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Electronics & Communication
Electromagnetics

Copyright © By NODIA & COMPANY

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neither Nodia nor its authors guarantee the accuracy or completeness of any information herein, and Nodia nor its
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GATE SOLVED PAPER - EC
ELECTROMAGNETICS

2013 ONE MARK

Q. 1 Consider a vector field Av ^rvh. The closed loop line integral # Av : dlv can be
expressed as
(A) ## ^d # Avh : dsv over the closed surface bounded by the loop

(B) ### ^d : Avhdv over the closed volume bounded by the loop
(C) ### ^d : Avhdv over the open volume bounded by the loop
(D)

. i n
## ^d # Avh : dsv over the open surface bounded by the loop

o
Q. 2 v = xatx + yaty + zatz is
The divergence of the vector field A

. c
(A) 0 (B) 1/3

a
(C) 1 (D) 3

Q. 3

d i
The return loss of a device is found to be 20 dB. The voltage standing wave ratio

o
(VSWR) and magnitude of reflection coefficient are respectively

.n
(A) 1.22 and 0.1 (B) 0.81 and 0.1
(C) – 1.22 and 0.1 (D) 2.44 and 0.2

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2013 TWO MARKS

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Statement for Linked Answer Questions 4 and 5:
A monochromatic plane wave of wavelength l = 600 mm is propagating in the
direction as shown in the figure below. Evi , Evr and Evt denote incident, reflected,
and transmitted electric field vectors associated with the wave.

Q. 4 The angle of incidence qi and the expression for Evi are


p # 10 ^x + 2h
4

(A) 60c and E 0 ^atx - atz h e-j 3 2 V/m


2
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(B) 45c and E 0 ^atx + atz h e-j 3 V/m


4
p # 10 z

2
p # 10 ^x + z h
4

(C) 45c and E 0 ^atx - atz h e-j 3 2 V/m


2
(D) 60c and E 0 ^atx - atz h e-j 3 V/m
4
p # 10 z

2
Q. 5 The expression for Evr is
p # 10 ^x - z h
4

(A) 0.23 E 0 ^atx + atz h e-j 3 2 V/m


2
(B) - E 0 ^atx + atz h e j 3 V/m
4
p # 10 z

2
p # 10 ^x - z h
4

(C) 0.44 E 0 ^atx + atz h e-j 3 2 V/m


2

i n
p # 10 ^x + z h
4

(D) E 0 ^atx + atz h e-j

.
3 V/m
2

c o
.
2012 ONE MARK

i a
A plane wave propagating in air with E = (8ax + 6ay + 5az ) e j (wt + 3x - 4y) V/m is
Q. 6

d
incident on a perfectly conducting slab positioned at x # 0 . The E field of the

o
reflected wave is
(A) (- 8ax - 6ay - 5az ) e j (wt + 3x + 4y) V/m

.n
-
(B) (- 8ax + 6ay - 5az ) e j (wt + 3x + 4y) V/m

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(C) (- 8ax - 6ay - 5az ) e j (wt - 3x - 4y) V/m

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(D) (- 8ax + 6ay - 5az ) e j (wt - 3x - 4y) V/m

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Q. 7 The electric field of a uniform plane electromagnetic wave in free space, along
the positive x direction is given by E = 10 (ay + jaz ) e-j 25x . The frequency and

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polarization of the wave, respectively, are
(A) 1.2 GHz and left circular
(C) 1.2 GHz and right circular
(B) 4 Hz and left circular
(D) 4 Hz and right circular

Q. 8 A coaxial-cable with an inner diameter of 1 mm and outer diameter of 2.4 mm is


filled with a dielectric of relative permittivity 10.89. Given m0 = 4p # 10-7 H/m,
-9
e0 = 10 F/m , the characteristic impedance of the cable is
36p
(A) 330 W (B) 100 W
(C) 143.3 W (D) 43.4 W

Q. 9 The radiation pattern of an antenna in spherical co-ordinates is given by F (q)


= cos 4 q ; 0 # q # p/2 . The directivity of the antenna is
(A) 10 dB (B) 12.6 dB
(C) 11.5 dB (D) 18 dB

2012 TWO MARKS

Q. 10 A transmission line with a characteristic impedance of 100 W is used to match a


50 W section to a 200 W section. If the matching is to be done both at 429 MHz
and 1 GHz, the length of the transmission line can be approximately
GATE SOLVED PAPER - EC ELECTROMAGNETICS

(A) 82.5 cm (b) 1.05 m


(C) 1.58 cm (D) 1.75 m

Q. 11 The magnetic field among the propagation direction inside a rectangular waveguide
with the cross-section shown in the figure is
Hz = 3 cos (2.094 # 102 x) cos (2.618 # 102 y) cos (6.283 # 1010 t - bz)

The phase velocity v p of the wave inside the waveguide satisfies


(A) v p > c (B) v p = c
(C) 0 < v p < c (D) v p = 0

in
Statement for Linked Answer Question 12 and 13 :

.
An infinitely long uniform solid wire of radius a carries a uniform dc current of

o
density J
Q. 12

. c
The magnetic field at a distance r from the center of the wire is proportional to

a
(A) r for r < a and 1/r 2 for r > a (B) 0 for r < a and 1/r for r > a

d
(C) r for r < a and 1/r for r > a
i (D) 0 for r < a and 1/r 2 for r > a

o
Q. 13 A hole of radius b (b < a) is now drilled along the length of the wire at a distance

. n
d from the center of the wire as shown below.

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The magnetic field inside the hole is
(A) uniform and depends only on d
(B) uniform and depends only on b
(C) uniform and depends on both b and d
(D) non uniform

2011 ONE MARK

Q. 14 Consider the following statements regarding the complex Poynting vector Pv for
the power radiated by a point source in an infinite homogeneous and lossless
medium. Re(Pv ) denotes the real part of Pv, S denotes a spherical surface whose
centre is at the point source, and nt denotes the unit surface normal on S . Which
of the following statements is TRUE?
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(A) Re(Pv ) remains constant at any radial distance from the source
(B) Re(Pv ) increases with increasing radial distance from the source
(C) ## Re (Pv) : nt dS remains constant at any radial distance from the source
s

(D) ##s Re (Pv) : nt dS decreases with increasing radial distance from the source
Q. 15 A transmission line of characteristic impedance 50 W is terminated by a 50 W
load. When excited by a sinusoidal voltage source at 10 GHz, the phase difference
between two points spaced 2 mm apart on the line is found to be p/4 radians.
The phase velocity of the wave along the line is
(A) 0.8 # 108 m/s (B) 1.2 # 108 m/s
(C) 1.6 # 108 m/s (D) 3 # 108 m/s

Q. 16 The modes in a rectangular waveguide are denoted by TE mn where

n
TM mn

i
m and n are the eigen numbers along the larger and smaller dimensions of the

.
waveguide respectively. Which one of the following statements is TRUE?

o
(A) The TM 10 mode of the waveguide does not exist

. c
(B) The TE 10 mode of the waveguide does not exist

a
(C) The TM 10 and the TE 10 modes both exist and have the same cut-off
frequencies

d i
(D) The TM 10 and the TM 01 modes both exist and have the same cut-off
frequencies
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2011 TWO MARKS

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Q. 17 A current sheet Jv = 10uty A/m lies on the dielectric interface x = 0 between two

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dielectric media with er 1 = 5, mr 1 = 1 in Region-1 (x < 0) and er2 = 2, mr2 = 2 in
Region-2 (x 2 0). If the magnetic field in Region-1 at x = 0- is Hv1 = 3utx + 30uty A/m

©
the magnetic field in Region-2 at x = 0+ is

(A) Hv2 = 1.5utx + 30uty - 10utz A/m


(B) Hv2 = 3utx + 30uty - 10utz A/m
(C) Hv2 = 1.5utx + 40uty A/m
(D) Hv2 = 3utx + 30uty + 10utz A/m

Q. 18 A transmission line of characteristic impedance 50 W is terminated in a load


impedance ZL . The VSWR of the line is measured as 5 and the first of the voltage
maxima in the line is observed at a distance of l/4 from the load. The value of
ZL is
(A) 10 W (B) 250 W
(C) (19.23 + j 46.15) W (D) (19.23 - j 46.15) W

Q. 19 The electric and magnetic fields for a TEM wave of frequency 14 GHz in a
homogeneous medium of relative permittivity er and relative permeability mr = 1
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are given by Ev = E p e j (wt - 280py) utz V/m and Hv = 3e j (wt - 280py) utx A/m . Assuming the
speed of light in free space to be 3 # 108 m/s , the intrinsic impedance of free
space to be 120p , the relative permittivity er of the medium and the electric field
amplitude E p are
(A) er = 3, E p = 120p (B) er = 3, E p = 360p
(C) er = 9, E p = 360p (D) er = 9, E p = 120p

2010 ONE MARK

Q. 20 If the scattering matrix [S ] of a two port network is


0.2+0c 0.9+90c
[S ] = >
0.9+90c 0.1+90cH
, then the network is
(A) lossless and reciprocal (B) lossless but not reciprocal
(C) not lossless but reciprocal (D) neither lossless nor reciprocal

Q. 21 A transmission line has a characteristic impedance of 50 W and a resistance of


0.1 W/m . If the line is distortion less, the attenuation constant(in Np/m) is

in
(A) 500 (B) 5

.
(C) 0.014 (D) 0.002

Q. 22

c o
The electric field component of a time harmonic plane EM wave traveling in a

.
nonmagnetic lossless dielectric medium has an amplitude of 1 V/m. If the relative

i a
permittivity of the medium is 4, the magnitude of the time-average power density
vector (in W/m2 ) is
(A) 1
30p
o d (B) 1
60p
(C) 1
120p
. n (D) 1
240p

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2010 TWO MARKS

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Q. 23 v = xyatx + x 2 aty , then
If A # Av $ dlv over the path shown in the figure is
o
C

(A) 0 (B) 2
3
(C) 1 (D) 2 3

Q. 24 A plane wave having the electric field components Evi = 24 cos ^3 # 108 - by h atx
V/m and traveling in free space is incident normally on a lossless medium with
m = m0 and e = 9e0 which occupies the region y $ 0 . The reflected magnetic field
component is given by
(A) 1 cos (3 # 108 t + y) atx A/m
10p
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(B) 1 cos (3 108 t + y) at A/m


20p # x

(C) - 1 cos (3 # 108 t + y) atx A/m


20p
(D) - 1 cos (3 # 108 t + y) atx A/m
10p
Q. 25 In the circuit shown, all the transmission line sections are lossless. The Voltage
Standing Wave Ration(VSWR) on the 60 W line is

. i n
(A) 1.00

c o
(B) 1.64

a .
i
(C) 2.50

d
(D) 3.00

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.n
2009 ONE MARK

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Two infinitely long wires carrying current are as shown in the figure below. One
Q. 26

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wire is in the y - z plane and parallel to the y - axis. The other wire is in the
x - y plane and parallel to the x - axis. Which components of the resulting

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magnetic field are non-zero at the origin ?

(A) x, y, z components (B) x, y components


(C) y, z components (D) x, z components

Q. 27 Which of the following statements is true regarding the fundamental mode of the
metallic waveguides shown ?

(A) Only P has no cutoff-frequency


GATE SOLVED PAPER - EC ELECTROMAGNETICS

(B) Only Q has no cutoff-frequency


(C) Only R has no cutoff-frequency
(D) All three have cutoff-frequencies

2009 TWO MARKS

Q. 28 If a vector field V is related to another vector field A through V = 4# A , which


of the following is true? (Note : C and SC refer to any closed contour and any
surface whose boundary is C . )
(A) # V $ dl = # # A $ d S (B) # A $ dl = # # V $ d S
C S C C S C

(C) #C D # V $ dl = #S #C D # A $ d S (D) #C D # V $ dl = #S #CV $ d S


Q. 29 A transmission line terminates in two branches, each of length l , as shown.
4
The branches are terminated by 50W loads. The lines are lossless and have the
characteristic impedances shown. Determine the impedance Zi as seen by the
source.

. in
c o
a .
i
od
(A) 200W (B) 100W

.n
(C) 50W (D) 25W

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Q. 30 A magnetic field in air is measured to be
y
B = B0 c 2 x 2 yt - 2

w
xt m
x +y x + y2

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What current distribution leads to this field ?
[Hint : The algebra is trivial in cylindrical coordinates.]

©
(A) J = B0 z c 2 1 2 m, r ! 0 (B) J =- B0 z c 2 2 2 m, r ! 0
t t
m0 x + y m0 x + y
(D) J = 0 z c 2 1 2 m, r ! 0
B t
(C) J = 0, r ! 0
m0 x + y

2008 ONE MARK

Q. 31 For a Hertz dipole antenna, the half power beam width (HPBW) in the E -plane
is
(A) 360c (B) 180c
(C) 90c (D) 45c

Q. 32 For static electric and magnetic fields in an inhomogeneous source-free medium,


which of the following represents the correct form of Maxwell’s equations ?
(A) 4$ E = 0 , 4# B = 0 (B) 4$ E = 0 , 4$ B = 0
(C) 4# E = 0 , 4# B = 0 (D) 4# E = 0 , 4$ B = 0
GATE SOLVED PAPER - EC ELECTROMAGNETICS

2008 TWO MARKS

Q. 33 A rectangular waveguide of internal dimensions (a = 4 cm and b = 3 cm) is to be


operated in TE11 mode. The minimum operating frequency is
(A) 6.25 GHz (B) 6.0 GHz
(C) 5.0 GHz (D) 3.75 GHz

Q. 34 One end of a loss-less transmission line having the characteristic impedance of


75W and length of 1 cm is short-circuited. At 3 GHz, the input impedance at the
other end of transmission line is
(A) 0 (B) Resistive
(C) Capacitive (D) Inductive

Q. 35 A uniform plane wave in the free space is normally incident on an infinitely


thick dielectric slab (dielectric constant e = 9 ). The magnitude of the reflection

n
coefficient is
(A) 0 (B) 0.3
. i
o
(C) 0.5 (D) 0.8

Q. 36

.c
In the design of a single mode step index optical fibre close to upper cut-off, the

i a
single-mode operation is not preserved if

d
(A) radius as well as operating wavelength are halved

o
(B) radius as well as operating wavelength are doubled

.n
(C) radius is halved and operating wavelength is doubled
(D) radius is doubled and operating wavelength is halved

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At 20 GHz, the gain of a parabolic dish antenna of 1 meter and 70% efficiency is

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Q. 37
(A) 15 dB (B) 25 dB

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(C) 35 dB (D) 45 dB

Q. 38
2007
©
A plane wave of wavelength l is traveling in a direction making an angle 30c with
ONE MARK

positive x - axis and 90c with positive y - axis. The E field of the plane wave can
be represented as (E0 is constant)
3p p p 3p
(A) E = yEt 0 e j c wt - l x - l z m t 0 e jc wt - l x - l z m
(B) E = yE
3 p x+ p z p 3pz
t 0 e jc wt +
(C) E = yE l l m t 0 e jc wt - l x +
(D) E = yE l m

Q. 39 If C is code curve enclosing a surface S , then magnetic field intensity H , the


current density j and the electric flux density D are related by
(A) ## H $ ds = ## c j + 2D m $ d t
S c 2t
(B) #S H $ d l = ##S c j + 22Dt m $ dS
(C) ##S H $ dS = #C c j + 22Dt m $ d t
(D) #C H $ d l # = ##S c j + 22Dt m $ ds
c
GATE SOLVED PAPER - EC ELECTROMAGNETICS

2007 TWO MARKS

Q. 40 The E field in a rectangular waveguide of inner dimension a # b is given by


wm
E = 2 ` l j H0 sin ` 2px j sin (wt - bz) yt
2

h 2 a
Where H0 is a constant, and a and b are the dimensions along the x - axis and
the y - axis respectively. The mode of propagation in the waveguide is
(A) TE20 (B) TM11
(C) TM20 (D) TE10

Q. 41 A load of 50 W is connected in shunt in a 2-wire transmission line of Z0 = 50W


as shown in the figure. The 2-port scattering parameter matrix (s-matrix) of the
shunt element is

in
-1 1
0 1

.
(A) > 12 1H
2
(B) = G
2 -2 1 0

c o
.
- 13 2 1
- 43
(C) > 2 1H
3
(D) > 43 H

a
3 -3 -4 1

i
4

d
Q. 42 The parallel branches of a 2-wirw transmission line re terminated in 100W and

o
200W resistors as shown in the figure. The characteristic impedance of the line is

n
Z0 = 50W and each section has a length of l . The voltage reflection coefficient G

.
4
at the input is

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(A) - j 7 (B) - 5
5 7
(C) j 5 (D) 5
7 7
Q. 43 The H field (in A/m) of a plane wave propagating in free space is given by
H = xt 5 3 cos (wt - bz) + yt` wt - bz + p j .
h0 2
The time average power flow density in Watts is
h
(A) 0 (B) 100
100 h0
(C) 50h20 (D) 50
h0
GATE SOLVED PAPER - EC ELECTROMAGNETICS

Q. 44 An air-filled rectangular waveguide has inner dimensions of 3 cm # 2 cm. The


wave impedance of the TE20 mode of propagation in the waveguide at a frequency
of 30 GHz is (free space impedance h0 = 377 W )
(A) 308 W (B) 355 W
(C) 400 W (D) 461 W

Q. 45 A l2 dipole is kept horizontally at a height of l2 above a perfectly conducting


0

infinite ground plane. The radiation pattern in the lane of the dipole (E plane)
looks approximately as

. i n
c o
a .
Q. 46

d i
A right circularly polarized (RCP) plane wave is incident at an angle 60c to the

o
normal, on an air-dielectric interface. If the reflected wave is linearly polarized,

.n
the relative dielectric constant xr2 is.

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(A) 2 (B) 3
(C) 2 (D) 3

2006 ONE MARK

Q. 47 The electric field of an electromagnetic wave propagation in the positive direction


is given by E = atx sin (wt - bz) + aty sin (wt - bz + p/2). The wave is
(A) Linearly polarized in the z -direction
(B) Elliptically polarized
(C) Left-hand circularly polarized
(D) Right-hand circularly polarized

Q. 48 A transmission line is feeding 1 watt of power to a horn antenna having a gain of


10 dB. The antenna is matched to the transmission line. The total power radiated
by the horn antenna into the free space is
(A) 10 Watts (B) 1 Watts
(C) 0.1 Watts (D) 0.01 Watt
GATE SOLVED PAPER - EC ELECTROMAGNETICS

2006 TWO MARKS

Q. 49 When a planes wave traveling in free-space is incident normally on a medium


having the fraction of power transmitted into the medium is given by
(A) 8 (B) 1
9 2
(C) 1 (D) 5
3 6
Q. 50 A medium of relative permittivity er2 = 2 forms an interface with free - space.
A point source of electromagnetic energy is located in the medium at a depth of
1 meter from the interface. Due to the total internal reflection, the transmitted
beam has a circular cross-section over the interface. The area of the beam cross-
section at the interface is given by
(A) 2p m 2 (B) p2 m 2
(C) p m 2 (D) p m 2
2

Q. 51 A rectangular wave guide having TE10 mode as dominant mode is having a cut
off frequency 18 GHz for the mode TE30 . The inner broad - wall dimension of the

in
rectangular wave guide is

.
(A) 5/3 cm (B) 5 cm

(C) 5/2 cm

c o
(D) 10 cm

a .
i
Q. 52 A medium is divide into regions I and II about x = 0 plane, as shown in the figure

d
below.

n o
.
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An electromagnetic wave with electric field E1 = 4atx + 3aty + 5atz is incident
normally on the interface from region I . The electric file E2 in region II at the

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interface is
(A) E2 = E1 (B) 4atx + 0.75aty - 1.25atz
(C) 3atx + 3aty + 5atz (D) - 3atx + 3aty + 5atz

Q. 53 A mast antenna consisting of a 50 meter long vertical conductor operates over a


perfectly conducting ground plane. It is base-fed at a frequency of 600 kHz. The
radiation resistance of the antenna is Ohms is
2 2
(A) 2p (B) p
5 5
2
(C) 4p (D) 20p2
5

2005 ONE MARK

Q. 54 The magnetic field intensity vector of a plane wave is given by


H (x, y, z, t) = 10 sin (50000t + 0.004x + 30) aty
where aty , denotes the unit vector in y direction. The wave is propagating with a
GATE SOLVED PAPER - EC ELECTROMAGNETICS

phase velocity.
(A) 5 # 10 4 m/s (B) - 3 # 108 m/s
(C) - 1.25 # 107 m/s (D) 3 # 108 m/s

Q. 55 Refractive index of glass is 1.5. Find the wavelength of a beam of light with
frequency of 1014 Hz in glass. Assume velocity of light is 3 # 108 m/s in vacuum
(A) 3 mm (B) 3 mm
(C) 2 mm (D) 1 mm

2005 TWO MARKS

Q. 56 Which one of the following does represent the electric field lines for the mode in
the cross-section of a hollow rectangular metallic waveguide ?

. i n
c o
a .
d i
o
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Q. 57 Characteristic impedance of a transmission line is 50 W. Input impedance of the
open-circuited line when the transmission line a short circuited, then value of the

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input impedance will be.

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(A) 50 W (B) 100 + j150W

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(C) 7.69 + j11.54W (D) 7.69 - j11.54W

Two identical and parallel dipole antennas are kept apart by a distance of l in

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Q. 58
4
the H - plane. They are fed with equal currents but the right most antenna has a
phase shift of + 90c. The radiation pattern is given as.

Statement of Linked Answer Questions 59 & 60 :


Voltage standing wave pattern in a lossless transmission line with characteristic
impedance 50 and a resistive load is shown in the figure.
GATE SOLVED PAPER - EC ELECTROMAGNETICS

Q. 59 The value of the load resistance is


(A) 50 W (B) 200 W
(C) 12.5 W (D) 0

Q. 60 The reflection coefficient is given by


(A) - 0.6 (B) - 1
(C) 0.6 (D) 0

Q. 61 Many circles are drawn in a Smith Chart used for transmission line calculations.
The circles shown in the figure represent

. in
c o
a .
(A) Unit circles

d i
o
(B) Constant resistance circles

. n
(C) Constant reactance circles
(D) Constant reflection coefficient circles.

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2004
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Q. 62
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The phase velocity of an electromagnetic wave propagating in a hollow metallic

©
rectangular waveguide in the TE10 mode is
(A) equal to its group velocity
(B) less than the velocity of light in free space
(C) equal to the velocity of light in free space
(D) greater than the velocity of light in free space

Q. 63 Consider a lossless antenna with a directive gain of + 6 dB. If 1 mW of power is


fed to it the total power radiated by the antenna will be
(A) 4 mW (B) 1 mW
(C) 7 mW (D) 1/4 mW

2004 TWO MARKS

Q. 64 A parallel plate air-filled capacitor has plate area of 10 - 4 m 2 and plate separation
of 10 - 3 m. It is connect - ed to a 0.5 V, 3.6 GHz source. The magnitude of the
displacement current is ( e = 361p 10 - 9 F/m)
(A) 10 mA (B) 100 mA
GATE SOLVED PAPER - EC ELECTROMAGNETICS

(C) 10 A (D) 1.59 mA

Q. 65 Consider a 300 W, quarter - wave long (at 1 GHz) transmission line as shown in
Fig. It is connected to a 10 V, 50 W source at one end and is left open circuited at
the other end. The magnitude of the voltage at the open circuit end of the line is

(A) 10 V (B) 5 V
(C) 60 V (D) 60/7 V

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Q. 66 In a microwave test bench, why is the microwave signal amplitude modulated at

. i
1 kHz

o
(A) To increase the sensitivity of measurement

c
(B) To transmit the signal to a far-off place
(C) To study amplitude modulations

a .
i
(D) Because crystal detector fails at microwave frequencies

Q. 67 If E = (atx + jaty) e jkz - kwt

o d
and H = (k/wm) (aty + katx ) e jkz - jwt , the time-averaged

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Poynting vector is
(A) null vector (B) (k/wm) atz

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(C) (2k/wm) atz (D) (k/2wm) atz

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Q. 68 Consider an impedance Z = R + jX marked with point P in an impedance Smith

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chart as shown in Fig. The movement from point P along a constant resistance
circle in the clockwise direction by an angle 45c is equivalent to

(A) adding an inductance in series with Z


(B) adding a capacitance in series with Z
(C) adding an inductance in shunt across Z
(D) adding a capacitance in shunt across Z

Q. 69 A plane electromagnetic wave propagating in free space is incident normally on a


large slab of loss-less, non-magnetic, dielectric material with e > e0 . Maxima and
minima are observed when the electric field is measured in front of the slab. The
maximum electric field is found to be 5 times the minimum field. The intrinsic
impedance of the medium should be
(A) 120p W (B) 60p W
(C) 600p W (D) 24p W
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Q. 70 A lossless transmission line is terminated in a load which reflects a part of the


incident power. The measured VSWR is 2. The percentage of the power that is
reflected back is
(A) 57.73 (B) 33.33
(C) 0.11 (D) 11.11

2003 ONE MARK

Q. 71 The unit of 4# H is
(A) Ampere (B) Ampere/meter
(C) Ampere/meter 2 (D) Ampere-meter

Q. 72 The depth of penetration of electromagnetic wave in a medium having conductivity


s at a frequency of 1 MHz is 25 cm. The depth of penetration at a frequency of
4 MHz will be
(A) 6.25 dm (B) 12.50 cm
(C) 50.00 cm (D) 100.00 cm

2003
. in TWO MARKS

Q. 73

c o
Medium 1 has the electrical permittivity e1 = 1.5e0 farad/m and occupies the

.
region to the left of x = 0 plane. Medium 2 has the electrical permittivity e2 = 2.5e0

a
i
farad/m and occupies the region to the right of x = 0 plane. If E1 in medium 1 is

d
E1 = (2ux - 3uy + 1uz ) volt/m, then E2 in medium 2 is

o
(A) (2.0ux - 7.5uy + 2.5uz ) volt/m

n
(B) (2.0ux - 2.0uy + 0.6uz ) volt/m

.
(C) (2.0ux - 3.0uy + 1.0uz ) volt/m

w
(D) (2.0ux - 2.0uy + 0.6uz ) volt/m

Q. 74

w
If the electric field intensity is given by E = (xux + yuy + zuz ) volt/m, the potential

w
difference between X (2, 0, 0) and Y (1, 2, 3) is
(A) + 1 volt (B) - 1 volt

Q. 75
©
(C) + 5 volt (D) + 6 volt

A uniform plane wave traveling in air is incident on the plane boundary between
air and another dielectric medium with er = 4 . The reflection coefficient for the
normal incidence, is
(A) zero (B) 0.5+180c
(B) 0.333+0c (D) 0.333+180c

Q. 76 If the electric field intensity associated with a uniform plane electromagnetic wave
traveling in a perfect dielectric medium is given by E (z, t) = 10 cos (2p107 t - 0.1pz)
V/m, then the velocity of the traveling wave is
(A) 3.00 # 108 m/sec (B) 2.00 # 108 m/sec
(C) 6.28 # 107 m/sec (D) 2.00 # 107 m/sec

Q. 77 Two identical antennas are placed in the q = p/2 plane as shown in Fig. The
elements have equal amplitude excitation with 180c polarity difference, operating
at wavelength l. The correct value of the magnitude of the far-zone resultant
electric field strength normalized with that of a single element, both computed
GATE SOLVED PAPER - EC ELECTROMAGNETICS

for f = 0 , is

(A) 2 cos b 2ps l (B) 2 sin b 2ps l


l l
p
(C) 2 cos a s k p
(D) 2 sin a s k
l l

Q. 78 A short - circuited stub is shunt connected to a transmission line as shown in


fig. If Z0 = 50 ohm, the admittance Y seen at the junction of the stub and the

n
transmission line is

. i
c o
a .
d i
o
.n
w
w
w
(A) (0.01 - j0.02) mho (B) (0.02 - j0.01) mho

©
(C) (0.04 - j0.02) mho (D) (0.02 + j0) mho

Q. 79 A rectangular metal wave guide filled with a dielectric material of relative


permittivity er = 4 has the inside dimensions 3.0 cm # 1.2 cm. The cut-off
frequency for the dominant mode is
(A) 2.5 GHz (B) 5.0 GHz
(C) 10.0 GHz (D) 12.5 GHz

2002 ONE MARK

Q. 80 The VSWR can have any value between


(A) 0 and 1 (B) - 1 and + 1
(C) 0 and 3 (D) 1 and 3

Q. 81 In in impedance Smith movement along a constant resistance circle gives rise to


(A) a decrease in the value of reactance
(B) an increase in the value of reactance
(C) no change in the reactance value
(D) no change in the impedance
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Q. 82 The phase velocity for the TE10 -mode in an air-filled rectangular waveguide is (
c is the velocity of plane waves in free space)
(A) less than c (B) equal to c
(C) greater than c (D) none of these

2002 TWO MARKS

Q. 83 t jp/2) e jwt - jkz . This wave is


A plane wave is characterized by E = (0.5xt + ye
(A) linearly polarized (B) circularly polarized
(C) elliptically polarized (D) unpolarized

Q. 84 Distilled water at 25c C is characterized by s = 1.7 # 10 - 4 mho/m and e = 78eo


at a frequency of 3 GHz. Its loss tangent tan d is
( e = 10
36p F/m)
-9

(A) 1.3 # 10-5 (B) 1.3 # 10-3


(C) 1.3 # 10-4 /78 (D) 1.3 # 10-5 /78e0

in
Q. 85 The electric field on the surface of a perfect conductor is 2 V/m. The conductor

.
is immersed in water with e = 80eo . The surface charge density on the conductor

o
is ( e = 10
36p F/m)
-9

c
(A) 0 C/m 2 (B) 2 C/m 2
(C) 1.8 # 10 - 11 C/m 2

a .(D) 1.41 # 10 - 9 C/m 2

Q. 86

d i
A person with receiver is 5 Km away from the transmitter. What is the distance

o
that this person must move further to detect a 3-dB decrease in signal strength

n
(A) 942 m (B) 2070 m
(C) 4978 m
. (D) 5320 m

w
w
2001 ONE MARK

w
Q. 87 A transmission line is distortonless if
(A) RL = 1 (B) RL = GC

©
GC
(C) LG = RC (D) RG = LC
2 2
Q. 88 If a plane electromagnetic wave satisfies the equal d E2x = c2 d E2x , the wave
propagates in the dZ dt
(A) x - direction
(B) z - direction
(C) y - direction
(D) xy plane at an angle of 45c between the x and z direction

Q. 89 The plane velocity of wave propagating in a hollow metal waveguide is


(A) grater than the velocity of light in free space
(B) less than the velocity of light in free space
(C) equal to the velocity of light free space
(D) equal to the velocity of light in free

Q. 90 The dominant mode in a rectangular waveguide is TE10 , because this mode has
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(A) the highest cut-off wavelength


(B) no cut-off
(C) no magnetic field component
(D) no attenuation

2001 TWO MARKS

Q. 91 A material has conductivity of 10 - 2 mho/m and a relative permittivity of 4.


The frequency at which the conduction current in the medium is equal to the
displacement current is
(A) 45 MHz (B) 90 MHz
(C) 450 MHz (D) 900 MHz

n
Q. 92 A uniform plane electromagnetic wave incident on a plane surface of a dielectric

. i
material is reflected with a VSWR of 3. What is the percentage of incident power

o
that is reflected ?

c
(A) 10% (B) 25%

.
(C) 50% (D) 75%

Q. 93

i a
A medium wave radio transmitter operating at a wavelength of 492 m has a tower

(A) 25 W
o d
antenna of height 124. What is the radiation resistance of the antenna?
(B) 36.5 W

.n
(C) 50 W (D) 73 W

Q. 94

w
In uniform linear array, four isotropic radiating elements are spaced l apart. The
4

w
progressive phase shift between required for forming the main beam at 60c off the
end - fire is :
(A) - p
w (B) - p2 radians

©
(C) - p4 radians (D) - p8 radians

2000 ONE MARK

Q. 95 The magnitudes of the open-circuit and short-circuit input impedances of a


transmission line are 100 W and 25 W respectively. The characteristic impedance
of the line is,
(A) 25 W (B) 50 W
(C) 75 W (D) 100 W

Q. 96 A TEM wave is incident normally upon a perfect conductor. The E and H field
at the boundary will be respectively,
(A) minimum and minimum (B) maximum and maximum
(C) minimum and maximum (D) maximum and minimum

Q. 97 If the diameter of a l dipole antenna is increased from l to l , then its


2 100 50
(A) bandwidth increases (B) bandwidth decrease
(C) gain increases (D) gain decreases
GATE SOLVED PAPER - EC ELECTROMAGNETICS

2000 TWO MARKS

Q. 98 A uniform plane wave in air impings at 45c angle on a lossless dielectric material
with dielectric constant dr . The transmitted wave propagates is a 30c direction
with respect to the normal. The value of dr is
(A) 1.5 (B) 1.5
(C) 2 (D) 2

Q. 99 A rectangular waveguide has dimensions 1 cm # 0.5 cm. Its cut-off frequency is


(A) 5 GHz (B) 10 GHz
(C) 15 GHz (D) 12 GHz

Q. 100 Two coaxial cable 1 and 2 are filled with different dielectric constants er1 and er2
respectively. The ratio of the wavelength in the cables (l1 /l2) is
(A) er1 /er2 (B) er2 /er1
(C) er1 /er2 (D) er2 /er1

Q. 101 For an 8 feet (2.4m) parabolic dish antenna operating at 4 GHz, the minimum
distance required for far field measurement is closest to

in
(A) 7.5 cm (B) 15 cm
(C) 15 m
.
(D) 150 m

o
c
a.
1999 ONE MARK

Q. 102

d i
An electric field on a place is described by its potential
V = 20 (r-1 + r-2)

o
where r is the distance from the source. The field is due to

n
.
(A) a monopole (B) a dipole

w
(C) both a monopole and a dipole (D) a quadruple

w
Q. 103 Assuming perfect conductors of a transmission line, pure TEM propagation is
NOT possible in

w
(A) coaxial cable (B) air-filled cylindrical waveguide

©
(C) parallel twin-wire line in air
(D) semi-infinite parallel plate wave guide

Q. 104 Indicate which one of the following will NOT exist in a rectangular resonant
cavity.
(A) TE110 (B) TE 011
(C) TM110 (D) TM111

Q. 105 Identify which one of the following will NOT satisfy the wave equation.
(A) 50e j (wt - 3z) (B) sin [w (10z + 5t)]
2
(C) cos (y + 5t) (D) sin (x) cos (t)

1999 TWO MARKS

Q. 106 In a twin-wire transmission line in air, the adjacent voltage maxima are at
12.5 cm and 27.5 cm . The operating frequency is
(A) 300 MHz (B) 1 GHz
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(C) 2 GHz (D) 6.28 GHz

Q. 107 A transmitting antenna radiates 251 W isotropically. A receiving antenna, located


100 m away from the transmitting antenna, has an effective aperture of 500 cm2 .
The total received by the antenna is
(A) 10 mW (B) 1 mW
(C) 20 mW (D) 100 mW

Q. 108 In air, a lossless transmission line of length 50 cm with L = 10 mH/m , C = 40 pF/m


is operated at 25 MHz . Its electrical path length is
(A) 0.5 meters (B) l meters
(C) p/2 radians (D) 180 deg rees

Q. 109 A plane wave propagating through a medium [er = 8, mr = 2, and s = 0] has its
t - (z/3) sin (108 t - bz) V/m . The wave impedance, in
electric field given by Ev = 0.5Xe
ohms is
(A) 377
. i n
(B) 198.5+180c
(C) 182.9+14c

c o
(D) 133.3

a .
i
1998 ONE MARK

Q. 110

(A) purely resistive


o d
The intrinsic impedance of copper at high frequencies is

.n
(B) purely inductive

w
(C) complex with a capacitive component

w
(D) complex with an inductive component

w
Q. 111 The Maxwell equation V # H = J + 2D is based on
2t

©
(A) Ampere’s law (B) Gauss’ law
(C) Faraday’s law (D) Coulomb’s law

Q. 112 All transmission line sections shown in the figure is have a characteristic impedance
R 0 + j 0 . The input impedance Zin equals

(A) 2 R 0 (B) R 0
3
(C) 3 R 0 (D) 2R 0
2
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1998 TWO MARKS

Q. 113 The time averages Poynting vector, in W/m2 , for a wave with Ev = 24e j (wt + bz) avy V/m
in free space is
(A) - 2.4 avz (B) 2.4 avz
p p
(C) 4.8 avz (D) - 4.8 avz
p p
Q. 114 The wavelength of a wave with propagation constant (0.1p + j0.2p) m-1 is
(A) 2 m (B) 10 m
0.05
(C) 20 m (D) 30 m

Q. 115 The depth of penetration of wave in a lossy dielectric increases with increasing
(A) conductivity
(B) permeability
(C) wavelength
(D) permittivity

in
Q. 116 The polarization of wave with electric field vector Ev = E 0 e j^wt + bz h ^avx + avy h is
(A) linear
.
(B) elliptical

o
c
(C) left hand circular (D) right hand circular

Q. 117

a .
The vector H in the far field of an antenna satisfies

i
(A) d $ Hv = 0 and d # Hv = 0
(B) d $ Hv ! 0 and d # Hv ! 0
(C) d $ Hv = 0 and d # Hv ! 0
o d
.
(D) d $ Hv ! 0 and d # Hv = 0
n
Q. 118
w
The radiation resistance of a circular loop of one turn is 0.01 W. The radiation

w
resistance of five turns of such a loop will be
(A) 0.002 W (B) 0.01 W
(C) 0.05 W
w (D) 0.25 W

Q. 119
©
An antenna in free space receives 2 mW
is 20 mV/m rms. The effective aperture
(A) 0.005 m2
of power when the incident electric field
of the antenna is
(B) 0.05 m2
(C) 1.885 m2 (D) 3.77 m2

Q. 120 The maximum usable frequency of an ionospheric layer at 60c incidence and with
8 MHz critical frequency is
(A) 16 MHz (B) 16 MHz
3
(C) 8 MHz (D) 6.93 MHz

Q. 121 A loop is rotating about they y -axis in a magnetic field Bv = B 0 cos (wt + f) avx T.
The voltage in the loop is
(A) zero
(B) due to rotation only
(C) due to transformer action only
(D) due to both rotation and transformer action
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Q. 122 The far field of an antenna varies with distance r as


(A) 1 (B) 12
r r
(C) 13 (D) 1
r r

1997 ONE MARK

Q. 123 A transmission line of 50 W characteristic impedance is terminated with a 100 W


resistance. The minimum impedance measured on the line is equal to
(A) 0 W (B) 25 W
(C) 50 W (D) 100 W

Q. 124 A rectangular air filled waveguide has cross section of 4 cm #10 cm . The minimum
frequency which can propagate in the waveguide is

i n
(A) 0.75 GHz (B) 2.0 GHz
(C) 2.5 GHz
.
(D) 3.0 GHz

o
1997
. c TWO MARKS

Q. 125

i a
A very lossy, l/4 long, 50 W transmission line is open circuited at the load end.

(A) 0
o d
The input impedance measured at the other end of the line is approximately
(B) 50 W

.n
(C) 3 (D) None of the above

w
Q. 126 The skin depth at 10 MHz for a conductor is 1 cm. The phase velocity of an

w
electromagnetic wave in the conductor at 1, 000 MHz is about
(A) 6 # 106 m/ sec

w
(B) 6 # 107 m/ sec

©
(C) 3 # 108 m/ sec
(D) 6 # 108 m/ sec

1996 ONE MARK

Q. 127 A lossless transmission line having 50 W characteristic impedance and length l/4
is short circuited at one end and connected to an ideal voltage source of 1 V at
the other end. The current drawn from the voltage source is
(A) 0 (B) 0.02 A
(C) 3 (D) none of these

Q. 128 The capacitance per unit length and the characteristic impedance of a lossless
transmission line are C and Z 0 respectively. The velocity of a travelling wave on
the transmission line is
(A) Z 0 C (B) 1
Z0 C
(C) Z 0 (D) C
C Z0
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1996 TWO MARKS

Q. 129 A uniform plane wave in air is normally incident on infinitely thick slab. If the
refractive index of the glass slab is 1.5, then the percentage of incident power that
is reflected from the air-glass interface is
(A) 0% (B) 4%
(C) 20% (D) 100%

Q. 130 The critical frequency of an ionospheric layer is 10 MHz. What is the maximum
launching angle from the horizon for which 20 MHz wave will be reflected by the
layer ?
(A) 0c (B) 30c
(C) 45c (D) 90c

Q. 131 Some unknown material has a conductivity of 106 mho/m and a permeability of
4p # 10-7 H/m . The skin depth for the material at 1 GHz is
(A) 15.9 mm (B) 20.9 mm
(C) 25.9 mm (D) 30.9 mm

***********

. in
c o
a .
d i
n o
.
w
w
w
©
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SOLUTION

Sol. 1 Option (D) is correct.


Stoke’s theorem states that the circulation a vector field A v around a closed path
v over the open surface S bounded
l is equal to the surface integral of the curl of A
by l .
i.e., # Av : dlv = ## ^d # Avh : dsv
Here, line integral is taken across a closed path which is denoted by a small
circle on the integral notation where as, the surface integral of ^d # A
vh is taken

i n
over open surface bounded by the loop.
Sol. 2 Option (D) is correct.
Given, the vector field
o.
. c
v = xavx + yavy + zavz
A

i a
so,

d
v ) = 2Ax + 2Ay + 2Az
v (Divergence of A
d$A

o
2x 2y 2z

.n
= 1+1+1 = 3
Sol. 3 Option (A) is correct.

w
Given, the return loss of device as 20 dB

w
i.e., G in dB =- 20 dB (loss)
^ h

w
or, 20 log G =- 20
G = 10-1 = 0.1

©
&
Therefore, the standing wave ration is given by
1+ G
VSWR =
1- G

= 1 + 0.1 = 1.1 = 1.22


1 - 0.1 0.9
Sol. 4 Option (C) is correct.
For the given incidence of plane wave, we have the transmitting angle
qt = 19.2c
From Snell’s law, we know
n1 sin qi = n2 sin qt
c m1 e1 sin qi = c m2 e2 sin qt ...(1)
For the given interfaces, we have
m1 = m2 = 1
e1 = 1, e2 = 4.5
So, from Eq. (1)
sin qi = 4.5 sin 19.2
or, qi . 45c
Now, the component of Evi can be obtained as
Evi = _Eox avx - Eoz avz i e-jbk (observed from the shown figure)
Since, the angle qi = 45c so,
GATE SOLVED PAPER - EC ELECTROMAGNETICS

Eox = Eoz = Eo
2
_ax - avz i e-jbk
Therefore, v
Ei = Eo v ...(1)
2
Now, the wavelength of EM wave is
l = 600 mm

So, b = 2p = p # 10 4
l 3
Also, direction of propagation is
v v
avk = ax + az
2
So, k = x+z
2
Substituting it in equation (1), we get
p # 10 ^x + z h
4

Evi = Eo _avx - avz i e-j 3 2


2
Sol. 5 Option (A) is correct.
We obtain the reflection coefficient for parallel polarized wave (since, electric field

in
is in the plane of wave propagation) as

.
h cos qt - h1 cos qi
Gz = 2

o
...(1)
h2 cos qt + h1 cos qi

. c
As we have already obtained

a
qi = 45c, qt = 19.2c

i
m 1 = h0
h2 = = h0

d
Also,
e 4.5 4. 5

o
m 1
and h1 = = h0 = h0

n
e 1

.
Substituting these in eq. (1) we get

w
G z = cos 19.2c - 4.5 cos 45c
cos 19.2c + 4.5 cos 45c

w =- 0.227

w
.- 0.23
Therefore, the reflected field has the magnitude given by

©
Ero
= T 11'
Eio
or Ero = G z Eio =- 0.23 Eio
Hence, the expression of reflected electric field is
Evr =- 0.23 Eo _- avx - avz i e-j 3 k
4
p # 10
(2)
2
Again, we have the propagation vector of reflected wave as
v v
avk = ax - az
2
or, k = x - z
2
Substituting it in Eq. (2), we get
Evr =- 0.23 Eo _- avx - avz i e-j 3 b 2 l
4
p # 10 x - z

2
jp # 10 ^x - z h V
4

Evr = 0.23 o _avx + avz i e- 3 2


E m
2
Sol. 6 Option (C) is correct.
Electric field of the propagating wave in free space is given as
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Ei = (8ax + 6ay + 5az ) e j (wt + 3x - 4y) V/m


So, it is clear that wave is propagating in the direction (- 3ax + 4ay).
Since, the wave is incident on a perfectly conducting slab at x = 0 . So, the
reflection coefficient will be equal to - 1.
i.e. Er = (- 1) Ei =- 8ax - 6ay - 5az
0 0

Again, the reflected wave will be as shown in figure.

i n
i.e. the reflected wave will be in direction 3ax + 4ay . Thus, the electric field of the

.
reflected wave will be.

o
Ex = (- 8ax - 6ay - 5az ) e j (wt - 3x - 4y) V/m

c
.
Sol. 7 Option (A) is correct.

i a
The field in circular polarization is found to be

d
Es = E 0 (ay ! jaz ) e-jbx propagating in + ve x -direction.

o
where, plus sign is used for left circular polarization and minus sign for right

.n
circular polarization. So, the given problem has left circular polarization.
b = 25 = w

w
c

w
2pf 8
25 = & f = 25 # c = 25 # 3 # 10 = 1.2 GHz
c 2p 2 # 3.14
Sol. 8
w
Option (B) is correct.

©
Let b " outer diameter
a " inner diameter
Characteristic impedance,
m0 4p # 10-7 # 36p ln 2.4 = 100 W
Z0 = ln b b l = b 1 l
e0 er a 10-9 # 10.89
Sol. 9 Option (A) is correct.
The directivity is defined as
D = Fmax
Favg
Fmax = 1
2p 2p
Favg = 1 # F (q, f) dW = 1 ;# # F (q, f) sin qdq dfE
4p 4p 0 0
2p p/2
= 1 ;# # cos q sin qdqdfE
4
4p 0 0
5 p/2
= 1 ;2p b- cos q lE = 1 # 2p :- 0 + 1 D
4p 5 0
4p 5
= 1 # 2p = 1
4p 5 10
D = 1 = 10
10
GATE SOLVED PAPER - EC ELECTROMAGNETICS

or, D (in dB) = 10 log 10 = 10 dB


Sol. 10 Option (C) is correct.
Since Z0 = Z1 Z 2
100 = 50 # 200
This is quarter wave matching. The length would be odd multiple of l/4 .
l = (2m + 1) l
4

f1 = 429 MHz, l1 = c = 3 # 108 = 0.174 m


f1 # 4 429 # 106 # 4
8
f2 = 1 GHz , l2 = c = 3 # 10 = 0.075 m
f2 # 4 1 # 10 # 49

Only option (C) is odd multiple of both l1 and l2 .


(2m + 1) = 1.58 = 9
l1
(2m + 1) = 58 - 21
1 .
l2
Option (D) is correct.

in
Sol. 11

.
Hz = 3 cos (2.094 # 102 x) cos (2.618 # 102 y) cos (6.283 # 1010 t - bz)

o
bx = 2.094 # 102

c
by = 2.618 # 102
w = 6.283 # 1010 rad/s

a .
i
For the wave propagation,

b =
c2 d
w 2 - (b 2 + b 2)

o
x y

. n
Substituting above values,
6.283 # 1010 2 - (2.0942 + 2.6182) 10 4 - j261

w
b = c
3 # 108 m
#

w
b is imaginary so mode of operation is non-propagating.

w
vp = 0
Sol. 12 Option (C ) is correct.

©
For r > a , Ienclosed = (pa2) J
# H : dl = Ienclosed

H # 2pr = (pa2) J
H = Io Io = (pa2) J
2pr
H \ 1 , for r > a
r
J (pr 2) Jr 2
For r < a , Ienclosed = = 2
pa 2 a
So, # H : dl= Ienclosed
2
H # 2pr = Jr2
a
H = Jr 2
2pa
H \ r , for r < a
GATE SOLVED PAPER - EC ELECTROMAGNETICS

Sol. 13 Option (A) is correct.


Assuming the cross section of the wire on x -y plane as shown in figure.

. i n
c o
.
Since, the hole is drilled along the length of wire. So, it can be assumed that the

a
i
drilled portion carriers current density of - J .

d
Now, for the wire without hole, magnetic field intensity at point P will be given

o
as

.n
Hf1 (2pR) = J (pR2)
Hf1 (2pR) = JR

w
2
Since, point o is at origin. So, in vector form

w H1 = J (xax + yay)

w
2
Again only due to the hole magnetic field intensity will be given as.

©
(Hf2) (2pr) =- J (pr 2)
Hf2 = - Jr
2
Again, if we take Ol at origin then in vector form
H2 = - J (xlax + ylay)
2
where xl and yl denotes point ‘P ’ in the new co-ordinate system.
Now the relation between two co-ordinate system will be.
x = xl + d
y = yl
So, H2 = - J [(x - d) ax + yay]
2
So, total magnetic field intensity = H1 + H2 = J dax
2
So, magnetic field inside the hole will depend only on ‘d ’.
Sol. 14 Option (C) is correct.
Power radiated from any source is constant.
Sol. 15 Option (C) is correct.
We have d = 2 mm and f = 10 GHz
GATE SOLVED PAPER - EC ELECTROMAGNETICS

Phase difference = 2p d = p ;
l 4
or = l = 8d = 8 # 2 mm = 16 mm
v = fl = 10 # 109 # 16 # 10-3
= 1.6 # 108 m/ sec
Sol. 16 Option (A) is correct.
TM11 is the lowest order mode of all the TMmn modes.
Sol. 17 Option (A) is correct.
From boundary condition
Bn1 = Bn2
m1 Hx1 = m2 Hx2
or Hx2 = Hx1 = 1.5
2
or Hx2 = 1.5utx
Further if H z = 1.5utx + Auty + Buz
Then from Boundary condition

in
10ut

.
(3utx + 30uty) utx = (1.5utx + Auty + Butz ) xt + v y
J

o
=- 30utz =- Autz + Buty + 10uty

. c
Comparing we get A = 30 and B =- 10

a
So H 2 = 1.5utx + 30uty - 10utz A/m
Sol. 18 Option (A) is correct.

d i
o
Since voltage maxima is observed at a distance of l/4 from the load and we know
that the separation between one maxima and minima equals to l/4 so voltage

. n
minima will be observed at the load, Therefore load can not be complex it must

w
be pure resistive.
G = s-1

w
Now
s+1

w
also RL = R 0 (since voltage maxima is formed at the load)
s
RL = 50 = 10 W

Sol. 19 ©
Option (D) is correct.
5

From the expressions of Ev & Hv , we can write,


b = 280 p
or 2 p = 280 p & l = 1
l 140
v E
Wave impedance, Zw = E = p = 120 p
Hv 3 er
again, f = 14 GHz
8
Now l = C = 3 # 10 9 = 3
er f er 14 # 10 140 er
or 3 = 1
140 er 140
or er = 9
Ep
Now = 120p = E p = 120p
3 9
GATE SOLVED PAPER - EC ELECTROMAGNETICS

Sol. 20 Option (C) is correct.


For a lossless network
S11 2 + S21 2 = 1
For the given scattering matrix
S11 = 0.2 0c , S12 = 0.9 90c
S21 = 0.9 90c , S22 = 0.1 90c
Here, (0.2) 2 + (0.9) 2 ! 1 (not lossless)
Reciprocity :
S12 = S21 = 0.9 90c (Reciprocal)
Sol. 21 Option (D) is correct.
For distortion less transmission line characteristics impedance

n
Z0 = R

i
G

.
Attenuation constant

o
a = RG
So, a = R = 0.1 = 0.002
Z0 50
. c
Sol. 22 Option (C) is correct.

i a
d
Intrinsic impedance of EM wave

o
m m0
h = = = 120p = 60p

.n
e 4e0 2
Time average power density

w
2
Pav = 1 EH = 1 E = 1 = 1
2 2 h 2 # 60p 120p
Sol. 23
w
Option (C) is correct.

w Av = xyatx + x 2 aty

©
v = dxatx + dyaty
dl
# Av : dl
C
v = # (xyatx + x 2 aty) : (dxatx + dyaty) = # (xydx + x 2 dy)
C C

#1 43 dy + #3 13 dy
2/ 3 1/ 3 3 1
= #1/ 3
xdx + #2/ 3
3xdx +

= 1 : 4 - 1 D + 3 :1 - 4 D + 4 [3 - 1] + 1 [1 - 3] = 1
2 3 3 2 3 3 3 3
Sol. 24 Option (A) is correct.
In the given problem

Reflection coefficient
h2 - h 1
t = = 400p - 120p =- 1
h2 + h 1 40p + 120p 2
t is negative So magnetic field component does not change its direction Direction
GATE SOLVED PAPER - EC ELECTROMAGNETICS

of incident magnetic field


atE # atH = atK
atZ # atH = aty
atH = atx ( + x direction)
So, reflection magnetic field component
Hr = t # 24 cos (3 # 108 + by) atx , y $ 0
h
= 1 # 24 cos (3 # 108 + by) atx , y $ 0
2 # 120p
8
b = w = 3 # 108 = 1
vC 3 # 10
So, Hr = 1 cos (3 # 108 t + y) atx , y $ 0
10p
Sol. 25 Option (B) is correct.
For length of l/4 transmission line
Z + jZo tan bl
Z in = Zo ; L
Zo + jZL tan bl E

in
Zo = 30 W, b = 2p , l = l

.
ZL = 30 W ,
l 4

o
tan bl = tan b 2 p l
: l=3

c
So,
l 4
R ZL

a .V
S tan bl + jZo W

i
2
Z in = Zo S W = Z 0 = 60 W

d
S Zo + jZL W ZL
S tan bl W

o
T X

n
For length of l/8 transmission line

.
Z + jZo tan bl
Z in = Zo ; L
Zo + jZL tan bl E

w
Zo = 30 W, ZL = 0 (short)

w
tan bl = tan b 2p : l l = 1

w
l 8
Z in = jZo tan bl = 30j

©
Circuit is shown below.

Reflection coefficient
60 + 3j - 60
t = ZL - Zo = = 1
ZL + Zo 60 + 3j + 60 17
1+ t
VSWR = = 1 + 17 = 1.64
1- t 1 - 17
Sol. 26 Option (D) is correct.
GATE SOLVED PAPER - EC ELECTROMAGNETICS

Due to 1 A current wire in x - y plane, magnetic field be at origin will be in x


direction.
Due to 1 A current wire in y - z plane, magnetic field be at origin will be in z
direction.
Thus x and z component is non-zero at origin.
Sol. 27 Option (A) is correct.
Rectangular and cylindrical waveguide doesn’t support TEM modes and have cut
off frequency.
Coaxial cable support TEM wave and doesn’t have cut off frequency.
Sol. 28 Option (B) is correct.
We have V = 4# A ...(1)
By Stokes theorem
# A $ dl
= ## (4 # A) $ ds

n
...(2)
From (1) and (2) we get
. i
# A $ dl = ## V $ ds
c o
.
Sol. 29 Option (D) is correct.

i a
The transmission line are as shown below. Length of all line is l
4

o d
.n
w
w
w
2 2
Zi1 = Z01 = 100 = 200W
ZL1 50

©
2 2
Zi2 = Z02 = 100 = 200W
ZL2 50
ZL3 = Zi1 Zi2 = 200W 200W = 100W
2 2
Zi = Z0 = 50 = 25W
ZL3 100
Sol. 30 Option (C) is correct.
x a - y a
We have Bv = B0 c y xm ...(1)
x2 + y2 x2 + y2
To convert in cylindrical substituting
x = r cos f and y = r sin f
ax = cos far - sin faf
and ay = sin far + cos faf
In (1) we have
Bv = Bv0 af
v Bv a
Now Hv = B = 0 f constant
m0 m0
v v
J = 4# H = 0 since H is constant
GATE SOLVED PAPER - EC ELECTROMAGNETICS

Sol. 31 Option (C) is correct.


The beam-width of Hertizian dipole is 180c and its half power beam-width is 90c.
Sol. 32 Option (D) is correct.
Maxwell equations
4- B = 0
4$ E = r/E
4# E =- B
4# Ht = D + J
For static electric magnetic fields
4$ B = 0
4$ E = r/E
4# E = 0
4# Ht = J
Sol. 33 Option (A) is correct.
Cut-off Frequency is

in
fc = c m 2 n 2
` a j +`b j
.
2
For TE11 mode,

c o
.
3 # 1010 1 2 1 2
fc = 2 ` 4 j + ` 3 j = 6.25 GHz
Sol. 34 Option (D) is correct.
i a
Zin = Zo
o d
ZL + iZo tan (bl)
Zo + iZL tan (bl)
For ZL = 0 ,
. n
Zin = iZo tan (bl)

w
The wavelength is
8

w
l = c = 3 # 109 = 0.1 m or 10 cm
f 3 # 10

w bl = 2 p l = 2p # 1 = p
l 10 5

©
Thus Zin = iZo tan p
5
Thus Zin is inductive because Zo tan p is positive
5
Sol. 35 Option (C) is correct.
m
We have h =
e
Reflection coefficient
h - h1
G= 2
h2 + h1
Substituting values for h1 and h2 we have
mo mo
-
t = eo er
mo
eo
mo
= 1- er = 1 - 9 since er = 9
eo er + eo 1+ er 1+ 9
=- 0.5
Sol. 36 Option (B) is correct.
In single mode optical fibre, the frequency of limiting mode increases as radius
decreases
GATE SOLVED PAPER - EC ELECTROMAGNETICS

Hence r \ 1
f
So. if radius is doubled, the frequency of propagating mode gets halved, and
wavelength is doubled.
Sol. 37 Option (D) is correct.
8
l = c = 3 # 10 9 = 3
f 20 # 10 200
2
Gp = hp2 ` D j = 0.7 # p2 c 13 m = 30705.4
2
Gain
l 100
= 44.87 dB
Sol. 38 Option (A) is correct.
g = b cos 30cx ! b sin 30cy
= 2p 3 x ! 2p 1 y
l 2
= p 3 x! py
l 2

. i n
l l

c o
.
p 3 x! p y
E = ay E0 e j (wt - g) = ay E0 e j;wt - c l l mE

Sol. 39 Option (D) is correct.

i a
d
4# H = J + 2D Maxwell Equations

o
2t

.##n
## 4# H $ ds = ## `J + 22Dt j .ds Integral form
s s

w
2D
# H $ dl = `J + 2t j .ds Stokes Theorem

w
s
Sol. 40 Option (A) is correct.

w E =
wm p
H sin ` 2px j sin (wt - bz) yt
2 `2j 0
2

©
h a
This is TE mode and we know that
mpy
Ey \ sin ` mpx j cos `
a b j
Thus m = 2 and n = 0 and mode is TE20
Sol. 41 Option (C) is correct.
The 2-port scattering parameter matrix is
S11 S12
S ==
S21 S22 G
(Z Z ) - Zo (50 50) - 50
S11 = L 0 = =- 1
(ZL Z0) + Zo (50 50) + 50 3
2 (ZL Zo) 2 (50 50)
S12 = S21 = = =2
(ZL Zo) + Zo (50 50) + 50 3
(Z Z ) - Zo (50 50) - 50
S22 = L o = =- 1
(ZL Zo) + Zo (50 50) + 50 3
Sol. 42 Option (D) is correct.
The input impedance is
2
Zin = Zo ; if l = l
ZL 4
2 2
Zin1 = Zo1 = 50 = 25
ZL1 100
GATE SOLVED PAPER - EC ELECTROMAGNETICS

2 2
Zin2 = Zo2 = 50 = 12.5
ZL2 200
Now ZL = Zin1 Zin2
25 12.5 = 25
3
(50) 2
Zs = = 300
25/3
G = ZS - Zo = 300 - 50 = 5
ZS + Zo 300 + 50 7
Sol. 43 Option (D) is correct.
2
= Hx2 + Hy2 = c 5 3 m + c 5 m = c 10 m
2 2
We have H 2
ho ho ho
E2 ho H 2 h
= o c 10 m = 50 watts
2
For free space P = =
2ho 2 2 ho ho
Sol. 44 Option (C) is correct.
The cut-off frequency is

in
fc = c m 2 n 2
` a j +`b j

.
2

o
Since the mode is TE20, m = 2 and n = 0

. c
8
fc = c m = 3 # 10 # 2 = 10 GHz

a
2 2 2 # 0.03

i
ho 377
h' = = = 400W

d
fc 2 10
1 - c 10 10 m
2
1-c m

o
f 3 # 10

n
Sol. 45 Option (B) is correct.

.
Using the method of images, the configuration is as shown below

w
w
w
©
Here d = l, a = p, thus bd = 2p
bd cos y + a
Array factor is = cos ; E
2
2p cos y + p
= cos ; E = sin (p cos y)
2
Sol. 46 Option (D) is correct.
The Brewster angle is
tan qn = er2
er1
tan 60c = er2
1
or er2 = 3
Sol. 47 Option (C) is correct.
We have E = atxx sin (wt - bz) + aty sin (wt - bz + p/2)
Here Ex = Ey and fx = 0, fy = p2
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p
Phase difference is 2 , thus wave is left hand circularly polarized.
Sol. 48 Option (A) is correct.
We have 10 log G = 10 dB
or G = 10
Now gain G = Prad
Pin
or 10 = Prad
1W
or Prad = 10 Watts
Sol. 49 Option (A) is correct.
mo mo
h2 - h1 eo er - eo
G= =
h2 + h1 mo
eo er + mo
eo
= 1 + er = 1 - 4 =- 1

n
3

i
1 + er 1+ 4

.
The transmitted power is

o
Pt = (1 - G ) Pi = 1 - 1 = 8
2

c
9 9
or Pt = 8

a .
i
Pi 9

d
Sol. 50 Option (D) is correct.
sin q = 1 = 1
o
.n
er 2
or q = 45c = p

w
4

w
The configuration is shown below. Here A is point source.

w
©
Now AO = 1 m
From geometry BO = 1 m
Thus area = pr2 = p # OB = p m 2
Sol. 51 Option (C) is correct.
The cut-off frequency is
fc = c m 2 m 2
`a j +`b j
2
Since the mode is TE30 , m = 3 and n = 0
fc = c m
2 a
8
or 18 # 109 = 3 # 10 3
2 a
or a = 1 m = 5 cm
40 2
Sol. 52 Option (C) is correct.
We have E1 = 4ux + 3uy + 5uz
GATE SOLVED PAPER - EC ELECTROMAGNETICS

Since for dielectric material at the boundary, tangential component of electric


field are equal
E21 = E1t = 3aty + 5atz
at the boundary, normal component of displacement vector are equal
i.e. Dn2 = Dn1
or e2 E2n = e1 E1n
or 4eo E2n = 3eo 4atz
or E2n = 3atx
Thus E2 = E2t + E2a = 3atx + 3aty + 5atz
Sol. 53 Option (C) is correct.
Since antenna is installed at conducting ground,
2
= 4p W
2
Rrad = 80p2 ` dl j = 80p2 c 50 2
l 3m 5
0.5 # 10
Sol. 54 Option (C) is correct.
w = 50, 000 and b =- 0.004

in
4
Phase Velocity is vP = w = 5 # 10 - 3 = 1.25 # 107 m/s

.
b - 4 # 10

o
Sol. 55 Option (C) is correct.

. c
Refractive index of glass m = 1.5

a
Frequency f = 1014 Hz
c = 3 # 108 m/sec

d i
o
8
l = c = 3 # 10 = 3 # 10 - 6
f 14

n
10

.
wavelength in glass is

w
-6
lg = a = 3 # 10 = 2 # 10 - 6 m
m 1.5
Sol. 56
w
Option (D) is correct.
Sol. 57
w
Option (D) is correct.

©
Zo2 = ZOC .ZSC
2
ZZC = Zo = 50 # 50 = 50
ZOC 100 + j150 2 + 3j
50 (2 - 3j)
= = 7.69 - 11.54j
13
Sol. 58 Option (A) is correct.
The array factor is
bd sin q + a
A = cos b l
2
Here b = 2p , d = l and a = 90c
l 4
2p l p
sin q + p p
Thus A = cos c l 4 2
m = cos ` sin q + j
2 4 2
The option (A) satisfy this equation.
Sol. 59 Option (C) is correct.
From the diagram, VSWR is
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s = Vmax = 4 = 4
Vmin 1
When minima is at load ZO = s.ZL
or ZL = Zo = 50 = 12.5W
s 4
Sol. 60 Option (A) is correct.
The reflection coefficient is
G = ZL - ZO = 12.5 - 50 =- 0.6
ZL + ZO 125. + 50
Sol. 61 Option (C) is correct.
The given figure represent constant reactance circle.
Sol. 62 Option (D) is correct.
We know that vp > c > vg .
Sol. 63 Option (A) is correct.
4pU (q, f)
. i n
o
We have GD (q, f) =
Prad
For lossless antenna
. c
i a
Prad = Pin

d
Here we have Prad = Pin = 1 mW

o
and 10 log GD (q, f) = 6 dB

.n
or GD (q, f) = 3.98
Thus the total power radiated by antenna is

w
4pU (q, f) = Prad GD (q, f) = 1 m # 3.98 = 3.98 mW
Sol. 64
w
Option (D) is correct.

w
The capacitance is
- 12 -4
C = eo A = 8.85 # 10 - 3 # 10 = 8.85 # 10 - 13

© d
The charge on capacitor is
10

Q = CV = 8.85 # 10 - 13 = 4.427 # 10 - 13
Displacement current in one cycle
Q
I = = fQ = 4.427 # 10 - 13 # 3.6 # 109 = 1.59 mA
T
Sol. 65 Option (C) is correct.
VL = ZO
Vin Zin
or VL = ZO Vin = 10 # 300 = 60 V
Zin 50
Sol. 66 Option (D) is correct.
Sol. 67 Option (A) is correct.
Ravg = 1 Re [E # H*]
2
E # H* = (atx + jaty) e jkz - jwt # k (- jatx + aty) e-jkz + jwt
wm
= atz ; k - (- j) (j) k E = 0
wm wm
GATE SOLVED PAPER - EC ELECTROMAGNETICS

Thus Ravg = 1 Re [E # H*] = 0


2
Sol. 68 Option (A) is correct.
Suppose at point P impedance is
Z = r + j (- 1)
If we move in constant resistance circle from point P in clockwise direction by
an angle 45c, the reactance magnitude increase. Let us consider a point Q at
45c from point P in clockwise direction. It’s impedance is
Z1 = r - 0.5j
or Z1 = Z + 0.5j
Thus movement on constant r - circle by an +45c in CW direction is the
addition of inductance in series with Z .
Sol. 69 Option (D) is correct.
1- G
We have VSWR = Emax = 5 =
Emin 1+ G

in
or G =2
3
Thus G =- 2
3
o.
Now G=
h2 - h1
.c
a
h2 + h1
or
3
h - 120p
-2 = 2

d
h2 + 120p i
or

n o
h2 = 24p

.
Sol. 70 Option (D) is correct.

w
1- G
The VSWR 2=
1+ G
or
w G =1

w
3
Pref
= G2= 1

©
Thus
Pinc 9
or Pref = Pinc
9
i.e. 11.11% of incident power is reflected.
Sol. 71 Option (C) is correct.
By Maxwells equations
4# H = 2D + J
2t
Thus 4# H has unit of current density J that is A/m2
Sol. 72 Option (B) is correct.
We know that d \ 1
f
d2 = f1
Thus
d1 f2
d2 = 1
25 4
GATE SOLVED PAPER - EC ELECTROMAGNETICS

or d2 = 1 # 25 = 12.5 cm
4
Sol. 73 Option (C) is correct.
We have E1 = 2ux - 3uy + 1uz
E1t =- 3uy + uz and E1n = 2ux
Since for dielectric material at the boundary, tangential component of electric
field are equal
E1t =- 3uy + uz = E2t (x = 0 plane)
E1n = 2ux
At the boundary the for normal component of electric field are
D1n = D2n
or e1 E1n = e2 E2n

i n
or 1.5eo 2ux = 2.5eo E2n
or E2n = 3 ux = 1.2ux
2.5
o.
. c
Thus E2 = E2t + E2n =- 3uy + uz + 1.2ux

a
Sol. 74 Option (C) is correct.
We have E = xux + yuy + zuz

d i
o #
dl = utx dx + uty dy + utz dz

.n
Y 2 0 0
VXY =- # E.dl = xdxutx + #2 ydyutz + #3 zdzuzt
X 1

w
2 2 2 0
2 0
y
=-= x + +z G
2 1 2 2 2 3

w =- 1 [22 - 12 + 02 - 22 + 02 - 32] = 5

w
2
Option (D) is correct.

©
Sol. 75

m
h =
e
Reflection coefficient
h2 - h1
t =
h2 + h1
Substituting values for h1 and h2 we have
mo m0
-
t = eo er
mo
eo
mo
= 1- er = 1 - 4 since er = 4
eo er + eo 1+ er 1+ 4

= - 1 = 0.333+180c
3
Sol. 76 Option (B) is correct.
We have E (z, t) = 10 cos (2p # 107 t - 0.1pz)
where w = 2p # 107 t
b = 0.1p
7
Phase Velocity u = w = 2p # 10 = 2 # 108 m/s
b 0.1p
Sol. 77 Option (D) is correct.
y
Normalized array factor = 2 cos
2
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y = bd sin q cos f + d
q = 90c,
d = 2 s,
f = 45c,
d = 180c
y bd sin q cos f + d
Now 2 cos = 2 cos ; E
2 2
= 2 cos 8 2p 2 s cos 45c + 180 B
l. 2 2
p p
= 2 cos 8 + 90cB = 2 sin ` s j
s
l l
Sol. 78 Option (A) is correct.
The fig of transmission line is as shown below.
[Z + jZo tan bl]
We know that Zin = Zo L
[Zo + jZL tan bl]
l
For line 1, l = and b = 2 p , Z = 100W
2 l L1

in
[Z + jZo tan p]

.
Thus Zin1 = Zo L = ZL = 100W
[Zo + jZL tan p]

o
For line 2, l = l and b = 2p , ZL2 = 0 (short circuit)

c
.
8 l

a
[0 + jZo tan p4 ]

i
Thus Zin2 = Zo = jZo = j50W
[Zo + 0]

o d
Y = 1 + 1 = 1 + 1 = 0.01 - j0.02
Zin1 Zin2 100 j50

. n
w
w
w
©

Sol. 79 Option (A) is correct.


8
u = c = 3 # 10 = 1.5 # 108
e0 2
In rectangular waveguide the dominant mode is TE10 and
fC = v ` m j2 + ` n j2
2 a b
8
= 1.5 # 10 `
1 2 + 0 2 = 1.5 # 108 = 2.5 GHz
2 0.03 j ` b j 0.06

Sol. 80 Option (D) is correct.


GATE SOLVED PAPER - EC ELECTROMAGNETICS

VSWR s = 1+G where G varies from 0 to 1


1-G
Thus s varies from 1 to 3.
Sol. 81 Option (B) is correct.
Reactance increases if we move along clockwise direction in the constant resistance
circle.
Sol. 82 Option (C) is correct.
Phase velocity
VC
VP =
f 2
1-c c m
f
When wave propagate in waveguide fc < f $ VP > VC
Sol. 83 Option (C) is correct.

i n
p
We have t j ) e j (wt - kz)
E = (0.5xt + ye

.
2

o
Ex = 0.5e j (wt - kz)
p
Ey = e j 2 e j (wt - kz)
.c
Ex
i a
d
p
= 0.5e- 2
Ey
Ex
o
.n
Since ! 1, it is elliptically polarized.
Ey

w
Sol. 84 Option (A) is correct.

w
Loss tangent tan a = s = 1.7 # 10 - 4
we 2p # 3 # 109 # 78eo

w -4 9
= 1.7 # 10 9# 9 # 10 = 1.3 # 10 - 5

©
3 # 10 # 39
Sol. 85 Option (D) is correct.
The flux density is
s = eE = e0 er E = 80 # 8.854 # 10 - 12 # 2
or s = 1.41 # 10 - 9 C/m 2
Sol. 86 Option (B) is correct.
P \ 12
r
Thus P1 = r22
P2 r12
3 dB decrease $ Strength is halved
Thus P1 = 2
P2
Substituting values we have
2
2 = r22
5
or r2 = 5 2 kM = 7071 m
Distance to move = 7071 - 5000 = 2071 m
GATE SOLVED PAPER - EC ELECTROMAGNETICS

Sol. 87 Option (C) is correct.


A transmission line is distortion less if LG = RC
Sol. 88 Option (B) is correct.
We have d2 Ex = c2 d2 Ex
dz2 dt2
This equation shows that x component of electric fields Ex is traveling in z
direction because there is change in z direction.
Sol. 89 Option (A) is correct.
In wave guide vp > c > vg and in vacuum vp = c = vg
where vp $ Phase velocity
c $ Velocity of light
vg $ Group velocity
Sol. 90 Option (A) is correct.
In a wave guide dominant gives lowest cut-off frequency and hence the highest
cut-off wavelength.

in
Sol. 91 Option (A) is correct.

.
Ic = Id
or sE = jw d E

c o
.
or s = 2pfeo er w = 2pf and e = er e0

a
9 -2

i
or f = s = 2s = 9 # 10 # 2 # 10
2p # eo er 4peo er 4
or

o d
f = 45 # 106 = 45 MHz

n
Sol. 92 Option (B) is correct.

.
VSWR = 1 + G

w
1-G
3 = 1+G

w
or
1-G

w
or G = 0.5
Pr = G2 = 0.25

©
Now
Pi
Thus 25% of incident power is reflected.
Sol. 93 Option (A) is correct.
We have l = 492 m
and height of antenna = 124 m . l
4
It is a quarter wave monopole antenna and radiation resistance is 25 W.
Sol. 94 Option (C) is correct.
The array factor is
y = bd cos q + d
where d =l Distance between elements
4
y =0 Because of end fire
q = 60c
Thus 0 = 2p # l cos 60c + d = p # 1 + d
l 4 2 2
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or d =- p
4

Sol. 95 Option (B) is correct.


Zo = ZOC .ZSC = 100 # 25 = 10 # 5 = 50W
Sol. 96 Option (C) is correct.
As the impedance of perfect conductor is zero, electric field is minimum and
magnetic field is maximum at the boundary.
Sol. 97 Option (B) is correct.
BW \ 1
(Diameter)
As diameter increases Bandwidth decreases.
Sol. 98 Option (C) is correct.

i n
The fig is as shown below :

o.
. c
i a
o d
.n
As per snell law
sin qt = 1

w
sin qi er
sin 30c = 1

w
or
sin 45c er

w
1
2
1
= 1
er

©
2
or er = 2
Sol. 99 Option (C) is correct.
vp m 2 n 2
Cutoff frequency fc =
2 ` a j +`b j
For rectangular waveguide dominant mode is TE01
v 8
Thus fc = p = 3 # 10- 2 = 15 # 109 For air vp = 3 # 108
2a 2 # 10
= 15 GHz

Sol. 100 Option (B) is correct.


Phase Velocity b = 2p = w me
l
or l = 2p
w me

Thus l \ 1
e

we get l1 = e2
l2 e1
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Sol. 101 Option (D) is correct.


l
` 2 jd = l
2

8
l = c = 3 # 10 9 = 3 m
f 4 # 10 40
3
` 40 # 2 j d = (2.4)
2

80 # (2.4) 2
or d = . 150 m
3
Sol. 102 Option (C) is correct.
We know that for a monopole its electric field varies inversely with r 2 while its
potential varies inversely with r . Similarly for a dipole its electric field varies
inversely as r 3 and potential varies inversely as r 2 .
In the given expression both the terms a _ r1 + r1 i are present, so this potential is
-1 -2

due to both monopole & dipole.


Sol. 103 Option (D) is correct.
In TE mode Ez = 0 , at all points within the wave guide. It implies that electric

in
field vector is always perpendicular to the waveguide axis. This is not possible in
semi-infine parallel plate wave guide.

o.
c
Sol. 104 Option (A) is correct.
Sol. 105 Option (C) is correct.

a .
i
A scalar wave equation must satisfy following relation

d
2 2 E - m 22 2 E = 0 ...(1)

o
2t 2 2z 2
Where

. n
m = w (Velocity)
b

w
Basically w is the multiply factor of t and b is multiply factor of z or x or y .

w
In option (A) E = 50e j (wt - 3z)
m =w=w

w
b 3

©
We can see that equations in option (C) does not satisfy equation (1)
Sol. 106 Option (B) is correct.
We know that distance between two adjacent voltage maxima is equal to l/2 ,
where l is wavelength.
l = 27.5 - 12.5
2
l = 2 # 15 = 30 cm
10
Frequency u = C = 3 # 10 = 1 GHz
l 30
Sol. 107 Option (D) is correct.
Power received by antenna
-4
PR = PT 2 # (apeture) = 251 # 500 # 102 = 100 mW
4pr 4 # p # (100)
Sol. 108 Option (C) is correct.
Electrical path length = bl
Where b = 2p , l = 50 cm
l
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We know that
l =u =1# 1 au= 1
f f LC LC
= 1 1
#
25 # 106 10 # 10-6 # 40 # 10-12
7
= 5 # 10 6 = 2 m
25 # 10
Electric path length = 2p # 50 # 10-2
5
= p radian
2
Sol. 109 Option (D) is correct.
In a lossless dielectric (s = 0) median, impedance is given by
h =
m
e
0c
. i n
=
m0 mr

c o
.
e0 er

a
mr

i
= 120p #
er

o d
= 120p # 2 = 188.4 W
8

.n
Sol. 110 Option (D) is correct.

w
Impedance is written as
jwm

w
h =
s + jwe

w
Copper is good conductor i.e. s >> we
jwm wm
So h = = 45c

©
s s
Impedance will be complex with an inductive component.
Sol. 111 Option (A) is correct.
This equation is based on ampere’s law as we can see
#l H $ dl = I enclosed (ampere's law)

or #l H $ dl = #s Jds
Applying curl theorem
#s (4 # H) $ ds = #s Jds
4# H = J
then it is modified to
4# H = J + 2D Based on continuity equation
2t
Sol. 112 Option (A) is correct.
Sol. 113 Option (B) is correct.
Sol. 114 Option (B) is correct.
Propagation constant
r = a + ib = 0.1p + j0.2p
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here b = 2p = 0.2p
l
l = 2 = 10 m
0.2
Sol. 115 Option (C) is correct.
The depth of penetration or skin depth is defined as –
d= 1
pfms

d\ 1 \ l
f
so depth increases with increasing in wavelength.
Sol. 116 Option (A) is correct.
Given
j (wt + bz) v
E (z, t) = Eo e a x + e0 e j (wt + bz) avy ...(1)
Generalizing
E (z) = avx E1 (z) + avy E2 (z) ...(2)

in
Comparing (1) and (2) we can see that E1 (z) and E2 (z) are in space quadrature

an angle f with x -axis as shown below.


o.
but in time phase, their sum E will be linearly polarized along a line that makes

Sol. 117 Option (C) is correct.


. c
Hv = 1 4
i a
v Av
m #

d
v is auxiliary potential function.
where A
So

n o
4: H = 4: (4 # A) = 0

.
4# H = 4# (4 # A) =
Y 0

w
Sol. 118 Option (D) is correct.

w
Radiation resistance of a circular loop is given as
Rr = 8 hp3 :ND2 S D

w
3 l

©
2
Rx \ N N " no. of turns
So, Rr 2 = N 2 # Rr 1
= (5) 2 # 0.01 = 0.25 W
Sol. 119 Option (C) is correct.
We have
Aperture Area = Power Re ceived
Polynting vector of incident wave
A =W
P
2
P = E h0 = 120p is intrinsic impedance of space
h0
-6 -6
So A = 2 # 102 = 2 # 10 -3 2 # 120 # 3.14
E (20 # 10 )
c h0 m
-6
= 2 # 10 # 12 -# 3.14 = 1.884 m2
400 # 10 6
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Sol. 120 Option (B) is correct.


Maximum usable frequency
fo
fm =
sin Ae
fm = 8MHz = 8 = 16 MHz
sin 60c 3 3
c 2 m
Sol. 121 Option (D) is correct.
When a moving circuit is put in a time varying magnetic field educed emf have
two components. One for time variation of B and other turn motion of circuit in
B.
Sol. 122 Option (A) is correct.
Far field \ 1
r
Sol. 123 Option (B) is correct.

. i n
o
Z in = Z0
S

c
min

.
where S = standing wave ratio

a
1 + GL

i
S =
1 - GL

o d
GL = reflection coefficient

.n
GL = ZL - Z 0 = 100 - 50 = 50 = 1
ZL + Z 0 100 + 50 150 3

w 1+1
3 =2

w
S =
1- 1
3

w Z in = 50
2
= 25 W

©
min

Sol. 124 Option (A) is correct.


The cutoff frequency is given by
ml m 2+ n 2
2 a a k a2k
fc =
Here a < b , so minimum cut off frequency will be for mode TE 01
m = 0, n = 1
8 a ml = c
fc = 3 # 10 1
* 2
2#2 (10 # 10-12)
c = 3 # 108
= 3 # 108 = 0.75 GHz
2 # 2 # 10 # 10-2
Sol. 125 Option (A) is correct.
For any transmission line we can write input impedance
Z + jZ 0 tanh lg
Zin = Z 0 ; L
Z 0 + jZL tanh lg E
Here given ZL = 3 (open circuited at load end)
R jZ tanh lg V
S1 + 0 W
so Zin = Z 0 lim S ZL W= Z0
Z " 3S Z 0 W j tanh lg
S ZL + j tanh lg W
L

T X
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Sol. 126 Option (A) is correct.


We know that skin depth is given by
s = 1 = 1 # 10-2 m
pf1 ms
or 1 = 10-2 f 1 = 10 MHz
6
p # 10 # 10 # m s
-3
or ms = 10
p
Now phase velocity at another frequency
f 2 = 1000 MHz is
4p f 2
V =
ms
-3
Put ms = 10 in above equation
p

V = 4 # p # 1000 # 106 # p - 6 106 m/ sec


#
10-3

in
Sol. 127 Option (A) is correct.

.
Input impedance of a lossless transmission line is given by

o
Z + jZ 0 tan bl
Zin = Z 0 ; L
Z 0 + jZL tan bl E

.c
a
where Z 0 = Charateristic impedance of line

d
b = 2p
i
ZL = Load impedance

o
l = length
l
so here
. n
bl = 2p l = p
l 4 2

w ZL = 0 (Short circuited)
and
w Z 0 = 50 W

w
0 + j50 tan p/2
Zin = 50 =
50 + j0 tan p/2G
so =3

Sol. 128 ©
Thus infinite impedance, and current will be zero.
Option (B) is correct.
For lossless transmission line, we have
Velocity V =w= 1 ...(1)
b LC
Characteristics impedance for a lossless transmission line
Z0 = L ...(2)
C
From eqn. (1) and (2)
V = 1 = 1
C (Z 0 C ) Z 0 C
Sol. 129 Option (C) is correct.
Reflected power
Er = GEi Ei " Incident power
G = Reflection coefficient
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h2 - h1
G = = 1.5 - 1 = 1
h 2 + h1 1.5 + 1 5
So Er = 1 # Ei
5
Er = 20%
Ei
Sol. 130 Option (B) is correct.
We have maximum usable frequency formulae as
f0
fm =
sin Ae
6
20 # 106 = 10 # 10
sin Ae
sin Ae = 1
2
Ae = 30c

. i n
o
Sol. 131 Option (A) is correct.

c
d= 1

.
Skin depth
pfms

a
Putting the given value
d=
d i 1
3.14 # 1 # 109 # 4p # 10-7 # 106
= 15.9 mm

o
.n
w
***********

w
w
©