study

This study will focus on the Level of Multiple Intelligence and Senior High

School Strand Selection of Grade 11 Students at Makilala Institute of

Science and Technology, who enrolled during School Year 2018-2019.

Definition of Terms

For better understanding of the study, the following terms are

defined operationally.

Grade 11 Students- These are the students who are enrolled in Senior high

School, school year 2018-2019 at Makilala Institute of Science and

Technology.

Interpersonal Intelligence (People Smart)- This pertains to a learning style

of the students having good social interaction and relationship among

others.

Intrapersonal Intelligence (Self Smart)- This deals to a learning style of the

students concentrating, working out the topic and learning on their own.
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Kinesthetic Intelligence (Body Smart)- This refers to a learning style of the

students engaging more with actions, performances and/or doing

something.

Logical-Mathematical Intelligence (Number Smart)- This pertains to a

learning style of the students portraying reasoning, investigating, and

calculating.

Musical Intelligence (Music Smart)- This relates to a learning style of the

students using rhyme and songs to memorize information and working

while music is playing in the background.

Naturalistic Intelligence (Nature Smart-. This regards to a learning style of

the students learning best in engaging activities especially outdoor in

nature. Otherwise students find it lacks any meaning and is useless.

Visual-Spatial Intelligence (Picture Smart)- This pertains to a learning style

of the students depicting visual support, such as charts, pictures, and

other images.

Senior High School Strand- This refers to the different fields provided by

the newly introduced K-to-12 program by the Department of Education.


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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter presents the review of related literature and studies. It

also includes the theoretical framework.

Theoretical Framework

This study is anchored on Gardner's theory. This theory suggests that

traditional psychometric views of intelligence are too limited. Gardner first

outlined his theory in his 1983 book “frames of mind: the theory of Multiple

Intelligences,” where suggested that all people has seven primary forms of

intelligence, instead of single intelligence. These are Visual-spatial, Bodily-

kinesthetic, Musical, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal, Linguistic, Logical-

mathematical, and Naturalistic. The theory allows the educational

community to adapt the teaching processes to fit the individual student’s

intelligence.

The theory is supported by the education community, partly

because it emphasis the student-centric model of teaching. It has assisted

educators in questioning their approaches, or evaluating the activities

and strategies they use, and selecting alternatives which are outside the
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recognized approaches. Multiple Intelligences theory itself is not an

educational tool, that is to say it is on its own, not an educational goal.

Rather the theory promotes different assessment strategies that are not

limited to standard tests.

The theory pushed educators to recognize that each student has

myriad potential. Multiple intelligences served as a call to action to

"differentiate" learning experiences in order to accommodate the multiple

modalities in any given learning context.

Multiple Intelligences

The International Journal of Academic Research, Ghazi,S Shahzada,

G., Gilani, U (2011), studied the effect of students’ self-perceived multiple

intelligences and their academic achievement. The study was conducted

on first-year university students, totalling 714 students. The results of the

study showed that there was a significant correlation between overall

perceived multiple intelligence and academic achievement.

The specific types of intelligences that showed this positive

correlation include linguistic, mathematical, visual/spatial, interpersonal,

intrapersonal and naturalistic intelligence. Based on these results, the


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author concludes that teachers should plan lessons that involve many

types of intelligences, especially the ones mentioned above as they

contribute to student success. The author also concludes that teachers

should often use student-cantered teaching strategies that allow students

to use various types of intelligences. These are strategies I will continue to

explore in my classroom in future lessons.

On Howard Gardener’s multiple intelligences (2009), there was a

resource guide provided by EASTCONN’s teaching and learning division.

EASTCONN is dedicated to providing support to teachers in instruction,

assessment, data and curriculum. EASTCONN also provides curriculum

consultants for school districts. This resource has many printable lesson

plans in the area of Gardener’s multiple intelligences. One resource was a

summary of influential people such as Michael Jordon, Gandhi, and

Charles Darwin. Students have to read the biographies and decide what

types of intelligences each individual had. There is also a quiz that

students can take which assesses their intelligence strengths. Based on

their results, students can pick up a worksheet that explains many

characteristics of their intelligence.

Moreover, Sanchez-Martin,Jesus and Alvarez-Gragera, Garcia

J. (2017) stressed that Gardner's Multiple Intelligences Theory (MIT) can be

a cognitive and emotional improvement if is taken into account in the


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standard development of the Technology lessons. This work presents a

preliminary evaluation of the performance enhancement in two

concomitant aspects: contents acquisition and emotional yield. The study

was made on up to 150 students with ages of 12-13 years old. The control

group was submitted to traditional transmission-reception lessons, whereas

the experimental one was submitted to novel educational techniques

that included specific activities which took into account the different

intelligences styles (IS) inside the classroom. The results clearly depicted

that both studied variables underwent a statistical significant

enhancement through the application of the MIT-based educational

method.

Also, Christodoulou, Joanna A (2009) mentioned that the ideas of

multiple intelligences introduced by Howard Gardner of Harvard University

more than 25 years ago have taken form in many ways, both in schools

and in other sometimes-surprising settings. The silver anniversary of

Gardner's learning theory provides an opportunity to reflect on the ways

multiple intelligences theory has taken form and consider what might be

its future course. In this article, the author discusses how multiple

intelligences theory matters for schools today. She first reviews the basis for

the theory of how the mind can be parsed into components. Then, she

describes some misconceptions on the concepts and intentions of


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multiple intelligences, and how the theory has inspired many schools all

over the world to improve teaching and learning.

Lastly, Wilson, Stefanie Denise (2012) conducted a research study

supporting Gardner's research collected from a sample of 205 faculties

within the United States, the researcher examined students that are

actively engaged in community service experiences and their

approaches to reframing their intelligences and enhancing their unique

learning, problem-solving, and decision-making skills. Students who reach

beyond the class or virtual rooms of academia and become actively

involved in community service organizations gain organizational

experiences that sharpen their management and human intelligence skills

to equip them with operating in a competitive world of constant

organizational change.

Strand Selection

Japitan, J.O. et. al.(2015) conducted a study on factors affecting

senior high school track preferences of grade 9 students of Don Bosco

Technology Incorporated. Academic Year 2014-2015: A basis for Career

Guidance program. The study utilized descriptive method of research to


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determine the factors. It found out that on the track preference, majority

of the respondents preferred Academic track. On the other hand, the

personality, interest, and job opportunities influenced a student’s track

preference. The result showed that the student’s personality traits, likes

and interests and awareness to job opportunities influenced them to some

extent and gave them direction which would guide them towards a

career decision. Family/relatives somewhat affect their preference

because the students can rest easy and trust on the support that their

families give them.

Similarly, Pascual, N.T (2014) also examined the factors affecting

high school student’s career preference: a basis for career planning

program. The relationship of the factors affecting student’s preference of

course to their career preference, Brainard’s Occupational Preference

Inventory (BOPI) results, academic achievement and their elective grades

were considered. Frequency, percentage and chi-square were used as

statistical treatments. The findings revealed that the availability of work

after college is the first consideration of the students in choosing a course

in college. Most of the students prefer to take scientific related field

courses, or the “popular courses” for Filipinos. The least preferred course

are in the Agricultural field. Pascual also stressed that student’s career
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success can be best attained if proper guidance is given in choosing the

right course in college, suited to students’ personality, ability and intellect.

Lastly, Lagajino, ELV., et.,al.(2017) investigated the student’s career

choices: a guide for senior high school preparation. This study was

conducted to determine what senior high school track and strands

Adventist University of the Philippines or AUP should offer starting school

year 2016-2017. Based on the career choices of 160 AUP academy

grades 7 to 9 students. DepEd mandates four (4) tracks in SHS under the K-

12 program, namely: Acedemic, Sports, Arts and Design, and Technical

Vocational Livelihood Tracks. For each track specialization strand are

offered. Descriptive statistics were used. Variables on profile, awareness

on track offering and interpersonal, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation were

assessed. The result showed that 98% of the respondents would proceed

to SHS. A total of 49% would pursue courses under the academic track

while 13% would take sports, 8% will take the Arts and Design tracks, while

3% will take the track on Technical-Vocational and Livelihood. A total of

95% were planning to still enroll in AUP for Collegiate degrees. The

researchers recommended that AUP prepare and enhanced facilities for

academic track, particularly in the sciences, engineering, and business

strand.
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Based on the theories and studies mentioned, the researchers were


determined, and thus investigated the level of Multiple Intelligences
of Grade 11 students and its impact or effect towards their chosen
track in senior high school.

CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

This chapter presented the methods and procedures for

conducting the study. It also describes the following: research design,

research procedure, the subject of the study, determination of sample,

research instrument and statistical treatment data.

Research Design

This study will utilize the descriptive-correlation design because it will

determine the relationship between two variables. Descriptive method

was used to identify the level of multiple intelligences and strand selection

of the Grade 11 students.

Research Respondents
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The respondents of this study will be the Grade 11 Students of

Makilala Institute of Science and Technology who are enrolled during the

School Year 2018-2019.

Research Instrument

The main tool which will be used in this study was the researcher

made questionnaire to identify the Strand Selection of the respondents.

The questionnaire- checklist consisted of the Level of Multiple Intelligences

and Strand Selection of Grade 11 Students of Makilala Institute of Science

and Technology. The instruments were administered during the vacant

time of the respondents.

Part 1 of the questionnaire-checklist obtained the Strand Selection

of Grade 11 Students presented Eleven (11) different Strand. These were

given 11 checkboxes to determine their Strand.

Part II of the questionnaire- checklist obtained the Level of Multiple

Intelligences presented forty (40) phrases. These were given 40

checkboxes each. The four (4) checkboxes were ranked as:

4 – High Interest

3 - Moderate Interest

2 - Slight Interest
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1- No Interest

Data Gathering Procedure

The original title proposed by the researcher was checked, revised

and rechecked by the research adviser to maintain conformity on the

subject of research. The questionnaire-checklist that aimed to draw out

the proper response to the objectives of this study was constructed also.

This questionnaire-checklist made by the researcher and was validated by

the panel of experts to ensure the validity of responses so that it would

elicit and give information to the respondents and also to the researcher.

Data gathered from answered questionnaires were checked, classified,

tabulated, and analyzed according to the research design.

Statistical Analysis of the study

The research tools being used for problem numbers 1 and 2 was the

Weighted Mean, for problem number 3, Chi-square test will be employed,

measuring the relationship between the variables under study.


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CHAPTER IV

PRESENTATION, ANNALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter presents, analyzes, and interprets the data gathered


through the use of the survey questionnaire. The tabular presentations and
discussions were organized and arranged based on the order of the
problems stated in this study.

Level of Multiple Intelligences Manifested by Grade 11 Students for school


Year 2018-2019.

Multiple Intelligence n=25 Mean Description

Naturalistic Intelligence

1 Interested with surroundings. 3.78 MI

2 Studies and learns about animals and 3.75 MI


plants.

3 Is interested in geography and natural 3.74 MI


phenomena.

4 Classifies and cares for plants and animals. 3.71 MI

5 Enjoys studying the force of nature such as 3.77 MI


the weather and earthquakes.

Total Mean 3.75 MI

Interpersonal Intelligence
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1 Talks and has friends 3.93 MI

2 Works well in group and peer teaching. 3.92 MI

3 Shares, compares and interviews. 3.76 MI

4 Organizes, leads and mediates. 3.82 MI

5 Thinks about the solution to the world’s 3.71 MI


problem.

Total Mean 3.83 MI

Musical Intelligence

1 Sings and listens to songs. 3.90 MI

2 Remembers melodies and keeps times. 3.90 MI

3 Develops best by singing and dancing. 3.87 MI

4 Enjoys singing and sings well. 3.80 MI

5 Often listens music in my free time. 4.04 HI

Total Mean 3.90 MI

Intrapersonal Intelligence

1 Works independently and pursues interests. 3.97 MI

2 Understands self and feelings. 3.85 MI

3 Develops best and quiet places. 3.90 MI

4 Prepares portfolios. 3.70 MI

5 Prepares checklist to examine works 3.85 MI


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Total Mean 3.85 MI

Bodily kinesthetic Intelligence

1 Works well with hand crafts. 3.78 MI

2 Has good coordination. 3.65 MI

3 Is good at physical activity. 3.89 MI

4 Develops through role playing, charades, 3.81 MI


and exercises.

5 Stops playing basketball and get to 3.68 MI


studying.

Total Mean 3.76 MI

Logical Mathematical Intelligence

1 Finds pattern and relationship. 3.90 MI

2 Is good at strategic games and puzzles. 3.77 MI

3 Develops best by categorizing, deciphering 3.76 MI


and outlining.

4 Has the ability to use reasons, logics and 3.87 MI


numbers.

5 Likes to ask lots of questions and does 3.89 MI


experiences.

Total Mean 3.84 MI

Verbal Linguistic Intelligence


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1 Reads and tell stories. 3.94 MI

2 Can memorize data. 3.93 MI

3 Develops best and print rich environment. 3.65 MI

4 Brain storms, listens review terms, writes 3.95 MI


definitions and list ideas.

5 Does publishing in multimedia presentations. 3.92 MI

Total Mean 3.88 MI

Visual Spatial Intelligence

1 Draws, builds, designs and creates things. 4.05 HI

2 Watches movies and plays with computers. 3.97 MI

3 Reads maps, charts and diagrams. 3.61 MI

4 Solves puzzles and mazes. 3.68 MI

5 Loves painting, drawing or designing on 3.82 MI


computers.

Total Mean 3.83 MI

4 – High Interest: (HI) 3 – Moderate Interest: (MI)

2 – Slight Interest: (SI) 1 – No Interest: (NI)


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Table 1 presents the level of multiple intelligences manifested by


grade 11 students of Senior High School of Makilala Institute of Science
and Technology (MIST) school year 2018-2019. Weighted mean was used
to analyze and interpret the data.

As shown in the table, there were eight (8) multiple intelligences in


which each obtained a total weighted mean corresponding to a
qualitative of moderate interest. These were the Naturalistic Intelligence,
3.75, Interpersonal Intelligence, 3.83, Musical Intelligence, 3.90,
Intrapersonal Intelligence, 3.85, Bodily Kinesthetic Intelligence, 3.76,
Logical Mathematical Intelligence, 3.84, Verbal Linguistic Intelligence,
3.88, and Visual Spatial Intelligence, 3.83. This denotes that the
respondents aspects have fair interest towards the cited situations. In
other words, they have a responsible concern on the mentioned multiple
intelligences. The indicated situations embarked the true inclinations of
the respondents in as far as these perspective are concerned.

The latter result is supported by Gardner’s learning theory. It


provides an opportunity to reflect on the ways multiple Intelligences
theory has taken from and consider what might be its future course.
Multiple intelligences theory matters for schools today. It reviews the basis
for the theory of how the mind can be parsed into components. Then,
describes some misconceptions on the concepts and intensions of
multiple Intelligences, and how the theory has inspired many schools all
over the world to improve teaching and learning.
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Senior High School Strand Selection of Grade 11 Students

Frequency Percentage Rank