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Mindy Kalakis

MED 6000
Sources and Articles

I would like to create a research-based personal reading program that encourages and
promotes teen reading for pleasure. The following are short summaries of the research articles
I have studied so far. The articles were found by searching the Stewart Library.
Screen shots of search terms:
Article Summaries:
A Study of Thoughtful Literacy and the Motivation to Read
This article used the expectancy-value theory to assess and explain motivation to read. The two
qualities studied were the extent to which an individual expects success or failure and the value
or overall appeal that an individual ascribes to the task. Their research suggests that these two
qualities are possessed by individuals who are engaged readers. Engaged readers are those
who are intrinsically motivated to read regularly for their own purposes. The researchers
suggest that classroom instruction should be designed to engage and motivate young readers
through the use of thoughtful literacy. Teachers should help students create thoughtful links
between human experience and the text being read. Rather than assigning tasks that
emphasize copying, remembering, and reciting, teachers should engage students in thinking
about what they’ve read and help them to determine the theme and how it connects to the
lives of the students.
Applegate, A. J., & Applegate, M. D. (2010). A study of thoughtful literacy and the motivation to
read. The Reading Teacher, 64(4), 226-234. doi:10.1598/RT.64.4.1

Assessing Adolescents’ Motivation to Read

Research studies have suggested that few adolescents choose to read on their own. When
students judge reading and literary activities to be unrewarding, too difficult, or not worth the
effort, they can become non-readers. The assessment in this study was a variation of the MRP –
Motivation to Read Profile that was used in a previous study of elementary aged students. The
researchers made changes and adaptations so that the survey would fit an adolescent
audience. The resulting survey is called the AMRP – Adolescent Motivation to Read Profile. The
survey is included in the article. The result from the survey suggest that students read a variety
of texts that transcend the traditional print-based texts, teacher enthusiasm for reading has a
tremendous impact on students’ reading attitudes, and most students view reading as a school-
based activity. Researchers suggest that teachers do the following to improve reading
motivation: 1) recognize the multiple literacies in which students are engaging in outside of the
classroom and find ways to incorporate them into classroom instruction; 2) model our own
reading enjoyment; 3) embrace engaging activities, such as literature circles and book clubs; 4)
include reading materials of varied formats, levels, and topics in the classroom; 5) incorporate
elements of choice in reading.
Pitcher, S. M., Albright, L. K., DeLaney, C. J., Walker, N. T., Seunarinesingh, K., Mogge, S., . . .
Dunston, P. J. (2007). Assessing adolescents' motivation to read. Journal of Adolescent & Adult
Literacy, 50(5), 378-396. doi:10.1598/JAAL.50.5.5

Engaging Struggling Adolescent Readers

Researchers in this article developed he STARI intervention method for use with struggling
readers who score well below grade level on reading tests. The method focuses on including
the following three items in reading instruction:
1. Engaging and accessible texts
2. Peer collaboration and voice
3. Relevance/importance and integration
The researchers also pointed out that teachers’ positive perception of their students’ reading
abilities contributes to reading competence. This positive perception combined with
instruction in word and sentence-level processes help the struggling reader to improve their
Kim, J. S., Hemphill, L., Troyer, M., Thomson, J. M., Jones, S. M., LaRusso, M. D., & Donovan, S.
(2017). Engaging struggling adolescent readers to improve reading skills.Reading Research
Quarterly, 52(3), 357-382. doi:10.1002/rrq.171

It’s All about The Book: Motivating Teens to Read

This article discusses a strategy for implementing read-alouds/think-alouds, independent
reading, and book club time which are all centered around a common theme. Research
suggests the importance of choice in student reading. In this article, students were given a
theme or topic and allowed to choose a book that shared the same theme. The strategy
describes the need for students to interact with one another about the texts they are reading.
If students discuss their reading with others, they are more likely to continue to read long after
they have left the classroom.
Lapp, D., & Fisher, D. (2009). It's all about the book: Motivating teens to read. Journal of
Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 52(7), 556-561. doi:10.1598/JAAL.52.7.1

Learning to Love Reading: Interviews with older children and teens

Research shows that few children, skilled readers or not, choose to devote their leisure time to
reading. Children’s perceptions about reading influence this behavior. This article described
the factors that might contribute to and support a child in learning to love to read. Researchers
studied children who were avid readers and found the following:
Readers regularly interact around books with other members of their social circle who love to
Readers love reading and will read no matter how busy they are.
The researchers suggest that teachers should encourage interest in reading by demonstrating
the social nature of reading through conversations about the books students are reading.
Strommen, L. T., & Mates, B. F. (2004). Learning to love reading: Interviews with older children
and teens. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 48(3), 188-200. doi:10.1598/JAAL.48.3.1

Measuring Adolescents’ Attitudes Toward Reading

This article offers a tool for planning instruction and gauging its impact. The tool that
researchers developed is called SARA – Survey of Adolescent Reading Attitudes. The tool takes
into consideration the factors that influence adolescents’ choices to read which were identified
in the article as:

 Perceptions of themselves and their identities as readers

 Sense of agency in choosing what they read
 The opportunity to bridge what they choose to read at home with what they get to read
at school
 Whether their friends and family are readers
 Whether they value reading
The authors hope that this tool will be useful to researchers and teachers who want to measure
students’ attitudes toward reading. The results can help foster differentiated and effective
instructional practices.
Conradi, K., Jang, B. G., Bryant, C., Craft, A., & McKenna, M. C. (2013). Measuring adolescents'
attitudes toward reading: A CLASSROOM SURVEY. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 56(7),
565-576. doi:10.1002/JAAL.183

The Importance of Pleasure Reading in the Lives of Young Teens

The study contained in this article was intended to help researchers develop an understanding
of the role of reading for pleasure in the lives of young teens. This age was specifically chosen
because it is the age, according to research, at which the decline in reading begins. The
researchers organized focus groups and talked to teens about their frequency of reading for
pleasure. From these groups, researchers found that teens read for pleasure for the following
reasons: to be entertained, to pass the time, to relax, and to understand the world. The study
supports that teens read for many of the same reasons that adults read. Teens are looking to
gain insights into self-identification, self-construction, and self-awareness, the areas that help
them transition into adulthood. It is also important to note that this study strongly supports a
reader-response approach to teens and reading.
Howard, V. (2011). The importance of pleasure reading in the lives of young teens: Self-
identification, self-construction and self-awareness. Journal of Librarianship and Information
Science, 43(1), 46-55. doi:10.1177/0961000610390992

The Power of Pleasure Reading

This article looked at the “marginalized genres” that appeal to teens (romances, vampire
stories, horror novels, dystopian fiction, and fantasy) and focused on studying the pleasure teen
readers experienced when reading these texts. They found that these genres brought their
readers four different and distinct kinds of pleasure: the pleasure of play, intellectual pleasure,
social pleasure, and the pleasure of work. The research suggests that pleasure has an enormous
power in fostering reading engagement and development. The researchers advise that
teachers should recognize the power of pleasure and allow students more choice in what they
read. They should provide opportunities for students to use their reading in their personal lives
by motivating social action and service learning projects.
Wilhelm, J. D., & Smith, M. W. (2016). The power of pleasure reading: What we can learn from
the secret reading lives of teens. English Journal, 105(6), 25.

What motivates avid readers to maintain a regular reading habit in adulthood?

This paper reports on data collected in another study which asked people “why do you read
books?” The study resulted in a list of primary reasons: perspective taking, knowledge, personal
development, entertainment & pleasure, mental stimulation, escapism and mental health,
books as friends/comfort, imagination & creative inspiration, and writing. Researchers suggest
that drawing on these motivations can help inspire people to adopt life-long reading habits.
The article noted that more research is needed to further develop points for educational
intervention and reading promotion based on the discovered points of engagement.
Merga, M. K. (2017). What motivates avid readers to maintain a regular reading habit in
adulthood? Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, the, 40(2), 146-156.

Peer Group Influences on Avid Teen Readers

This paper reports on the role of teens’ peer in supporting or motivating the recreational
reading habit. It was found that peer groups play a significant role in support teen pleasure
reading. The research responses indicated that young teens read for pleasure for the same
reasons that adults read for pleasure. However, there was one difference in this study. It was
found that teen readers place their reading in social context and it is seen as a way to cement
peer friendships. Teens actively seek to read the same materials as their friends and use
reading as a form of social bonding. The research also found that teens like to read books that
have been recommended to them by a friend. The readers in the study expressed a strong
preference for face-to-face personal reading recommendations.
Howard, V. (2008). Peer group influences on avid teen readers. New Review of Children's
Literature and Librarianship, 14(2), 103-119. doi:10.1080/13614540902794086