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A PROJECT REPORT

ON

“Implementation of BSS Local Switching in


Alcatel 5020 Spatial Atrium”

FOR

ALCATEL LUCENT INDIA LIMITED

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF

MAHESH TRIVEDI
ENGINEERING MANAGER

TOWARDS PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF


THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF
MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (TELECOM MANAGEMENT)

SUBMITTED BY

KUSHAL GUPTA

Symbiosis Institute of Telecom Management


Pune 411 016
2008-10
PREFACE

Telecommunications industry is one of the fastest growing industries in the


world. Two major factors responsible for the growth of telecommunications
industry are use of modern technology and market competition. And with the
advent of 3G technology, this growth seems to be unending. If we talk about
Indian cellular industry in particular then as the year 2008 ended, India‘s
mobile service providers boasts of nearly 347 million connections, a year-on-
year increase of nearly 50 percent. In the first 2 months of 2009 alone, the
mobile operators activated more than 28 million additional connections.

However, the pace of this growth is now slowing down as saturation is coming
in the market. In case of India, the urban markets are now on the verge of
saturation as the teledensity in the urban sector has reached more than 86%.
But the case is not same for Indian rural market where the teledensity is just
about 15%. According to C. K. Prahalad, it‘s the Indian rural market which
should now be the focus of the industry.

Indian telecom industry is now eyeing the rural market for growth and
expansion. The current technology however makes it unprofitable for the
industry to expand in the faraway rural areas. This report deals with the new
technology called ―BSS Local Switching‖ which can be implemented in
Alcatel‘s Spatial Atrium. It deals how this new feature can be implemented in
the already existing network.

Thus with this new technology industry can now move on to the rural market
for their growth and expansion. This would not only provide new means of
revenue to the industry but the rural people can also now enjoy the benefits of
this new technology.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The summer project at the Research & Development Centre of Alcatel-Lucent


offered me both a learning experience, as well as, a glimpse into the daily
management functions of an organization. During the tenure of this project, I
was fortunate to have interacted with people, who in their own capacities have
encouraged and guided me. I would like to express my gratitude to the
management team at Symbiosis Institute of Telecom Management for giving
me this chance.

For their unstinted and invaluable guidance, I wish to express my heartfelt


gratitude to my mentor Mr. Mahesh Trivedi, Engineering Manager, and my
guide Mr. Ajay Mishra, Team Leader without whom this project could not have
been realized.

I would also like to express my sincere thanks to Mr. Ankur Kalra, Senior
Engineer and Mr. Vijay Panchal, Engineer, for their expert guidance and
constant cooperation. It was a privilege working with them and I sincerely
thank them for advising us whenever the road map seemed blocked, despite of
their busy schedule.

I would also like to thank Mr. Senthil Kumar, Senior Engineer for giving me an
opportunity to understand the laboratory functions at Alcatel. I would also take
the opportunity to thanks all the members of the Integration Team who gave
their constant support for the completion of the project and for sharing their
insights and knowledge, derived from their years of experience in their
particular areas of expertise.

I would also like to express my deepest gratitude towards all those who have
helped me in anyway.

Finally, I would like to express my deepest gratitude towards the company,


especially Mr. Chiradeep Roy (HR Dept.) and Mr. Vipin Kohli (Admin Dept.) for
treating me in the most professional manner and catering to all my
requirements.

Kushal Gupta

3
OBJECTIVES

The title of this report is “Implementation of BSS Local Switching in Alcatel


5020 Spatial Atrium”.

The report covers the following objectives:

 Understanding Alcatel 5020 Spatial Atrium and the services provided.

 Understanding BSS Local Switching and its working.

 Studying Software Development Life cycle at Alcatel Lucent

 and finally, To implement the feature of BSS Local Switching in the


Spatial Atrium WSS.

This report covers all about the network, its functioning, new needs and the
development of new technologies to cater to these needs. It starts right from
network architecture of Spatial Atrium to the implementation of a new feature
i.e. BSS Local Switching in it. Thus the report is comprehensive in all aspects.

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COMPANY PROFILE

Alcatel-Lucent is a global telecommunications corporation, headquartered in


Paris, France. It provides telecommunications solutions to service providers,
enterprises and governments around the world, enabling these customers to
deliver voice, data and video services. The company focuses on fixed, mobile,
and converged broadband networking hardware, IP technologies, software,
and services. It leverages the technical and scientific expertise of Bell Labs,
one of the largest innovation and R&D houses in the communications industry.
Alcatel-Lucent has operations in more than 130 countries. The company is
under the leadership of Chief Executive Officer Ben Verwaayen and the non-
executive Chairman of the Board is Philippe Camus.

Alcatel-Lucent was formed when Alcatel merged with Lucent Technologies on


December 1, 2006. However, the company as a whole has been a part of
telecommunications industry since the late 19th century. The formation of
Alcatel-Lucent created the world‘s first truly global communications solutions
provider, with the most complete end-to-end portfolio of solutions and services
in the industry. Alcatel-Lucent combined two entities — Alcatel and Lucent
Technologies — which shared a common lineage dating back to 1986. That
was the year Alcatel‘s parent company, CGE (la Compagnie Générale
d‘Electricité), acquired ITT‘s European telecom business. Nearly 60 years
earlier, ITT had purchased most of AT&T‘s manufacturing operations outside
the United States. Lucent Technologies was spun off from AT&T.

The Alcatel-Lucent Vision, Mission and Values form the cornerstones of


company. These statements set the tone for the way the company operates.

Vision - Definition of future success

To enrich people‘s lives by transforming the way the world communicates.

Mission - Purpose and path to realize the vision

To use unique capabilities to ensure that customers thrive, businesses grow


and enrich the personal communications experience for people around the
world.

Values - A system of shared beliefs that are at the heart of everything done -
customer‘s first, innovation, teamwork, respect, accountability.

With a strong focus on complete solutions maximizing value for customers,


Alcatel-Lucent is organized around four business groups and three geographic
regions.

The Application Software Group focuses on developing and maintaining


innovative software products for its global customer base. The Carrier Product
Group serves fixed, wireless and convergent service providers with end-to-end
communications solutions.

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The Enterprise Product Group focuses on meeting the needs of business
customers as well as the Industry & Public Sector.

The Services Group designs, deploys, manages and maintains networks


worldwide.

The company's geographic regions are the Americas; Europe, Middle East,
and Africa; and Asia Pacific and China.

Alcatel-Lucent is one of the largest innovation powerhouses in the


communications industry, representing an R&D investment of Euro 2.5 billion,
and a portfolio of more than 26,000 active patents spanning virtually every
technology area. At the core of this innovation is Alcatel-Lucent‘s Bell Labs, an
innovation engine with researchers and scientists at the forefront of research
into areas such as multimedia and convergent services and applications, new
service delivery architectures and platforms, wireless and wireline, broadband
access, packet and optical networking and transport, network security,
enterprise networking and communication services and fundamental research
in areas such as nanotechnology, algorithmic, and computer sciences.

Market share highlights (2008)

 #1 in Broadband Access with 40,6% of DSL market share (1) and


46.4% of GPON (1)
 #1 in Optics (Terrestrial and Submarine) with 22.2% of market share (2)
 #1 in CDMA with 42.4% of market share (1)
 #1 in Western Europe Enterprise Telephony with 17% of market share
 #2 in IP/MPLS Service Edge Routers with 19% of market share (2)
 #3 in GSM/GPRS/EDGE Radio Access Networks with 10.8% of market
share (1)
 #3 in W-CDMA with 14.6% of market share (1)

Alcatel-Lucent Noida centre is a Research & Development centre where new


software or their features are released as and when demanded by the
customers. The centre employs a full-fledge laboratory for end-to-end testing.

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Indian Telecommunications industry is at its pace now adding about 9 million


customers per month. Earlier, the focus was on the urban customers but now
the urban teledensity has reached almost 86% whereas the overall teledensity
is 36%. So the focus has now shifted to rural areas where the teledensity is
just 15%. But the companies are not fully ready to spread their reach in the
rural areas, where on one hand the ARPU (Average Revenue per User) is
quite low and on the other hand the technological restrictions do not allow
them to expand in the faraway places. But as now the only way to maintain this
pace is to expand so industry is now looking at the new technological
innovations which would allow them to expand in the rural market in a cost
effective way.

This new technology is termed as the BSS Local Switching. In this technology,
if the calling and the called parties are from same BSC/BTS then BSC will
conduct the local switching for the services. As the BTSs can be quite far away
from the BSCs, so Cell&Sat equipments are deployed which will send the
voice and data from the virtual satellite link where the cost will be proportional
to the traffic only and so the transmission cost be lowered for the operators
which will enable the operator to provide the services in rural areas in cost
effective ways.

Now the operator already has the MSC employed in its place. As the new
equipments are now installed and the switching needs to be done, so the MSC
now needs to be configured in a way so as to be enable BSS Local Switching.
So the next step is to configure the WSS (which actually acts as the MSC).
The changes are to be made in the software of the hardware so the process
followed is the Software Development Life Cycle. It has various phases viz.
Feasibility study, Requirement analysis, Design, Coding & Unit testing,
Implementation & System testing and Maintenance. The software is configured
in a way which thus enables the BSS Local Switching in the Atrium WSS.

This report thus deals with all the aspects of the Alcatel 5020 Spatial Atrium
including the working of WSS and WMG. It deals with the necessities of the
BSS Local Switching, what it is actually and how it will be embedded in the
already present hardware. The report is thus comprehensive in all aspects and
provides a detailed knowledge to the reader.

Kushal Gupta

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
UNIT 1………………………………………………………………………………..10
Chapter 1 ................................................................................................................... 11
1.0 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 11
2.0 Today’s Architecture ....................................................................................... 12
3.0 DMSC Network Solution ................................................................................ 13
4.0 DMSC Technology Implementation in Existing Networks ............................ 15
5.0 Requirements of DMSC .................................................................................. 17
6.0 Introduction to Spatial Atrium ........................................................................ 18
7.0 Alcatel Spatial Atrium DMSC Features .......................................................... 20
8.0 Economic Advantages ..................................................................................... 22
Chapter 2 ................................................................................................................... 24
1.0 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 24
2.0 Atrium DMSC Nodes ...................................................................................... 24
3.0 Spatial Atrium System Architecture................................................................ 25
4.0 Spatial Atrium Hardware System .................................................................... 28
Chapter 3 ................................................................................................................... 30
1.0 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 30
2.0 Wireless Softswitch Hardware System ........................................................... 30
3.0 Capacity & Scalability..................................................................................... 39
4.0 Netra Wireless Soft Switch System................................................................. 42
Chapter 4 ................................................................................................................... 48
1.0 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 48
2.0 Wireless Media Gateway Hardware System ................................................... 48
3.0 WMG SuperSlots Design ................................................................................ 49
4.0 WMG Mid Plane ............................................................................................. 50
5.0 Control Module Card (CM) ............................................................................. 52
6.0 Service Matrix Card (SM) ............................................................................... 54
7.0 Packet Matrix Card .......................................................................................... 57
8.0 Voice Server Cards .......................................................................................... 57
9.0 Channelized Interface Card ............................................................................. 58
10.0 ATM Interfaces ............................................................................................. 61
Chapter 5 ................................................................................................................... 66
1.0 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 66
2.0 Wireless Element System ................................................................................ 66

UNIT 2………………………………………………………………………………..70
Chapter 1 ................................................................................................................... 70
1.0 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 70
2.0 Bottom of the Pyramid (BoP) .......................................................................... 70
3.0 Indian Telecommunication Scenario ............................................................... 72
4.0 The limits of Traditional GSM ........................................................................ 74
5.0 About TTSL .................................................................................................... 75
TTSL to invest Rs 1K cr in rural expansion .......................................................... 76
Chapter 2 ................................................................................................................... 79
1.0 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 79
2.0 Transmission costs .......................................................................................... 79
3.0 Traditional Solution ......................................................................................... 80
4.0 Broadband IP Satellite GSM Backhaul ........................................................... 80
5.0 Operational Scenarios...................................................................................... 82

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6.0 Other Options: ................................................................................................. 84
7.0 Cost Savings by Creative Solutions ................................................................ 85
Chapter 3 ................................................................................................................... 88
1.0 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 88
2.0 Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) .................................................... 88
3.0 Feasibility Study .............................................................................................. 88
4.0 Requirement Analysis and Specification ........................................................ 89
5.0 Design .............................................................................................................. 90
6.0 Coding and Unit Testing ................................................................................. 91
7.0 Integration and System Testing ....................................................................... 91
8.0 Maintenance .................................................................................................... 92
Chapter 4 ................................................................................................................... 95
Introduction ........................................................................................................... 95
Chapter 5 ................................................................................................................... 97
1.0 Introduction ..................................................................................................... 97
2.0 FEATURE DESCRIPTION ............................................................................ 98
3.0 System Level Design ..................................................................................... 102
4.0 Process Level Design .................................................................................... 104
5.0 UT TEST coverage ........................................................................................ 110
6.0 Deployment & Maintainability ..................................................................... 111
7.0 Future enhancements ..................................................................................... 112
Chapter 6 ................................................................................................................. 114
1.0 Introduction ................................................................................................... 114
2.0 Test Environment .......................................................................................... 115
3.0 Test Cases ...................................................................................................... 116

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Need of DMSC UNIT 1

Chapter 1

1.0 Introduction

The Problem:

Although wireless telecommunications has been one of the true technology


success stories of the past decade, the news hasn‘t been entirely good for
wireless operators. While subscriber numbers are growing rapidly and wireless
minutes are an ever increasing proportion of total telecommunications usage,
revenues aren‘t growing as rapidly. Carriers are earning less revenue per user
(ARPU), in large part due to price-based competition in which increasingly
large buckets of minutes are offered for a flat monthly fee, so that users can
make virtually unlimited calls without the carrier earning any additional
revenue. Carriers are already starting to price data services in the same way,
so there‘s little hope of increasing profitability through data offerings.

At the same time, many carriers have curtailed capital expenditures in the past
few years. As a result, carriers are now at a point where they have to add
infrastructure in order to serve a growing number of customers, whether or not
those customers are particularly lucrative.

Operators are trying a variety of methods for cutting operating expenses,


including network consolidation and operational centralization. What was once
a patchwork of historically smaller operators has consolidated through
mergers, acquisitions and partnerships to a smaller group of national and pan-
national networks. These operators need to find a way to create a national-
level nerve center for their mobile networks so they can offer national — or
pan-national — service in a seamless way from a centralized operation.

Other industry trends only add to the pressure.

Mandates for Mobile Number Portability (MNP) will increase the number of
non-revenue-generating calls as calls for subscribers who have changed
providers will still have to go through their original home MSCs before being
transferred to the new provider.

Most operators face a complete overhaul of their entire network in order to


evolve to 2.5 or 3G technologies. Any capital investments they make now must
be made with this evolution in mind. Investing in legacy technology that has no
future would be an expensive mistake.

Operators also must consider how they plan to migrate to next-generation


access technology. It will be a massive investment, so operators must make
the evolution in an innovative way that can turn it into a competitive advantage.

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A Distributed Mobile Switching Center (DMSC) solution will help operators
meet these challenges.

2.0 Today’s Architecture

An MSC originates and terminates wireless calls, with ongoing call control
responsibility. It also performs mobility management functions, handling the
complex process of correctly identifying the network location, appropriately
allocating resources and directing traffic to and from subscribers as they move
from cell to cell throughout the network.

Today‘s mobile switching centers are based on wireline switches. Vendors


added mobility functions to Class-5 switches to create mobile switching
centers. This approach has numerous drawbacks for a mobile network.
Traditional MSCs make it difficult and expensive to grow a mobile network.

The traditional MSC is expensive to purchase and operate, requiring a


dedicated technical support staff, so it often isn‘t economical to locate these
switches close to subscribers, especially in more remote areas with lower
subscriber densities. MSCs must be located centrally, with traffic backhauled
over long-distance links from the remote locations. As a result, operating costs
remain high because they must also factor in high backhaul costs.

The traditional MSC is not a service-based environment, while mobile


telephony is dependent on services. Customers are likely to make more use of
a network when there are more services to use, and customers may even
change providers in order to have access to the services they want.

Installing new software to provision new services is cumbersome in the


traditional switching environment, as each individual switch must be
reconfigured any time there is any change in the network. Because MSCs are
typically based on proprietary technology, vendors have to develop new
services themselves rather than rely on third-party development. This makes
service development and introduction a costly, time-consuming process. In this
environment, it‘s difficult for carriers to keep up with market demand for new
services, and that cuts into profits.

The addition of data services to existing voice offerings makes the mobile
network even more complex.

To incorporate data offerings in a traditional architecture, new network nodes


are needed because the existing voice nodes cannot handle data traffic. That
means placing additional boxes at each point in the network, requiring more
personnel, time, effort and expense to manage. Carriers must make these
expenditures in order to offer any data services, even if subscribers aren‘t yet
using these services enough to make the data equipment profitable.

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Solution: Alcatel 5020 Spatial Atrium supporting DMSC technology provides
solution to the problems of today‘s network operators gearing for the future
technologies.

3.0 DMSC Network Solution

The Distributed Mobile Switching Center (DMSC) is a departure from


traditional telecommunications technology. It‘s based on an open platform,
which offers numerous advantages over traditional switches. An open platform
solution takes advantage of advances in the industry at large, from computing
platforms to operating systems and protocol stacks.

This architecture separates call control from the physical bearer path. Because
the intelligence and complexity of this architecture reside in the call server, the
media gateways that can be distributed throughout the network are less
expensive and easier to maintain. The call server allows for centralized
network management, which is ideal for the consolidated networks of today.
Operators can concentrate their technical staff at the central network nerve
center for better network control and better service transparency on a national
level.

This puts open platform developers ahead of the industry power curve
because they can focus their development efforts on wireless service logic
while relying on the best technology in the industry for other platform elements.
In contrast, developers of proprietary legacy solutions must build everything
themselves, from the ground up.

As the industry moves toward an IP-based infrastructure, this becomes even


more crucial, for it is difficult to keep up with advances in the huge libraries of
IP stacks for protocols such as HTTP, SIP and PARLAY that have been
developed for open platforms. In next-generation IP networks, services will be
increasingly important, so it is crucial that there be IP-based APIs for
developing these services.

Distributed Mobile Switching Architecture is shown in the figure below:

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 Central call server with distributed media gateways
 Significant OPEX and CAPEX savings, Simplified operations, Long distance savings, IP-based
services

Figure 1. Distributed Mobile Switching Architecture

Developers of distributed mobile switching solutions based on open platforms


can achieve great economies of scale because they can leverage the
development work already done for hardware and software by the computing
industry at large, resulting in a lower per-port cost that lowers capital
expenditures for operators. Open-platform development also allows a
significant time-to-market advantage for the technology and for additional
services. That means new services, features, functions and upgrades can be
delivered more rapidly on an open platform than on a proprietary platform.

The next-generation architecture of the DMSC also allows carriers to share


network resources between data and voice services. The same network nodes
can handle both data and voice traffic, simplifying the network and allowing
carriers to more fully utilize network resources.

The Traditional Circuit Switch MSC Network Configuration is shown below. As


the traffic in the network increases then transport-related OPEX also
increases.

The next section describes how DMSC solution can be implemented in the
existing network to reduce transport-related costs.

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Figure 2. Traditional Circuit Switch MSC network configuration

4.0 DMSC Technology Implementation in Existing Networks

One key application for the DMSC is switching within a region.

In today‘s networks with traditional legacy switching technology, most


operators don‘t deploy an MSC to a region until that region generates about
10,000 Erlangs of traffic —approximately 250,000 subscribers. Below this
level, an MSC and the related operating costs and support staff needs are not
cost-effective.

There are, however, high ongoing operating costs associated with backhauling
traffic from the region to a centralized MSC. Operators pay long-distance
transport costs to and from the MSC, even for calls that are placed to numbers
within that region. These costs add up, as up to 80 percent of all traffic is sent
within the region. The majority of traffic, therefore, has to be sent unnecessarily
across long-distance links.

Only when traffic surpasses 10,000 Erlangs does it become reasonable to


locate an MSC in a region, but even so there are high capital and operating
costs involved. The switch itself is expensive, and there are associated real
estate and power costs. An MSC requires a staff of at least six skilled
engineers to keep it operational.

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Figure 3. Traditional MSC Network growth

In contrast, a media gateway connected to a centralized call server has been


proven to be cost effective at 100 Erlangs of traffic — about 2,500 subscribers.
The gateway itself is about a third of the cost of an MSC, has a smaller
footprint and lower power and cooling requirements and, as a "dumb box"
requires less technical support. This means an operator can begin switching
calls regionally and saving significantly on transport costs far sooner than
would be feasible with a legacy MSC.

Operators building out a network and expanding into new regions can save
themselves significant capital costs, as well as ongoing operational costs, by
using the DMSC architecture in new service areas.

The DMSC architecture helps keep growing networks from becoming more
complex as they get larger. Adding a single call server and its subtending
media gateways to the network is equivalent to adding just one additional
switch to the network, no matter how many gateways controlled by the call
server are ultimately deployed. For example, with 30 legacy switches and a
new call server controlling 40 new media gateways, it is the same as managing
a network with 31 switches.

In addition to being used as an MSC substitute in new implementations, DMSC


architecture can also be introduced gradually into networks as a supplement to
legacy MSCs. Because it can convert TDM signals into packets, it allows
operators who own their own packet backbone networks to bypass long-
distance or inter-exchange networks. This is especially helpful when users are
roaming and every call requires multiple long-distance trunks. As a network
overlay, the distributed architecture also supports the introduction of IP-based
services on an existing network.

Transitioning to DMSC architecture allows carriers to cap their legacy


investments so that all future capital purchases are prepared to support future

16
needs, even as they‘re equipped to handle current network needs. With a
distributed architecture in place, carriers are prepared for a seamless evolution
to 3G access.

Figure 4. DMSC Network Solutions

5.0 Requirements of DMSC

Distributed network architecture introduces a new set of requirements for core


network infrastructure. With a centralized control and distributed bearer
arrangement, switching capacity requirements must expand to systems
supporting millions of subscribers, with heightened reliability and quality of
service (QoS) assurances.

Specific requirements include:

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 Massive system scalability – A central call server function demands a
system that is scaleable to support subscribers on a network-wide
basis, rather than just regionally. This may demand a system scaleable
to many millions of users.

 System reliability – Absolute reliability is a given with current switching


networks. The same is expected of distributed platforms and packetized
networks. This becomes even more important as systems grow larger
and single control functions are emphasized. Systems must be
enhanced to protect operators from either system malfunction or
building and/or natural disasters.

 Footprint – A distributed architecture, with bearer path switching


elements placed in regional proximity to customers, is much more
effective with dense hardware configurations. It is important that these
overlay implementations do not require a significant amount of real
estate or disrupt existing central office configurations.

 Efficient switching for both TDM and IP – In most implementations, it will


be essential to have an efficient means to switch legacy TDM trunks
alongside voice over IP (VoIP) or voice over ATM (VoATM)
implementations.

 Low cost – New systems must show significant capital cost


improvements that are commensurate with the introduction of new
technology advances. Any additional CAPEX elements added to the
network should be well offset by ongoing annual OPEX savings in
resources, transport and facilities costs.

 Enhanced services – There is a growing concern about the use of point


solutions for introducing new services. The proliferation of systems for
different applications and services is quickly becoming unmanageable.
Mobile operators are looking for single platforms in their network that
can take on multiple personalities, with software upgrades. A DMSC is
ideally situated in the network to perform a wide variety of innovative
new voice and data service functions.

 Evolution – One key benefit of a next-generation DMSC implementation


that is backward compatible to a 2G network is that the legacy
investment can be capped and all new core network growth can be
accomplished with investment in 3G network platforms. Any system
introduced must be able to evolve to 2.5G, 3G or all-IP systems with
only software upgrades.

These requirements have been fulfilled by Alcatel 5020 Spatial Atrium.

6.0 Introduction to Spatial Atrium

The Alcatel 5020 Spatial Atrium is a next-generation mobile switching product


that bridges the voice and data signaling protocols of 2 nd and 3rd generation

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mobile networks with intelligent networking. It provides packetized and
channelized interfaces for interconnecting service provider‘s Mobile Switching
Centers as well as interfaces that enable connection to external public
telephone systems.

Spatial Atrium may be used as Mobile Switching Center (MSC) with industry
leading capacity utilizing the smallest footprint relative to today‘s networks.
The platform is architected with very modular software and hardware enabling
operator‘s to deploy only those elements needed for any particular application
or network deployment.

Spatial Atrium Distributed MSC is shown in the figure 5 below:

Spatial
Atrium

WSS
Distributed
Media
Gateways
WMG

Figure 5. Spatial Atrium Distributed MSC

Spatial Atrium is capable of supporting

 TDM Trunking (MF, ISUP),


 Multimedia Mobile Access,
 VoPacket Transport,
 Fully Integrated SS7.

As shown in the diagram above, it provides connectivity to the radio network


and serves as the core network element for circuit domain services. On the
backend, Spatial Atrium interfaces with today‘s network elements such as
HLR, SMSC, and SCPs. Extensible in future to work with IP application
servers such as VoXML, SIP and Parlay, the product fully supports an open
Media Gateway Controller interface based on MEGACO, which allows for
geographically distributing a call controller and the media gateways they
control.

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7.0 Alcatel Spatial Atrium DMSC Features

Superior density and scalability


The Alcatel Spatial Atrium DMSC delivers a massively scaleable call
processing system, supporting up to 500,000 subscribers per rack. Its system
scalability from 50,000 to 5 million BHCA is unmatched in the industry. Each
media gateway can simultaneously support more than 40,000 TDM DS0s and
more than 20,000 ATM/IP ports. In addition, each call server can support up to
64 media gateways.

Proven carrier grade reliability


The Alcatel Spatial Atrium DMSC combines a carrier grade (99.99945%
availability) redundant architecture with a platform proven through numerous
commercial deployments. The call server is fully redundant with no single point
of failure. A mated hot standby card backs each active processor card in the
call server. Active and standby cards communicate over Ethernet and can be
deployed in different geographic locations.

Time to market
The Alcatel Spatial Atrium DMSC is commercially available now.

Geographic redundancy
A high-speed wide-area Ethernet can be provided between two locations to
support inter-processor communication. In such a deployment, the failure of
one switch location will not jeopardize the call processing capability of the
network, and any calls that have reached stable state will not be dropped.

Any-any IP/ATM/FR/TDM switching (including native TDM-TDM)


The Alcatel Spatial Atrium DMSC wireless media gateway has a unique
architecture that supports packet (IP, ATM or frame relay) switching as well as
native switching of TDM-TDM. A native TDM-TDM switching capability means
network processing power doesn‘t have to be used to convert TDM to packet
and back to TDM within the media gateway. Some solutions require GSM TDM
signals to be converted back and forth between TDM and packet signals, but
the Alcatel Spatial Atrium DMSC contains two separate switching fabrics, so
TDM signals and services can remain within the TDM realm.

Integrated Element Management System


The Alcatel Spatial Atrium DMSC wireless Element Management (WEM)
system offers fully integrated OAM&P of the call server and media gateway.
Provisioning and monitoring of both elements can be managed from the WEM,
eliminating potential inconsistencies and errors between call servers and
media gateways. This significantly reduces the operational burden and
eliminates unnecessary system management complexity.

Flexible media gateway support and integration


The Alcatel Spatial Atrium DMSC supports both H.248 (MEGAGO) and MCGP
standards. Its integrated OA&M framework allows for the seamless integration
of not only the Spatial Atrium media gateway, but also any media gateway that

20
supports these open standards. This affords the greatest choice of
performance, functionality and configuration flexibility for the operator.

QoS Management
QoS is critical to the success of these solutions and is a key consideration in
all Alcatel Spatial Atrium DMSC design elements. Alcatel provides a pervasive
framework that supports a comprehensive range of differentiated classes of
service with different and manageable levels of QoS guarantees. Performance
relating to codec and conformance, echo cancellation, delay, delay jitter or
variation, and cell/packet loss is state-of-the-art. The result is a next-generation
switch that maintains the same premium grade of voice quality that is the
hallmark of the traditional TDM circuit switch, while also migrating voice
services to packet-based networks.

Multi-modal call model


Alcatel Spatial Atrium DMSC integrates the voice, data and applications
call/session management models and provides a central controlling function for
all forms of voice and data communication (whether based on ISUP, IP,
GTP/MIP or SIP), monitoring the sessions to allow seamless switching back
and forth. The platform also provides a service creation environment and an
API, and a set of predefined commands to simplify development of revenue-
generating multi-modal ("mixed" voice and data) services. Alcatel‘s service
solutions are also the first in the industry to support both voice calls and data
sessions between non-IP 2/2.5/3G mobile and SIP (IP multimedia) capable
appliances and work with SIP-based application servers, a unique multi-
protocol capability.

TDMA/GSM service transparency


The Alcatel Spatial Atrium DMSC call server has a full CS-2 call model with
CAMEL Phase II triggers. Coupled with the ANSI 41 signaling capability, it
provides the operator with the ability to serve GSM overlays of TDMA networks
and deliver GSM value added services (including prepaid) to TDMA
subscribers.

Multi-vendor interoperability
The Alcatel Spatial Atrium platform has also undergone extensive multi-vendor
interoperability tests, having been integrated into networks that use the HLRs,
MSCs, GSNs, PDSNs, SMSCs, BSSs of most major switching, radio and
applications infrastructure companies. Alcatel has also achieved SS7
integration with both ETSI and ITU ISUP based networks.

Ready for the future


As access networks and handsets evolve from 2G to 2.5G to 3G all-IP,
Alcatel‘s Spatial Atrium solution requires only software upgrades on the same
hardware platform to provide the network and service enhancements brought
on by higher bandwidth and all-IP.

21
8.0 Economic Advantages

So now we can summarize the advantages of Spatial Atrium over the Legacy
Networks.

If we particularly talk about the Economic Advantages of the DMSC solution


then they are given below:

 It allows a simplified network that requires less long-distance


backhaul.
 It requires fewer trained people to operate and has a smaller
footprint, with reduced power and cooling requirements.
 The equipment itself has a lower price per port than a legacy MSC,
offers IP and ATM interfaces on the media gateway so no additional
hardware is required, and has IP service interfaces on the call
server.
 The open architecture allows rapid time-to-market for new services
— in as little as three months time from concept to implementation

Other advantages which DMSC infrastructure offers are:

 Operational & capital savings opportunities for wireless carriers,


 Operators building out network in new areas can reduce operational
& capital costs.
 DMSC architecture helps growing network from becoming complex
as they get larger,
 Adding a single call server and its subtending media gateway to the
network is equivalent to adding just one additional switch to the
network e.g. with 30 legacy switches and a new call server
controlling 40 media gateways, its same as managing a network with
31 switches,
 DMSC architecture can be introduced gradually into network as a
supplement to legacy MSCs,
 It converts TDM signals into packets so the operators who own their
own packet backbone network can now bypass long-distance or
inter-exchange network. This is helpful in nationwide roaming where
every call requires multiple long distance trunks,
 It also supports introduction of IP-based services on an existing
network.

22
23
Alcatel 5020 Spatial Atrium UNIT 1

Chapter 2
1.0 Introduction

In the 1st chapter, an overview of the problem faced by telecom operators and
its solution by the way of DMSC technology has been provided. In this chapter,
the hardware of Spatial Atrium is provided to give an idea about how it actually
functions.

2.0 Atrium DMSC Nodes

The Spatial Atrium comprises of three major building block elements:


 The Wireless Softswitch (WSS) – the Softswitch,
 The Wireless Media Gateway (WMG) – the Media Gateway and,
 The Wireless Element Manager (WEM) – the Element Management
System

Figure 6. Spatial Atrium

24
Alcatel simplified architecture encompasses all the functions required in a
DMSC on three platform elements:
1. Wireless Softswitch (WSS) – The Wireless Softswitch (WSS) call server
incorporates the media gateway controller, signaling gateway, element
management, and call server into a single powerful integrated computing
platform built on industry-standard computing elements. It is designed in
line with 3GPP Release 4 standards. It supports GSM/UMTS network
signaling interfaces (A, RANAP and MAP) legacy PSTN signaling
interfaces (SS7 ISUP and MF), and EGCP interface (a binary variant of
the emerging H.248/Megaco standard) for communicating with
subtending media gateways.
2. Wireless Media Gateway (WMG) – The Wireless Media Gateway
(WMG) is a high density, multi-service media gateway with voice and data
bearer interfaces (TDM, IP, ATM, and RTP/RTCP). It is capable of
performing any-to-any switching with a unique architecture that not only
supports TDM-Packet switching, but also native TDM-TDM (with high
quality, high capacity and capital efficiency). The WMG includes
centralized media server resources (for conference bridging, tones,
announcements, DTMF and Legal Intercept) so no external media servers
are required. It communicates with the WSS using the EGCP interface.
3. Wireless Element Management System (WEM) – The Wireless
Element Management (WEM) offers fully integrated OAM&P and an
FCAPS GUI for both the WSS and WMG. Provisioning and monitoring of
both elements can be managed from the WEM, thus eliminating potential
inconsistencies and errors. It communicates with the call server and
media gateways‘ using SNMP v2 interface and offers SNMP v2 and
Command Line (CLI) interfaces for communicating with external
NMS/OSSs. Open SNMP and CLI (via CORBA 2.3) interfaces permit
carriers to exchange Atrium OAM&P information with other network
operations systems. This support of open northbound interface protocols
ensures maximum flexibility when integrating the Spatial Atrium system.

Spatial Atrium‘s Wireless Softswitch (WSS) is built upon commercially


available hardware platform to provide a highly reliable carrier grade
architecture.

Spatial Atrium is a fully redundant system. A protected card backs every


active processing card in an Atrium. The active and standby cards
communicate via Ethernet over a highly reliable managed service network,
thus enabling the geographical separation of active and standby processing
elements.

3.0 Spatial Atrium System Architecture

The Spatial Atrium offers a unique architecture intended to facilitate the


migration of circuit-domain services from the traditional legacy solution to a
flexible architecture based on packet protocols and open standards.

25
The Wireless Softswitch (WSS) interworks the circuit-based, narrowband call
signaling protocols with the signaling protocols of the packet network and vice
versa. The Wireless Media Gateway (WMG) is the underlying voice and packet
switching element in the Spatial Atrium.

Spatial Atrium functionalities include:

 Wireless Softswitch:
o MSC/VLR: location updates, call handovers, mobile call handling,
carrier selection, Short message handling, Supplementary
Services, Call Independent Supplementary Services (CISS)
handling, etc.
o Gateway MSC: HLR query for call delivery, carrier selection, etc
o Signaling Directory Routing: E.164, E.212, NANP, etc
o Signaling Gateway: SS7 SSP such as Multiple Point Code,
PC+SSN and GTT routing, etc
o Network Services: Supplementary services, IN services, Prepaid
services, Mobile Number Portability services, etc

 Integrated WEM server for FCAPS capability of Alcatel WSS and


Media Gateways:
o Fault
o Configuration
o (Accounting) Billing capture
o Performance
o Security

 Media Gateway:
o Connectivity via: TDM, IP, ATM AAL2 SVC including any-to-any
combinations
o TDM Bearer Interfaces: T1, E1, DS-3, OC-3 and STM-1
o ATM Bearer Interfaces: DS-1, DS-3, OC-3c, STM-1c, OC-12c,
and STM-4c

 System Performance:
o 64 Media Gateways per WSS

The figure showing Spatial Atrium System Architecture is shown below:

26
Figure 7. Spatial Atrium System Architecture

The WSS part of Spatial Atrium comprises of the following functional


components: Signaling Interface Module (SIM), Data Distribution Module
(DDM), System Administration Module (SAM) and Call Control Module (CCM).
The functions of each module are outlined in subsequent subsections.

Spatial Atrium Wireless Soft Switch is made up of a group of processors that


have been architected to be highly scalable and distribute the various
functional loads on an MSC. All SS7 signaling, including MAP, CAP, ISUP,
BSSAP and RANAP enter the system through a Signaling Interface Module
(SIM). The SIM cards are n+1 redundant for scalability and high availability.
The SIMs receive messages from MSCs, HLRs, SCPs, SMSCs, BSCs, RNCs,
STPs, WSSs and other SS7 network elements, such as International
Gateways or PSTN end office switches. The SIM process the MTP1, MTP2,
MTP3, SAAL, MTP3b and SCCP portions of all SS7 messages. The SIM card
is responsible for distributing the messages to the Data Distribution Modules
(DDM).

The Data Distribution Module (DDM) is responsible for load balancing


messages to the appropriate Call Control Module (CCM). When a mobile
subscriber initially registers on the MSC, it will be assigned to a particular CCM
by the DDM, after which all messages associated with that subscriber will
continue to be routed to the CCM responsible for handling that subscriber.
The CCMs contain all the VLR entries, and are responsible for mobility
management, call/connection and feature processing. The System
Administration Module (SAM) provides the facility management, managing
status (availability) of the various media connections available within the media
gateway, in addition to overall Operations, Administration, Maintenance and
Billing responsibility.

27
4.0 Spatial Atrium Hardware System

The Spatial Atrium product is comprised of the following physical subsystems


and components:
 Wireless Soft Switch (WSS) subsystem
 Wireless Media Gateway (WMG) subsystem
 Wireless Element Manager (WEM) subsystem
 Power Distribution Unit (PDU)
28.5 inches

PDU

10.5 in.
WSS
Chassis

84
inches

34 inches

Figure 8. Spatial Atrium Hardware System


Each component viz. WSS, WMG, WEM etc. are explained in the further
chapters of this report.

28
29
Wireless Soft Switch UNIT 1

Chapter 3

1.0 Introduction

A softswitch is a central device in a Telecommunication network which


connects calls from one phone line to another, entirely by means of software
running on a computer system. This work was formerly carried out by
hardware, with physical switchboards to route the calls.

A softswitch is typically used to control connections at the junction point


between circuit and packet networks. A single device containing both the
switching logic and the switching fabric can be used for this purpose; however,
modern technology has led to a preference for decomposing this device into a
Call Agent and a Media Gateway.

Typically the larger access devices will be located in a building owned by the
telecommunication company near to the customers they serve. Each end user
can be connected to the IAD by a simple pair of copper wires.
The medium sized devices and PBXs will typically be used in a business
premises and the single line devices would probably be found in residential
premises.

In more recent times (i.e., the IP Multimedia Subsystem or IMS), the Softswitch
element is represented by the Media Gateway Controller (MGC) element, and
the term "Softswitch" is rarely used in the IMS context, but another word of
AGCF(Access Gateway Control Function).

2.0 Wireless Softswitch Hardware System

As introduced in the previous section, the WSS platform hosts the Call Server,
Media Gateway Controller, Signaling Gateway and Wireless Element Manager,
all on a single platform. The WSS platform provides extreme flexibility and a
high economic scalability in system deployment across the range of small,
medium or large networks. In small installations, all of these applications may
be hosted on a single WSS chassis. As network expands additional processing
modules or WSS chassis can be added to accommodate the extra traffic load.
The chassis can accommodate up to 12 boards. All boards in a WSS chassis
plug into a backplane that distributes power to all modules.

The physical components that comprise the WSS chassis are listed below,
followed by the description of each of the component:

30
a) Processing modules to support various functionalities (SIM, DDM, CCM,
AIM, and SAM)

b) Power Supply Modules (PSM)

c) Peripheral devices

d) Ethernet Switch Module (ESM)

Figure 10 shows the Wireless Soft Switch Hardware platform followed by the
description of each individual component.

Figure 10. Wireless Soft Switch Hardware Platform

31
2.1 Signaling Interface Module (SIM)

Hardware Features

 650 MHz Ultra Sparc IIe with


on chip cache

 1 GB RAM

 Three Ethernet ports

 Inter host IPMI System


Management bus

 Hot Swap capability

 Daughter (SS7 Link) card

 30 GB IDE Hard Disk

 2 Serial, 2 USB ports


Figure 11. SIM
Software Features

 Solaris 5.8

 Dynamic reconfiguration (CPU, Memory, Disks)

 Different Scheduling Priorities including RT

 Diskless boot support and NFS logging

All signaling physical links terminate on the SIM and each module terminates
up to 2 DS1 or E1 links with individual links speeds of 56 kbps or 64 kbps.
There are pre-defined sets of links attached to each SIM and is responsible for
distributing signaling loads among DDMs. The SIM operates in a load-shared
mode at the factor of N+1, it can send signaling information to any of the DDM
modules within the switching complex. The signaling links (T1/E1) terminate on
a SS7 daughter card that resides on the SIM card. The module powered by an
Ultra SPARC-2E processor operating at 650MHz, and has 1GB RAM on
board.

32
2.2 Data Distribution Module (DDM)

Hardware Features

 650 MHz Ultra Sparc IIe with on


chip cache

 1 GB RAM

 Three Ethernet ports

 30 GB IDE Hard Disk

 Inter host IPMI System


Management bus

 Hot Swap capability


Figure 12. DDM
 2 Serial, 2 USB ports

Software Features

 Solaris 5.8

 Dynamic reconfiguration (CPU, Memory, Disks)

 Different Scheduling Priorities including RT

 Diskless boot support and NFS logging

The DDM is responsible for distributing signaling messages among CCMs.


Each DDM hosts a distribution process that implements unique message
distribution logic. The purpose of the logic is to keep the particular call instance
on one CCM process for the complete duration of the call for a specific
subscriber. DDM knows which Call Processing card to send the signaling
information based on in memory data structures mapping different signaling
types to CCMs. The module has an Ultra SPARC-2E processor operating at
650MHz, the on board memory is 1GB expandable up to 2GB. All the DDMs in
the WSS work in a load-shared fashion with N+1 redundancy.

33
2.3 Call Control Module (CCM)

Hardware Features

 650 MHz Ultra Sparc IIe with on


chip cache

 1 GB RAM

 Three Ethernet ports

 30 GB IDE Hard Disk

 Inter host IPMI System


Management bus

 Hot Swap capability


Figure 13. CCM
 2 Serial, 2 USB ports

Software Features

 Solaris 5.8

 Dynamic reconfiguration (CPU, Memory, Disks)

 Different Scheduling Priorities including RT

 Diskless boot support and NFS logging

The CCM provides Call processing for voice and data, Mobility management,
VLR functionality, signaling gateway, billing and OAM. Mobility management is
for keeping the users mobile (updating location, handoffs from one cell to
another, etc), the VLR is a database for information on subscribers currently
using the system resources while the signaling gateways are protocol
translators. These cards operate in a load-shared mode with N+N redundancy
(active-standby) for applications requiring connection management/processing.
The number of CCM cards in a chassis depends on the message processing
capacity of each card. The module has an Ultra SPARC-2E processor
operating at 650MHz, the on board memory is 1GB expandable up to 2GB.

34
2.4 System Admin Module (SAM)

Hardware Features

 Four 450 MHz Ultra Sparc II UPA Modules

 4 GB RAM

 Quad Ethernet ports

 Four High Performance SCSI Hard Disk

 Six available PCI slots

 Hot Swap capability Figure 14. SAM

 Upbeat middleware component for failure detection and fail over control

Software Features

 Solaris 5.8

 Dynamic reconfiguration (CPU, Memory, Disks)

 Different Scheduling Priorities including RT

 Diskless boot support and NFS logging

The SAM performs OAM functionality of WEM, with billing, a persistence


database to store the system configuration data and a repository for CDRs
(Call Detail Records). The SAM is also responsible for interfacing to the
external devices, such as, tape drive, disk drive, CD ROM. The box has four
450MHz Ultra SPARC- II UPA modules, with 4GB memory and operates in an
active-standby mode.

35
2.5 Power Supply Module (PSM)

Hardware Features

 500 Watt

 Dual Feed

 Alarm/Standby Power Fuse

 Input –42VDC to –56VDC

 Temperature -5 C to 50 C (Operating)

 Humidity 5% to 90% Relative Humidity Figure 15. PSM

The PSMs distribute power to various modules within each chassis. At least 2
power supply modules are required for each fully loaded chassis. There are
three PSMs in a chassis providing 2+1 redundancy. All 3 modules operate in
load sharing fashion. Each of the PSM provides –48VDC at a rating of 500 W.

36
2.6 Ethernet Switch Module (ESM)

10Base- T/ 100Base- TX, and 1000Base- T ports in the following modes:


Hardware Features
 10Base- T full- duplex mode

 10Base- T half- duplex mode 100 Base- TX full- duplex mode

 100Base- TX half- duplex mode

 Auto- sensing mode

LEDs: Front panel, Power, Pull, Link, Activity & Swap

Hardware Features, Electrical:

 16W of + 3.3Vdc maximum power consumption Mechanical

 CompactPCI 6U, 1 slot (4HP)

 - 5 º C to 50 º (Operating) Humidity Figure 16.


ESM

 5% to 90% relative humidity, non-condensing

Spatial Atrium includes a redundant pair of 24- port Ethernet switches, each
providing 10/ 100Base-T Local Area Network (LAN) connectivity for connection
and communication between the components of the Spatial Atrium. ESM is
also used for communication between WSS chassis.

37
2.7 Peripheral Devices

Peripheral devices are hard disks, CD ROM and and tape drive. There are two
hard disks in the system for redundancy. The pair works in mirrored fashion
loading the software in parallel for application and OS, thereby reducing the
booting time. Each of the hard disk is 36GB. A tape drive attached to the
system can be used for data storage.

Disk Drive Fan Tray


Tape Drive

Rear
view
Front
view

Hardware Features Hardware Features


Up to 36GB DDS- 2, DDS- DC, DDS type Hardware Features
Read/ write compatibility 4 front, 4 rear
Telcordia NEBS GR- 63-
CORE Level 3 compliance Sustained transfer rate Fan capacity 102
(native) 33 Mbytes/ min CFM
Telcordia NEBS GR- 1089-
CORE Level 3 compliance Sustained transfer rate Minimum Airflow
(compressed) 66 Mbytes/ min Front 300 LFM
One activity LED per bay
Max burst transfer rate Minimum Airflow Rear
Ultra- Wide SCSI- 2 Bus;
(synchronous) 600 Mbytes/ 150 LFM
40MB/ s Capable
min
Power (Per Disk) 20W Idle Dual input power feed
Max burst transfer rate
Electromagnetic (asynchronous) 420 Mbytes/ Status LED
Compatibility (EMC) FCC min Power feed LED
Class A
Average access time (max Alarm indicator
capacity) 40 Seconds
Default buffer (cache) size
1,000 Kbytes

Figure 17. Peripheral Devices

38
2.8 Alarm Indication Module (AIM)

The AIM is responsible for indicating alams and faults generated by any of the
modules within the WSS chassis. The subsystem uses green LEDs to indicate
normal operation and amber LEDs to indicate fault conditions.

2.9 Mid Plane

The mid-plane of the compact PCI chassis provides the power and ground to
call cards in the chassis. It also provides Ethernet connectivity as well as
connections to the rear transition modules.

3.0 Capacity & Scalability

The distributed architecture of the Alcatel product allows the system to support
highly scalable call capacity. At capacity each component is loaded less than
80% of its full load. On the other hand a fully loaded WMG configured with DS3
can support up to 56k DS-0 ports. Alcatel product is engineered with varying
number of WSS and WMG chassis depending on the application and traffic
load.

3.1 WSS Scalability

The following diagram illustrates the overall call processing architecture (patent
pending) that allows the system to scale almost linearly. The SIM module
provides SS7 interface to the other elements in the network. The ESM module
provides IP connectivity to the Media Gateway for EGCP (H.248 call control),
and the SAM module provides IP connectivity for FCAPS and Billing.

The SIM module selects one DDM module to send the very first incoming
message of a call or transaction. The DDM, which works as an internal router,
routes the message to one CCM module and the related subsequent
messages to the same CCM module.

Figure 18 below shows the WSS Scalability and how it is done.

39
Figure 18. WSS Scalability

The current Atrium release supports up to 38 cards in a single system


providing a capacity of roughly 400K BHCA.

3.2 SIM Module Scalability

The SIM module has all the SS7 signing links terminating to it, each module is
capable of supporting up to 48 DS0 channels (up to 2 T1s of physical links) or
64 DS0 channels (up to 2E1s of physical inks). Provisioning of the Alcatel
system ensure balancing of load on the SIM modules in the system (load
shared redundancy), thus additional SIM modules will dimension the system to
handle more traffic , as shown in figure 19 below:

40
standby card, but load
sharing, for the N+1 load
shared redundancy

Additional card will scale


the system upwards
T1/E1

T1/E1
Signaling Signaling
T1/E1 T1/E1 Interface
Interface
T1/E1 Module- N T1/E1 Module

Communications Backbone

Redundant Communications Backbone

Figure 19. SIM module distribution

3.3 DDM Module Scalability

Each DDM hosts a distribution process that implements unique message


distribution logic to process and distribute signaling messages to CCMs.
Scalability is achieved by adding more DDMs to support the increase in
capacity requirement, illustrated in Figure-20.

stanby card, but load


sharing, for the N+1 load
shared redundancy

Additional card will scale


the system upwards

Data
Distribution
Module - N
Data
Distribution
Module

Communications Backbone

Redundant Communications Backbone

Figure 20. DDM module distribution

3.4 CCM Module Scalability

The Call Control Module (CCM) has Call processing responsibility for both
voice and data along with Mobility Management, VLR functionality and

41
Signaling Gateway (ISUP) functions. These modules operate in active or
standby mode with N+N redundancy. For scaling the call processing function,
protections groups will have to be added to increase the capacity.

stanby card, but not load Additional cards in


sharing, for the 1+1 a protection group
redundancy will scale the
system upwards

Call Call Call


Processing Processing Processing
Module - N Module - N Module - N

protection group -1 protection group -2 protection group -3

Communications Backbone

Redundant Communications Backbone

Figure 21. CCM module scalability

The system is modeled taking into account the characteristics of each


component used in the system. The theoretical model is then populated with
lab measurement data for model calibration. Once the system model is
calibrated then the typical call model and traffic profile is used to determine
each component capacity as well as the system capacity. Each component in
the system is provisioned for 80% of its full load.

Under normal operating condition, each component of the system is


provisioned to a maximum of 80% of its full load. The overload condition
triggers when the CPU exceeds 80% of its full load. The overload condition
trigger is configurable.

4.0 Netra Wireless Soft Switch System

The Netra-based system uses the Sun Microsystems Netra 240 server to
provide more memory and processing speed than the standard 500/650 MHz
package. Currently, Alcatel provides three models of the Netra-based system:
Model A, Model B, and Model C. These models differ in the number of SIM
cards and Netra pairs they contain. The proceeding sections provide more
information about the Sun Netra 240 server as well as the different model
configurations.

42
Note: All discussion of card types, descriptions, and scalability that are
discussed in Section 2.0 & 3.0 above are also valid for the Netra system.

4.1 Netra 240 Server Specifications

Netra 240 Hardware Specs


 Operating System: Solaris 8
 Processor: Up to two 1.28-GHz
UltraSPARC IIIi processors
 Main Memory: 4 GB DDR-1 SDRAM
(PC2100) 128-bit plus ECC memory
 Network: Four 10/100/1000-Mbps BaseT
Ethernet ports Figure 22. Netra 240
Server
 DVD R/W Drive
 Internal disk: Up to two 3.5-in. x 1.0-in., 15K RPM, 73-GB Ultra160
SCSI hot-swappable drives
 Telecom Environment Certification: Telcordia GR-63 CORE, GR-1089-
CORE, SR 3580 NEBS Level 3
 Dry contact relay alarms with alarm indicators
 ALOM (Advanced Lights Out Manager) enables you to monitor and
control your server over either a serial connection (using the SERIAL
MGT port), or Ethernet connection (using the NET MGT port).
 Cooling blowers and a replaceable air filter
Expansion bus: Three 64-bit PCI 2.2-compliant expansion slots
 One 33-MHz or 66-MHz full-length slot
 Two 33-MHz half-length slots

43
4.2 Netra Model A Configuration

The model A configuration is primarily used in lab environments for minimum


traffic scenarios. The current model A configuration uses 2+1 SIM cards, 1+1
DDM Netras, 1+1 CCM Netras, and 1+1 SAM Netras. Please see below for
more information about this configuration.

PDU –48VDC
A and B Feed
3 SIM
Cards WSS Chassis
(Shelf 1)
Fan Intake
2 Cisco Ethernet
Switches
Terminal Server
(Shelf 2 and 3)
(Shelf 4)
2 SAM Netras
(Shelf 5 and 6)
2 DDM
Netras
(Shelf 7 and 8)

2 CCM Netras
(Shelf 18 through 19)

Figure 23. Model A Netra Configuration

44
4.3 Netra Model B Configuration

The model B configuration is used in medium traffic scenarios. The current


model B configuration uses 5+1 SIM cards, 1+1 DDM Netras, 3+3 CCM
Netras, and 1+1 SAM Netras. Please see below for more information about
this configuration.

PDU –48VDC
A and B Feed
6 SIM WSS Chassis
Cards
Fan
Intake
2 Cisco Ethernet
Switches
Terminal Server
2 SAM Netras

2 DDM
Netras

6 CCM Netras

Figure 24. Model B Netra Configuration

45
4.4 Netra Model C Configuration

The model C configuration is used in commercial or heavy traffic scenarios.


The current model C configuration uses 7+1 SIM cards, 2+1 DDM Netras, 5+5
CCM Netras, and 1+1 SAM Netras. Please see below for more information
about this configuration.

PDU –48VDC
A and B Feed

8 SIM
Cards WSS Chassis

Fan

2 Cisco Intake
Ethernet
Switches
Terminal
Server
2 SAM
Netras

3 DDM
Netras

10 CCM
Netras

Figure 25. Model C Netra Configuration

This was all about the WSS. As shown, WSS is the central device and controls
all the other devices. WMG and WEM are discussed in further chapters.

46
47
Wireless Media Gateway UNIT 1

Chapter 4
1.0 Introduction

Till now we have discussed about the WSS of the Spatial Atrium. Actually, it is
the WSS which controls the WMG. WMG devices are generally installed close
to the user‘s area and WSS is the central device. This can be seen in the
diagram given in the 1st chapter. Now the project we are talking about i.e.
installing BSS Local Switching is actually done in the WSS part and not in the
WMG. WMG only acts as the transporter which sends the data to the WSS for
further transmission. In this chapter we will study about the WMG as it forms
an important part of the concerned product Spatial Atrium.

2.0 Wireless Media Gateway Hardware System


The Wireless Media Gateway (WMG) provides physical network access for
bearer. The WMG switching fabric is optimized for ATM, IP and time division
multiplex (TDM) interworking. It provides transparent capabilities and supports
different signaling protocols, such as ATM User Network Interface (UNI), IMA
and PNNI.

Front View Rear View

Figure 26. WMG Unit, Front & Rear view

Access resources, such as echo cancellation, are integrated into the WMG
hardware as pooled resources. The control interface is entirely standards
based. The figure above shows a front and rear view of the WMG unit

The figure below shows a close-up view of the rear of the WMG BITS clock
and alarm connections.
Figure 27. Alarm & Timing source

T1/E1 Alarms
Bits Clock

48
The Spatial Atrium supports a number of TDM interfaces, including:
a) E1
b) STM-1
c) T1
d) DS-1
e) DS-3
f) OC-3

ATM-based interfaces include:

a) DS-1 (Inverse Multiplexing over ATM)


b) DS-3
c) OC-3c
d) STM-1c
e) OC-12c
f) STM-4c

3.0 WMG SuperSlots Design

The Spatial Atrium provides capacity increases through the use of SuperSlots.
Each board connected through the mid-plane has a SuperSlots design to
permit numerous configurations.

Channelized interface cards, which reside in the rear slots (21-27 and 34-40),
can accommodate two SuperSlot cards and the ATM interface cards (slot
28+29 and 32+33) can accommodate four SuperSlot cards. The SuperSlot
cards connect to the channelized and ATM interface cards, which in turn
connect directly to the mid-plane.

System cards, which include data server and Voice Server cards, and control
cards, which include the Control Module, Packet Matrix and Service Matrix
reside in slots 1 - 20.

WMG Cards & Slot Assignment

The WMG is designed so that the boards are serviceable from both the front
and rear. WMG slot assignment shows the slot assignments of each board and
how they connect to the mid-plane in the center of the WMG.

Slots 1-20 connect to the front of the mid-plane and slots 21-40 connect to the
rear of the mid-plane. The dimensions for boards in slots 1-20 are 400cm x
400 cm; the dimensions for boards in slot s 21-40 are 200cm x 400cm. They
are multi-layered to ensure they are firm for insertion and ejection. Each board
has two LEDs to indicate the board status and board faults.
Figure below shows the WMG Slot Assignments.

49
40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21
CI CI CI CI CI CI CI AI AI AI AI AI AI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI
or or or or
AI AI (r) AI AI

(r) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (r) (r) (r) (r) (r)

Mid-Plane

VS VS VS VS VS VS (a) (a) (a) (a) (r) (r) (r) (r) VS VS VS VS VS VS


or or or or or or or or or or or or
DS DS DS DS DS DS CM PM PM SM SM PM PM CM DS DS DS DS DS DS

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

System/Common Cards Control Cards Interface Cards

DS – Data Server Card CM – Control Module CI – ChannelizedInterface


VS – Voice Server Card AI – ATM Interface
PM – Packet Matrix
SM – Service Matrix

Figure 28. WMG Slot Assignments

Each board has two LEDs to indicate the board status and board faults. The
WMG is comprised of the following cards/ boards:

Mid-plane Up to 12 data server cards (DS)


Control cards: Interface cards:
2 Control Modules (CM) Up to 14 channelized interfaces (CI)
2 Service Matrixes (SM) Up to 4 ATM interfaces (AI) in 10GB
system
2 Packet Matrixes (PM)
Up to 12 Voice Server cards
(VS)

4.0 WMG Mid Plane

All boards on the WMG plug into the mid-plane. The mid-plane provides
connectivity and power and ground to all cards in the WMG.

The mid-plane‘s primary functions are to provide point-to-point connectivity,


power, and logic and physical grounds for all control and Network Interface
Cards (NIC). Many extra connection paths are also provided, which enable the
various board level redundancy schemes employed by the WMG.

The mid-plane has 40 card slots. The slots are numbered from left to right
(either facing the front or facing the rear), 1 to 20 across the front and 21 to 40
across the rear. Each slot supports a certain type of WMG card, with each slot
designed to hold a specific card or card type.

The front of the mid-plane (slots 1-20) provides the slots for the Spatial Atrium
control cards and common cards, while the rear (slots 21-40) provides the slots
for the interface cards.

50
Midplane

Figure 29.WMG Cutaway view

These slots are specifically configured for interface cards so that all interface
cabling is in the rear of the machine, leaving the front of the WMG
unobstructed. As shown in the figure below, some slots support more than one
type of card. The WMG can be configured as a 10-GB system.

The figure shown below depicts the Mid-Plane Slot Capacities for 10 GB
Configurations.

In the later sections, various cards are discussed in detail.

Mid-Plane Slot Capacities for 10 GB Configuration M

CI CI CI CI CI CI CI AI AI AI AICI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI CI
AI AI AI AI
40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24
(r) 23 22 21 40 39 38
(a) (a) (a) (a) (r) (r) (r) (r)
4K 4K 4K 4K
8K 8K 8K 8K 8K 2.5K 2.5K 2.5Gb 2.5Gb 2.5Gb 2.5Gb 2.5K 2.5K 8K 8K 8K 8K 8K 8K 8K 8K

Mid-Plane
8K 8K 8K 8K 8K 8K 8K 8K 4K 4K 8K
622Mb622Mb622Mb622Mb 622Mb622Mb622Mb622Mb 622Mb622MB622Mb
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 1 2 3
VS VS VS VS VS VS VS VS VS VS VS
or or or or or or or or or or or
DS DS DS DS CM PM PM SM SM PM PM CM DS DS DS DS DS DS DS

Figure 30. Mid-Plane Slot Capacities for 10 GB Configuration

51
5.0 Control Module Card (CM)

The Control Module is responsible for managing and controlling resources


within the WMG and communicating with the WSS for call control,
maintenance, and configuration instructions. It is a redundant pair and resides
in slots 7 and 14 of the mid-plane.

Figure 31. Control Module Card

The Control Module supports three configurations. In addition to the base


configuration, the Spatial Atrium supports SuperSlots, which increase the
Control Module‘s capabilities.

5.1 Basic Configuration

The Control Module‘s basic configuration includes the following:


a) Motorola 755/500 MHz based five-processor system
b) 672 HDLC channels for PRI and GR-303 signaling

CPU Configuration

The Control Module‘s basic configuration provides five central processing units
(CPUs) that perform specific system functions. These CPUs include:

c) Master CPU
d) Facility CPU
e) Connection/Resource CPU
f) Narrowband Signaling CPU
g) Broadband Signaling CPU

Each of the five dedicated CPUs has its own persistent flash memory and the
software runs on top of the pSOS operating system.

Master CPU

The master CPU is responsible for the following functions:

h) Communicating directly with the WSS


i) Performing OA&M validations
j) Decoding SNMP requests

52
k) Routing messages between ATM (broadband signaling)- and voice-
connecting (Narrowband Signaling) CPUs

Along with providing the OA&M management functionality for the WMG, the
Master CPU is also the point of communication between the WMG and the
WSS. All messages from the WSS to the WMG are distributed through the
Spatial Atrium‘s Ethernet switch to the correct WMG destination (such as
signaling, configuration and management) by the Master CPU. The Master
CPU communicates with all of the CPUs.

Connection/Resource Manager CPU

The connection/resource software provides the WSS the ability to manage


specific subscriber connections within a call.
The connection/resource manager is responsible for the following functions:

 Allocating some resources


 Establishing physical connection types for each call

The WSS communicates with the connection/resource manager. The


connection/resource manager allocates physical resources (at the DS-0 level)
as specified by the WSS. It receives instructions from the Control Module and
then instructs the facility manager to allocate the appropriate resources.

The connection/resource manager also determines where to route the


signaling for the connection. If the connection is TDM, the connection/resource
manager instructs the facility manager to forward the information to the
narrowband signaling CPU. If the signal is ATM, the connection/resource
manager connects the signaling cells to the Broadband signaling CPU.

The connection/resource manager also communicates directly with the Voice


Server and data server cards to create paths between TDM and ATM
terminations.

Facility CPU

The Facility CPU is responsible for the following functions:

 Managing Service Matrix


 Managing network interface cards
 Controlling tone, announcements, caller ID, echo cancellation,
bridges, and MF/DTMF receiver DSPs
 Managing ATM interface tasks
 Monitoring interface ports for errors and some transmission
alarms

The facility manager communicates with the Service Matrix and the network
interface cards. It sets up paths for narrowband signaling and contains the digit
maps to set up single connections for narrowband signaling.

53
5.2 Control Module Configuration

The Control Module‘s basic configuration supports 672 HDLC channels. When
one SuperSlot is added to the Control Module, it can support an additional
1,344 HDLC channels, providing a total of 2,016 HDLC channels per WMG.
The figure below illustrates how the CPUs communicate between each other,
the other components of the WMG and the WSS.

Figure below provides an overview of the WMG Card.

Figure 32. WMG Card Overview

6.0 Service Matrix Card (SM)

The Service Matrix is the Spatial Atrium switch‘s TDM fabric. Its primary
responsibility is to provide switching functionality for the DS-0s. Following
figure shows the Service Matrix board.

54
Figure 33. Service Matrix Card

The Service Matrix is a redundant pair and resides in slots 10 and 11. Each
Service Matrix is bus-connected to all Control Modules, channelized interface
slots, Voice Server cards and data server cards. This design provides
redundancy and load sharing for quick switchover and recovery.

The Service Matrix has a capacity of 128,000 DS-0s. The DS-0s are managed
in a single stage, fully cross-connected matrix. All switching through the
Service Matrix is performed at the DS-0 level.

The Service Matrix DS-0 buses are allocated to specific mid-plane slots, with
4,000 or 8,000 DS-0s allocated to every channelized interface card slot and
4,000 DS-0s allocated to every Voice Server card slot. The Service Matrix
also provides the following shared resources using three SuperSlots:

Service Matrix Resource

Resource Maximum Value


DTMF/ MF 1,280 receivers (256 MF and 1024 DTMF)
Receivers

Three- Way 1, 000 three- way bridge circuits


Bridges
Announcements 1,024 announcements (the Spatial Atrium provides 66
default announcements scripts) The SDRAM supports
2097 seconds (34.95 minutes). The speech segments
must be an integer multiple of 2048 DS- 0s in length.
Any DS- 0 locations not filled by the speech segment are
filled with silence and that portion of the announcement
storage space is lost.

Caller ID 512 channels


Tones 256 channels
Echo Cancellation 1,536 channels

55
6.1 Echo Cancellation

Echo cancellation is performed by system hardware and is accessed by the


system as a pooled resource. Echo cancellers are available on the Service
Matrix for three-way calls.

Echo cancellation schemes supported by the Spatial Atrium include:

 G.168 – ITU-T standards for digital network echo cancellers


 G.165 – ITU-T standards for echo cancellers
 V.25 and V.8 – ITU-T recommendations specifying tone disable
characteristics
 V.8 bis – low-speed series of V-modems that do not send echo
canceller disable tone

Echo cancellation features supported by the Spatial Atrium include:

 Control and Test per DS-0


 ERLE (Echo Return Loss Enhancement)
 ERL (Echo Return Loss)
 Convergence less than 150 ms
 Double Talk Detection
 Noise Matching
 128 ms Tail Delay

6.2 System Testing

The Service Matrix is also responsible for the Spatial Atrium‘s clocking
references. Clock synchronization source inputs to the system are through
building integrated timing supply (BITS) timing or from a synchronous
transmission facility connected externally. The primary reference source is
BITS. The Spatial Atrium switch also has a secondary BITS reference source,
an OC-3 tertiary reference source, and uses a stratum-3 network clock as its
emergency timing source.

The Spatial Atrium supports timing from the following external interfaces:

 Channelized DS-3 interface card


 T1, E1, OC-3, or STM-1 facilities designated as timing synchronization
spans

Multiple timing facilities are located in the WMG. The WMG with the timing
spans is designated as the master WMG for synchronization purposes.

 Each WMG has a stratum-3 network clock. Each clock in the Spatial
Atrium is synchronized to the same stratum clock.

56
7.0 Packet Matrix Card

The Packet Matrix is the Spatial Atrium‘s ATM fabric. It is responsible for
directing the flow of packetized traffic (both voice and data) through the Spatial
Atrium switch. Following figure shows the Packet Matrix board.

Figure 34. Packet Matrix Card

The Packet Matrix is a redundant pair that resides in slots 8 and 9 (actives)
and 12 and 13 (redundant s). Each pair of cards switches 10 GB.

The Packet Matrix has paths to Control Module card slots, all Server card
slots, and all ATM interface card slots. The redundant SuperSlots card types
must be the same card types as the active SuperSlots. All SuperSlots are field
upgradeable and can be replaced without affecting other SuperSlots.

8.0 Voice Server Cards

Voice server cards are responsible for translating between channelized voice
data and cell-based voice data. Following figure shows the Voice Server
board.

Figure 35. Voice Server Card

57
Voice server cards, which are load sharing, are configured for N + 1
redundancy. The redundant card is configured so it can assume the
processing duties in the event either Voice Server cards fails. Load sharing is
controlled by the Control Module, which sets up the path between the Voice
Server cards and the Service Matrix. Every Voice Server slot has a path to the
Control Module, Service Matrix and Packet Matrix.

The Voice Server cards support ATM adaptation layers 2 (AAL-2) for voice
services and uses AAL-5 service to communicate with the Control Module.
The Voice Server card‘s basic configuration supports 2,000 AAL-2 channels by
using the appropriate VS card, e.g. VSM2 or VSM3.

Echo cancellers are available on the Voice Server card for voice calls. The
base configuration supports 480 channels of ADPCM voice compression and
1,056 channels of echo cancellation. The expanded Voice Server card
configuration supports 1,536 channels of echo cancellation.

9.0 Channelized Interface Card

The Spatial Atrium switch supports the following channelized interfaces:

 E1
 T1
 STM-1
 DS-3
 OC-3

The channelized interface cards provide TDM networks with access to the
Spatial Atrium switching system. The cards have a bus connection through the
Mid-Plane directly to the Service Matrix, which has the responsibility of
breaking the signal down to the DS-0 or N x DS-0 and switching the
information to its destination. The system supports a 60 T1 or E1 ports
interface card with N+1 redundancy. The channelized T1/E1 cards can reside
in slots 21-27 and 34-40.

The Spatial Atrium provides superior density by supporting DS-3/OC-3


channelized interface adapters. The channelized interface adapters consist of
a six-port DS-3 (coaxial) and a two-port OC-3 (single-mode fiber optics). The
DS-3/OC-3 channelized interface adapters have two SuperSlots that can
support either two DS-3 interfaces or two OC-3 interfaces. The channelized
T1/E1 interface card is shown in following figure.

58
Figure 36. Channelized T1/E1 Interface Card

Following figure illustrates the channelized DS-3/OC-3 interface card with the
channelized interface DS-3 and OC-3 SuperSlots design.

OC3 CARD DS3 CARD

OC3 SuperSlot

DS3/OC3 Interface Card DS3 SuperSlot

Figure 37. Channelized DS-3/OC-3 Interface Card and SuperSlots

A channelized interface adapter cannot host both types of SuperSlot interfaces


simultaneously. The Spatial Atrium supports 2,016 channels per SuperSlot.
With both the channelized SuperSlots, the channelized DS-0 capacity is 4,032.

The DS-3 SuperSlot interface card provides the Spatial Atrium switch with
high-bandwidth copper connectivity. The DS-3 SuperSlot has three DS-3 links
and an overall bandwidth of 2,016 DS-0s per card. Six bayonet locking

59
connector (BNC) coaxial connectors are housed on each card: a send and
receive pair for each DS-3 link.

The DS-3 has a 1:1 redundancy scheme at the SuperSlot level, so the backup
card is configured exactly like the active card. DS-3 can also be configured
with N+1 redundancy.

The OC-3 SuperSlot Interface card provides the Spatial Atrium switch with
fiber-optic connectivity based on the SONET specification. It hosts one OC-3
slot and provides a channelized capacity of 2,016 DS-0s per card.
The redundancy scheme for the OC-3 SuperSlot is 1:1, so the backup card is
configured exactly like the active card.

Every WMG in the Spatial Atrium provides up to 14 channelized interface card


slots. It accommodates any combination of channelized interfaces (T1, E1,
STM-1, DS-3, OC-3) in those 14 slots.

Following table shows the capacity of each component in WMG.

Capacity of various WMG components

Card Type Capacity Description


CM The CM provides capacity for 2,016 HDLC channels per WMG
SM The SM has a TDM switching matrix with a capacity of 128kx128k
DS-0s
PM PM1 supports a fully redundant 10G packet fabric
VS2 Without ADPCM, 2044 AAL2 (G.711) channels with echo.
VS2 With ADPCM, 512 AAL2 (G.711) channels with echo or 1408
AAL2 (G.726) channels with echo.
VS3 With VoIP, 2044 channels with echo.
VS4 With AMR and Iu User Plane procedure support for UMTS.
ES Echo Server (ES) modules provide echo cancellation of 4,032
channels
CI  DS-1 CI module supports a capacity of up to 1,440 DS-0s
 E1 CI module supports a capacity of up to 1,920 DS-0s
 DS-3 CI module supports a capacity of up to 4,032 DS-0s
 OC-3 CI module supports a capacity of up to 4, 032 DS-0s

AI The maximum capacity of an ATM interface module is 2.5 Gbps


Ethernet Each Ethernet switch has 24 ports

60
9.1 Optical Ports

The optical ports are 1310 nm SC


duplex intermediate reach (IR)
receptacles. The single mode fiber
cable must have SC connectors on
the equipment side.

Figure 38. Fiber optic cable

10.0 ATM Interfaces

ATM interface cards provide the Spatial Atrium switch with access to ATM
networks and have 1 + 1 redundancy. ATM networks include user access
devices such as digital subscriber line access multiplexers (DSLAMs) (which
use ATM UNI), as well as network connectivity with other ATM UNI and ATM
PNNI data streams. ATM interface cards interact directly with the Packet
Matrix.

Four ATM interface slots are available on each WMG, with two being active
and two being redundant. The maximum capacity of an ATM interface card is
2.5 Gbps. The ATM interface cards reside in slots 28 to 33 across the rear of
the mid-plane. Slots 28, 29, 32 and 33 are optional for either ATM or
channelized interface cards.

The ATM interface cards are hosted by an ATM interface adapter card, which
resides in the ATM interface slots on the mid-plane. Following figure shows
the ATM interface card configured with DS-3, OC-3c, STM-1c, STM-4c and
OC-12c SuperSlot interface cards.

Figure 39. ATM Interface Card

OC-3c SuperSlot
Interface Card

OC-12c SuperSlot
Interface Card

DS-3 SuperSlot
Interface Card

OC-12c SuperSlot
Interface Card

61
Each ATM interface card has four SuperSlots to accommodate SuperSlot
Interface cards, which provide interface capabilities to:
a) DS-3 – 16 port counts
b) OC-3c – 16 port counts
c) OC-12c – 4 port counts

The ATM interface card supports a mixed configuration of SuperSlots. For


example, an ATM interface card can accommodate two OC-3 SuperSlots and
two DS-3 SuperSlots.

The DS-3 SuperSlot interface card supports four DS-3 interfaces. Up to four
DS-3 SuperSlot Interface cards can reside in a single ATM interface card,
which provides the Spatial Atrium with up to 16 DS-3 interfaces per ATM
interface card.
The OC-3c SuperSlot interface card supports four OC-3c interfaces. Up to four
OC-3c SuperSlot interface cards can reside in a single ATM interface card,
which provides the Spatial Atrium with up to 16 OC-3c interfaces per ATM
interface card.

The OC-12c SuperSlot Interface card supports one OC-12c. Up to four OC-12c
SuperSlot interface cards can reside in a single ATM interface card, which
provides the Spatial Atrium with up to four OC-12c interfaces per ATM
interface card.

Each ATM interface card can be configured with any combination of SuperSlot
interface cards. The Spatial Atrium supports up to 8 active SuperSlot interface
cards residing in up to two active ATM interface cards. The Spatial Atrium
supports up to two redundant ATM interface cards that must be configured with
the identical combinations of SuperSlot interface cards as their active
counterparts. For example, the redundant ATM interface card in slot 28 must
be configured exactly like the active ATM interface card in slot 33.

10.1 Optical Ports

The optical ports are 1310 nm LC


duplex intermediate reach (IR)
receptacles with clock and data
recovery (CDR). The single mode
fiber cable must have LC connectors
on the equipment side.

Figure 40. Fiber optic cable with LC Connector

11.0 Bearer Traffic Flow

The figure below shows how traffic flows between the boards on the WMG.

62
Figure 41. Inter CPU Communication

The TDM data passes through the channelized interface card, which
unbundled the information at the DS-0 level. The channelized interface card
then passes it to the Service Matrix for further switching. If the information has
a TDM destination, the Service Matrix switches the data and returns it to the
appropriate TDM interface.

If the data has an ATM destination, the Service Matrix switches the data and
forwards it to the Server card. The Server card translates the TDM data to
ATM packetized data, and then forwards it to the Packet Matrix, which
provides virtual circuit connectivity and switching. The data is then delivered to
the ATM interface cards, which in turn sends it to the data network and on to
its destination.

If the IP traffic has a TDM destination, the AI card routes the call to the PM
card. The PM card converts IP traffic to TDM traffic and routes it to the VSM.
The VSM sends the call to the TDM network where it is routed to its final
destination.
VoIP or ATM traffic, or data with an ATM source and destination, passes
through the ATM interface board to the Packet Matrix. The Packet Matrix
routes the ATM information. The Packet Matrix returns the data to the
appropriate ATM interface for delivery.

63
Calls with an ATM source and a TDM destination flow through the WMG in the
reverse order of the TDM-origination to ATM-destination flow. The data is
switched by the Packet Matrix, and then is forwarded to the voice server card,
which translates the data to TDM. The typical flow for ATM to TDM for a UMTS
call scenario is shown below:

Spatial Media Gateway


Voice Server Cards
Announce- VoATM
ments CALEA VoIP ATM
DSP
TDM AAL1
VoATM NIC
VoIP/ATM
NIC TSI AAL2
UMTS

TDM Packet
Matrix Matrix
VoIP
DSP
TDM AAL1
VoATM
NIC VoIP
TSI AAL2
UMTS IP
Conference NIC
Bridging DTMF
VoIP/MPLS

ATM-to-TDM

Figure 42. Bearer flow ATM to TDM (UMTS Scenario)

Now this was all about the WMG. WMG (many in fact) is connected to the
central WSS. These WMGs are towards the distant areas and connected to
WSS to provide connectivity.

64
65
Wireless Element Management UNIT 1

Chapter 5

1.0 Introduction

The Alcatel Spatial Atrium DMSC Wireless Element Management (WEM)


system offers fully integrated OAM&P of the call server and media gateway.
Provisioning and monitoring of both elements can be managed from the WEM,
eliminating potential inconsistencies and errors between call servers and
media gateways. This significantly reduces the operational burden and
eliminates unnecessary system management complexity. All the details of
Alcatel WEM are provided in the subsequent sections.

2.0 Wireless Element System

The Alcatel WEM is the Element Management System application and


provides the interface for the FCAPS (Fault, Configuration, Accounting,
Performance and Security) functionality of the complete Alcatel solution.

The WEM design is based on client/server architecture. The Alcatel WEM


consists of two main components one the WEM server and the WEM client.
The WEM server is the Element Management System application that resides
in the WSS to provide the FCAPS services to the mobile operator‘s OSS.

The WEM client is the GUI and runs on a UNIX or Windows 2000 platform.
The WEM GUI serves as the primary interface for operators to control and
monitor the Alcatel Platform. The GUI can be connected to the WEM server
locally or remotely.

Figure 43 shows the Alcatel WEM Architecture.

Citrix Metaframe creates a centralized and managed environment for WEM


client access. Administrators configure Citrix to have WEM clients shared, so
users do not have to install WEM client on their own workstations. Users do
not have do worry about the installation problem and requirement of WEM
clients; instead, users can access WEM client via Citrix client and leave
installation issues to administrators. Administrators manage WEM clients
easily in a centralized Citrix server. Whenever WSS or WEM client software
changes, administrators make the adjustments only on the Citrix server.
Another advantage of the Citrix server is that the server maintains user
information and user directory on disk space of server.

66
Operator’s
OSS CCM-n …
CCM-2
GUI Client CCM-1

TCP/IP Java
RMI WEM DDM-n
(OAM&P)
CLI Client Service DDM-1
Logic
CORBA CLI over
CORBA v2.3
SIM-n
NMS
SNMP SNMP v2 SIM-1

Secure ESM-2
DB
SAM Module ESM-1
WMG-n

WMG-2 PSM-3
WMG-1
PSM-2
WSS Platform PSM-1

Figure 43. Alcatel WEM Architecture

Command Line Interface (CLI) to the WEM enables the user to configure the
Spatial Atrium system by a executing a few commands bypassing all the steps
in the GUI. CLI incorporates changes directly in the databases.

Alcatel WEM provides following functionalities:

 Fault management – Provides the user with the information needed


to troubleshoot and maintain the Alcatel system. It supports
displaying, filtering and querying alarms and events.

 Configuration management – Allows the user to make sure that all


resources are in the appropriate administrative state and processing
calls as designed. It can lock and unlock modules, modify resource
configurations and provides procedures that are important for
system maintenance.

67
 Accounting management – Allows the user to query and manage
CDRs and ensures that billing functions are operating as designed.

 Performance management – Allows the user to monitor system


statistics to ensure that the system is operating with optimum
effectiveness. The user can view the system components‘
performance information and quality of service.

 Security management - Allows a security administrator to establish


and configure settings for the Alcatel system. Permits administration
of various levels of security for users who have access to the WEM
GUI, setting user‘s authentication parameters (passwords, user
groups and user profiles).

NOC Interface: Spatial Atrium sends SNMP Traps on the northbound systems
in real time. The Traps provide information about the severity, cause,
corrective action, and description of the Alarm. Additionally, the Northbound
systems can query the Spatial Atrium on a periodic basis to pro-actively get its
Status. Spatial Atrium has the MIB definitions for the Trap MIBs that can be
integrated in the Northbound system.

Spatial Atrium can also send the performance measurement data collected on
a periodic basis to Northbound OSS systems. The frequency of these data
transfers can be configured through WEM for different measurements. It also
supports collection of these measurements on a real time basis through SNMP
queries.

Spatial Atrium provides SNMP based Configuration capabilities that the


Northbound Systems can take advantage of to provision Spatial Atrium. These
messages are typically SET and GET requests. Spatial Atrium has a set of
MIBs for integration with the Northbound systems.

Security: The WEM application allows none / read / read-write permission to


be granted for all major functional areas. System access can be restricted to
prevent a service affecting access level user from gaining access to system
administration and security profiles.

68
69
Fortune @ Bottom of the Pyramid UNIT 2

Chapter 1
1.0 Introduction

In economics, the bottom of the pyramid is the largest, but poorest socio-
economic group. In global terms, this is the four billion people who live on less
than $2 per day, typically in developing countries. The phrase ―bottom of the
pyramid‖ is used in particular by people developing new models of doing
business that deliberately target that demographic, often using new
technology. This field is also often referred to as the "Base of the Pyramid" or
just the "BoP".

The phrase ―bottom of the pyramid‖ was used by U.S. president Franklin D.
Roosevelt in his April 7, 1932 radio address, The Forgotten Man, in which he
said ―These unhappy times call for the building of plans that rest upon the
forgotten, the unorganized but the indispensable units of economic power...that
build from the bottom up and not from the top down, that put their faith once
more in the forgotten man at the bottom of the economic pyramid.‖

The more current usage refers to the 4 billion people living on less than $2 per
day, as first defined in 1998 by Professors C.K. Prahalad and Stuart L. Hart. It
was subsequently expanded upon by both Prahalad in 2004 in The Fortune at
the Bottom of the Pyramid and by Hart in 2005 in Capitalism at the
Crossroads.

Prahalad proposes that businesses, governments, and donor agencies stop


thinking of the poor as victims and instead start seeing them as resilient and
creative entrepreneurs as well as value-demanding consumers. He proposes
that there are tremendous benefits to multi-national companies who choose to
serve these markets in ways responsive to their needs. After all the poor of
today are the middle-class of tomorrow. There are also poverty reducing
benefits if multi-nationals work with civil society organizations and local
governments to create new local business models.

2.0 Bottom of the Pyramid (BoP)

The distribution of wealth and the capacity to generate incomes in the world
can be captured in the form of an economic pyramid. At the top of the pyramid
are the wealthy, with numerous opportunities for generating high levels of
income. More than 4 billion people live at the BOP on less than $2 per day.

This can be depicted in the form of a pyramid which Prahalad has incorporated
in his book. The pyramid has 4 blocks (can be more or less depending upon
the interpretation) each representing a different class of the society from rich to
the very poor. In context of India, this pyramid is shown below:

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Rich
100m
n mn=million

Middle Class
Target Class
400 mn

Poor Class
350 mn
“BoP”

Below Poverty Line-No buying


capacity
400-500 mn

Figure 47. Bottom of Pyramid

The above pyramid is a depiction of Prahalad‘s Bottom of Pyramid. Following


are the interpretations of this model:

 Rich people constitute the 100mn population of the society.


 Middle class constitutes the 400mn population of the society.
 Poor class constitutes the 350 mn population of the society which is
actually the Bottom of the pyramid.
 Rest population of 400-500 mn people lives below poverty line so
doesn‘t have any buying capacity

It is this Poor class of 350 million people that Prahalad is referring. According
to him, if the companies can provide the products in the buying capacity (small
shampoo sachet etc.) of poor, then they can actually earn revenue and expand
their market.

If we talk about the telecom companies, then to start service in a region


requires huge amount of money. Companies invest because they expect a
huge return on investment (ROI). However companies do not invest in rural
India because people cannot pay much for these services though they feel a
demand for it. Now as other areas are facing saturation, companies have no
option but to look at this bottom. So there is a need of innovation in terms of
investment so that cost can come down and services could be provided

71
benefiting both the company and the people. It is this innovation that is
discussed in this unit.

3.0 Indian Telecommunication Scenario

As with the other sectors, Telecommunications sector is also facing the falling
revenues. So, as the developed mobile markets all over the world approach
saturation, the industry has begun to consider ‗the next billion‘ users. These
are the rural populations living beyond the reach of traditional communications
networks of any kind.

Rural India is a prime example of the opportunity as shown below:

 A huge population – Over 1000 million people in 630,000 villages


across 3.2 million square miles.
 A massive economy – over 50% of India‘s total GDP. There are
almost same number of middle to high income households in rural
areas (21.16 mn) as urban India (23.22 mn).
 A parallel economy – with the same needs as developed markets
but a reduced ability to pay.

The rural consumer in India cannot pay the $50 per month typical of London,
Tokyo and Sydney. Nor can they pay the $7-10 per month typical of Delhi and
Mumbai. But research and experience shows that they can and will pay around
$2 per month today – even before the impact of communications increases
their ability to pay.

The challenge is to deliver a mobile service to rural users that can not only be
viable, but be profitable at these low levels of Average Revenue Per User
(ARPU).

Currently, the mobile phone population in India is growing by 13 million phones


per month. The overall teledensity is 35.65%. Urban teledensity is 86.18% but
rural teledensity on the other hand is just 14.36% (source: Feb 2009 release,
Department of Telecommunications, GOI).

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The reason for such a large difference in the number of urban & rural
teledensity is simple: current mobile technology cannot reach the hundreds of
millions of people ready to embrace it.

3.1 The Obstacles

Rural India has a massive pent-up demand for mobile services; a limitless
supply of low-cost labour to help deploy them; and a large entrepreneurial
class ready to deliver services at the local level. Cheap handsets are available
and, unlike urban locations, space for Base Stations is plentiful.

As powerful as these market drivers may be, the inhibitors are even more
formidable. The obstacles to providing profitable mobile services to rural India
(and similar rural populations all over the world) come from two main sources:
the inherent constraints of the market – its geography, economy and skill
levels; and the inherent limitations of current GSM technology, processes and
models.

The Challenges of Rural India:

There are four main difficulties in serving rural communities, each one of which
has appeared insurmountable:

Power challenges – Most of rural India is not served by the power grid. Some
areas may get ‗agricultural power‘ – two hours in the morning and evening –
but even this is the exception. When fuel can be afforded and delivered, power
tends to come from diesel generators. The combination of poor fuel quality and
poor generator maintenance severely limits the life of any generator.

Revenue challenges – Rural India can pay for mobile services, but only
around $2 per month. The cost base of any solution has to be geared to these
ARPU
levels.

Skills challenges – There are no trained telecom engineers and few people
can read or write. This makes the installation and maintenance of GSM
networks highly challenging.

Access challenges – These are extremely remote communities, served by


poor roads and no other significant infrastructure.

Despite these challenges, other complex services have profitably been


delivered to rural India (including cable television).
Unfortunately, the mobile systems in use all over the world today seem to have
been designed to maximize vulnerability to these four challenges.

Today’s GSM is not ready to serve rural India.

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4.0 The limits of Traditional GSM

GSM was designed for urban and suburban locations in developed markets.
It‘s a general-purpose network not suited to the unique challenges of serving
rural and remote areas.

The gulf between GSM challenges and the opportunities in the rural sector is
quite wide. There are certain demands of traditional GSM which the rural
sector cannot fulfill. These are listed below;

Deployment demands – The typical GSM Base Station includes three


refrigerator-sized cabinets, mains power supply, large battery backup, dual air
conditioning units, a tower or roof site and backhaul capability. All this is
housed in some kind of building – either existing or built for purpose. Just
getting all of this equipment to a rural community multiplies the cost of
deployment – before provisioning, civil engineering, radio planning, testing and
maintenance is factored in.

Power demands – Power was clearly not an issue when GSM was conceived.
A conventional Base Station site alone requires about 5000W to run – not
including any Base Station Controller (BSC) or Mobile Switching Center
(MSC). Due to power availability constraints even in urban settings, the current
GSM networks in India are estimated to burn about 2 billion litres of diesel
each year. Fuel quality, transport challenges and the demands of generator
maintenance make this power source unsustainable for rural GSM
deployments.

Skills demands – A typical GSM Base Station deployment process takes


around three months from planning to commissioning, and involves dozens of
people including radio network planners, site acquisition teams, site engineers,
civil engineers, equipment vendor installation professionals and commissioning
teams from the operator. This supply chain can barely meet the demands of
the urban mobile infrastructure. It could never scale for the rural opportunity
even if it could do so cost-effectively (a clear impossibility). The workforce in
rural India has none of the skills necessary to deploy and maintain today‘s
GSM.

Cost demands – A typical GSM Base Station alone costs in the region of
$100,000, before BSC and MSC costs are factored in. Funding this capital
expenditure requires the kinds of population densities and ARPU levels found
only in urban areas. Rural communities simply do not justify the cost of today‘s
GSM infrastructure – and no government subsidy can fill the gap.

Taken together, the challenges inherent to the rural opportunity and the
limitations and demands of traditional GSM create a circle that is impossible to
square. Asking traditional GSM to serve the population of rural India is like
getting an elephant through the eye of a needle. We need to take another
approach.

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So due all these constraints, the industry today is in dilemma about how to
provide services to those in need and earn revenue at the same time. One way
companies are doing this is by reducing their cost instead of charging high to
the customers.

This project report deals with TTSL (Tata Teleservices Limited) project
which is implementing a new solution which would lower the cost of
transmission of voice & data from village BTSs to faraway BSCs. This
would reduce the capex & opex of the company and it would thus enable
the company to provide services in the rural sector at a lesser rate thus
earning revenue at the same time and doing corporate social
responsibility on the other.

5.0 About TTSL

Tata Teleservices is part of the INR Rs. 2,51,543 Crore Tata Group that has
over 80 companies, over 3, 30,000 employees and more than 3.2 million
shareholders. With a committed investment of INR 36,000 Crore (US$ 7.5
billion) in Telecom (FY 2006), the Group has a formidable presence across the
telecom value chain.

Tata Teleservices spearheads the Group‘s presence in the telecom sector.


Incorporated in 1996, Tata Teleservices was the first to launch CDMA mobile
services in India with the Andhra Pradesh circle.

Beginning with its acquisition of Hughes Telecom (India) Limited in December


2002 [now renamed Tata Teleservices (Maharashtra) Limited], which provides
services in the Mumbai and Rest of Maharashtra telecom circles, the company
has swung into expansion mode and currently has a pan-India state-of-the-art
network.

Having pioneered the CDMA 2000 technology platform in India, Tata


Teleservices has established a 3G-ready robust and reliable telecom
infrastructure in partnership with Motorola, Ericsson and Lucent. The company
has also received the license from the Department of Telecommunications to
launch GSM services as well. With this launch set for early 2009, TTSL is on
the threshold of emerging as a true-play dual technology telecom operator.

In November 2008, Tata Teleservices entered into an agreement with


Japanese telecom major NTT DOCOMO, as part of which the Japanese
company acquired a 26% stake in TTSL for USD 2.7 billion. The transaction
marks a key step in the strategic evolution of Tata Teleservices, as it moves
towards a pan-India dual network presence. On a broader level, the
transaction is also expected to mark the beginning of a relationship of broader
co-operation between Tata companies and the Nippon Telegraph and
Telephone Corporation (NTT).

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The potential benefits and synergies from the alliance with DOCOMO cut
across marketing, handset development and technical support, all of which are
expected to create new opportunities for both companies. The alliance will also
accelerate Tata Teleservices‘ GSM plans and help the company penetrate the
market with advanced technology and new VAS offerings.

Tata Teleservices‘ bouquet of telephony services includes mobile services,


wireless desktop phones, public booth telephony and wireline services. Other
services include value-added services such as voice portal, roaming, post-paid
Internet services, 3-way conferencing, group calling, Wi-Fi Internet, USB
Modem, data cards, calling card services and enterprise services.

Some of the other products launched by the company include prepaid wireless
desktop phones, public phone booths, new mobile handsets and new voice
and data services such as BREW games, voice portal, picture messaging,
facebook, M commerce applications, polyphonic ring tones, interactive
applications like news, cricket, astrology, etc

5.1 TTSL in rural domain

According to a news article in Hindustan Times:

TTSL to invest Rs 1K cr in rural expansion


Tata Teleservices Ltd (TTSL) plans to invest about Rs 1,000 Crore for its rural thrust
that will include setting up of specialized 3,000 base stations in difficult terrains in rural
parts of the country. The company has plans to launch a sub Rs 1,500 mobile handset
models for the rural market. The roll out of the base station would be enhanced
particularly in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa and West Bengal. TTSL is confident that it
would be able to ride on the code division multiple access (CDMA) technology to offer
not only voice data services but also other such high-end services to its customers.

Speaking to Hindustan Times, Darryl Green, chief executive officer (CEO) TTSL said,
"A large part of India still does not have network coverage and our endeavor is to
provide connection to those remote parts of the country." While, the company plans to
expand its reach in rural areas, it also plans to introduce new high-end products
during the year, which will be targeted at enterprise and small and medium
enterprises (SMEs) segments.

"The aim is to provide enterprise and SMEs the technology advantage using the
CDMA platform. We would like to offer the latest products available in CDMA to
enhance the productivity of these segments," said Green. Refusing to discuss the
subscriber linked allocation of spectrum Green said, that there is a need for
introspection on part of the policy makers, as to why operators would make
investments in technology that would yield low performance, when enhanced
technologies are available in the country.

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So this shows that TTSL is keen to expand its network in the rural sector. This
report deals with the solution Alcatel-Lucent has provided to TTSL along with a
3rd party, company called Cell&Sat.

It is called BSS Local Switching which is discussed in the subsequent


sections of this report.

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78
BSS Local Switching UNIT 2

Chapter 2
1.0 Introduction

GSM is growing rapidly worldwide. As the number of GSM users continues to


increase steadily and competition grows fiercer, most operators are spending
much more time and money trying to expand their network capacity. Meantime
however, most newly-added GSM users are low-end users (as discussed in
the previous chapter that urban teledensity has reached about 86% so now
rural market is being targeted), which results in a steadily decreasing ARPU. In
order to increase revenues, operators are eagerly seeking effective ways to
reduce TCO (Total Cost of Ownership) while at the same time ensuring service
quality.

As GSM penetration has almost reached the saturation point in most


developed areas, GSM is now expanding in less developed areas (emerging
markets). In these areas, the telecom infrastructure is extremely
underdeveloped and transmission equipment required for deploying a mobile
network constitutes a very large investment, thus transmission becomes a big
challenge.

With backhaul still one of the most formidable barriers faced by telcos in
emerging markets wanting to extend coverage to rural villages, satellite has
been touted for some time as the most efficient way to connect remote base
stations to the PSTN. One problem: space segment links are costly, and even
with costs coming down in certain regions, a 2-Mbps satellite link still costs as
much as $10,000 a month.

So, a new solution “BSS Local Switching” is employed to overcome these


problems and help telcos to expand and earn.

2.0 Transmission costs

Operators have noticed that, in a TCO model of the emerging market, the
transmission cost represents a large portion of the total costs, and therefore,
any savings that can be made in terms of the transmission cost is also a key to
lowering the TCO of the mobile network.

In general, an average of 30% of all the calls processed by a base station


controller (BSC) is local calls. Billing analysis of China Mobile shows that the
number of local calls amounts to about 50% in some areas. The number is
even higher in Latin American and in some African countries. For example,
billing analysis of an operator in Colombia shows that BSC local calls accounts
for about 60% of all calls made.

79
Moreover, in some densely populated areas and in a few remote areas, most
calls (both for calling parties and the parties being called) are processed by an
independent BSC, or by a group of BTSs. According to present GSM protocol,
all calls must be switched by MSC, even when two parties are talking face to
face. Thus operators have to pay expensive toll call transmission fees for local
calls.

This transmission fees for toll call can be reduced by employing BSS Local
Switching.

3.0 Traditional Solution

The traditional solution for GSM Abis backhaul by satellite is shown below:

Figure 48. Traditional GSM solution

The traditional solution is to provide dedicated satellite resources:

• E1 (or T1) circuit interface


• Most utilized solutions are with (costly) ―IBS-IDR‖ modems
• Permanent resources are reserved on satellite: even for low traffic BTS!
• Possible capacity savings with ―Abis compressors‖ for silence removals
• Overall: OPEX about 1350 $ per BTS (1TRX) per month

4.0 Broadband IP Satellite GSM Backhaul

New solution is to utilize broadband IP satellite solutions to backhaul GSM


Abis:

• Low cost satellite terminals


• E1 / IP multiplexers
• Compression / silence removal

Low cost solution for low traffic BTS:

• About 300$ per Erlang per month (Full Rate)


• Half Rate reduces by factor 2

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4.1 Broadband IP satellite GSM backhaul

Figure 49. Existing IP based solution

4.2 Cell&Sat Proposal-benefit from low cost broadband IP satellite +


optimize for GSM Abis transport:

Figure 50. Broadband IP satellite backhaul + optimization

Cell&Sat cost optimization:

Benefits of IP broadband:
 One central hub serves many low-cost Sat+BTS in Villages
 Cost is only proportional to actual traffic: ideal for low traffic areas

Dedicated equipment to improve quality & reduce cost:


 «CST / CSG» provides E1 / IP translation + compression
 «CSO» analyses signalling on interface, «CSM» provides central
management

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 Satellite resource allocation is optimized for GSM traffic backhaul
 Local mobile to mobile calls do not use any satellite resources (no double
hop)

Adaptable to any satellite solution and GSM network:


 Cell & Sat optimizers are transparent to GSM equipment
 Cell & Sat optimizers are adaptable to all satellite network solutions

Ideal solution for low cost GSM in remote villages:


 200$ per Erlang per month (Full Rate),i.e. < 2 cents per minute inter-
villages
 Local calls for free intra-village

Cell&Sat Traffic Optimization & QoS monitoring:

CST/ CSG /CSO measure the quality provided by the Satellite + IP link:
 Every BTS is equipped with low-cost CST collecting traffic and QoS
statistics
 CSG and CSO also collecting data at Hub and BSC locations

CSM is the central Operation and Maintenance platform:


 Collecting all performance data and verifying SLA commitments
– Can also be linked to Satellite Hub NOC
– Can interface with GSM operator Operation & Maintenance Centre
 Providing high level Operator interface for IP Satellite backhaul
configuration
– Defining detail parameters for traffic / cost optimization
 Reporting alarms:
– Faulty equipments, congestion, end-to-end performance degradation

CSO implements traffic optimization functions based on detailed GSM and


satellite information:
 Patented algorithms based on GSM signalling message analysis
 More than just IP backhaul: optimized broadband satellite backhaul!

5.0 Operational Scenarios

Step 1: introduce IP transport


– CST & CSG multiplexers

Step 2: provide optimisation and high level monitoring functions


– CS0 and CSM introduction

The architecture is shown in the following diagrams in 2 steps:

82
Figure 51. Introduction of IP backhaul

Figure 52. Cell&Sat Optimization

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5.1 Several options for Cell & Sat in the value chain

 Customer is cellular operator

 Partner is satellite solution provider

 Cell & Sat defines the IP satellite backhaul solution


 adapted to GSM operator requirements

 Operational options:
1) The cellular operator remains in charge of transmission operation
 interfacing directly with Satellite operator
 Cell & Sat can provide QoS SLA monitoring & optimisation services
2) Cell & Sat + Satellite partner operate Abis link:
 charged per Erlang per month
3) Cell & Sat + partners becoming « Village roaming operator »:
 GSM voice calls charged per minute

6.0 Other Options:

Figure 53. Full BSC option

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Figure 54. Roaming Operator Option

7.0 Cost Savings by Creative Solutions

Integrated BSC solution:

The integrated BSC solution introduced by Alcatel-Lucent adopts some of the


advantages associated with a highly integrated BSC, wireless media gateway
(WMG) and Transcoder (TC). In the solution, the BSC, WMG, and TC are built
into one cabinet. This solution primarily applies to a local area where the
number of subscribers is less than 100,000 and there is a high local call ratio.

The integrated BSC solution should meet the following conditions: The core
network uses a mobile softswitch; the BSS and NSS in the entire network are
provided by the same vendor. If the preceding two conditions are met, then the
solution may help operators save about 60% in their transmission cost, and
another 50% in equipment space.

BSS Local Switching:


The BSS local switching can be free from the core network. If the calls for
calling parties and called parties belong to the same BSC/BTS, then the BSC
will conduct local switching for the services. In the BSS local switching, the
BSC directly switches the subscriber data. Alcatel-Lucent‘s BSS local
switching is also transparent in relation to the core network (CN), so it doesn‘t
require any modification of the core network. In a normal GSM network, when
BSC forwards calls to CN for the switching, all the voice calls should go
through the TC, because the coding system used by GSM BSS and CN are
different. Moreover, before voice calls reach the CN, TC needs to encode or

85
decode the voice calls. In the BSS local switching, however, there is no need
to encode or decode the voice calls, because the local call data is switched
directly on local. Hence, Alcatel-Lucent‘s BSS local switching solution is able to
enhance the voice quality. Alcatel-Lucent‘s BSS local switching can reduce the
transmission cost between the BSS and CN. Under special circumstances
such as, at a grand ceremony of some kind, or in the case of a temporarily-
expanded site, BSS local switching can help to provide temporary coverage or
emergency communications, which will eventually reduce the use of
transmission resources.

BTS group and BTS Local Switching

In the current GSM network, all the BTSs are connected to the BSC. If each
BTS uses an independent link to connect to the BSC, then transmission
efficiency is usually quite low, which is usually the case with a microwave or
satellite network. In this instance, the HUB BTS solution will be able to help
operators to overcome this problem.

In HUB BTS networking, several neighboring BTSs are connected to a HUB


BTS, as the distance is shorter when comparing it to the connection to the
BSC. Then the HUB BTS is connected to the BSC. This in turn will decrease
the number of transmission links needed to connect each BTS to a BSC, and
thus, will lead to a reduction of more than 20% in the transmission resource on
Ater and Abis interfaces.

BTS group can also be used to achieve local switching. The BTS group
switches the voice traffic of the calls that are initiated between the BTS and the
HUB BTS. In areas where there is insufficient transmission equipment such as,
in a desert, on isolated islands, in mining districts, or in oil fields, it is ideal for
the implementation of BTS local switching or the HUB BTS.

So using BSS Local Switching the telcos can reduce their cost and thus can
provide cost effective services to the rural population while earning revenue at
the same time.

Now in the subsequent sections we will discuss about adding this feature in the
already existing hardware- Spatial Atrium and how it will actually work.

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87
SDLC UNIT 2

Chapter 3

1.0 Introduction

Now in the previous chapter we have studied about the benefits of installing
Cell&Sat proposal. In this chapter we will see how to implement this new
feature in the already existing Alcatel-Lucent network hardware setup used by
TTSL.

TTSL is currently employing the Spatial Atrium 5020 of Alcatel-Lucent and


wants to start BSS Local Switching feature in its network. As such no changes
will be made in the hardware part (except from installing new Cell&Sat
equipments) but changes in the operating system of the hardware (which is a
software) will be made. MSC of Alcatel-Lucent should be able to recognize the
Cell&Sat equipments and should be able to work in synchronization with them.
This chapter will deal in implementing this new solution in the hardware part by
making changes in the software part. We will study SDLC (Software
development Lifecycle) and see how the process of implementing a new
feature is carried out.

2.0 Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

A software lifecycle model is a descriptive and diagrammatic representation of


the software lifecycle. A lifecycle model represents all the activities required to
make a software product transit through its lifecycle phases. It also captures
the order in which these activities are to be undertaken. In other words a
lifecycle model maps the different activities performed on a software produced
from its inception to retirement.

The first stage in the lifecycle of any software product is usually the Feasibility
study stage. Commonly, the subsequent stages are:
Requirement analysis and specification,
Design,
Coding,
Testing and
Maintenance

These stages are defined step by step in the subsequent parts of this chapter.

3.0 Feasibility Study

The main aim of the feasibility study activity is to determine whether it would be
financially and technically feasible to develop the product. It involves the

88
analysis of the problem and collection of all relevant information relating to the
product such as the different data items which would be input to the system,
the processing required to be carried on these data, the output data required to
be produced by the system, as well as the various constraints on the behaviour
of the system.

The collected data are analyzed to arrive at the following:

 An abstract problem definition considering only the important


requirements and ignoring the rest.
 Formulation of different solution strategies.
 Analysis of alternative solution strategies to compare their benefits
and shortcomings. This analysis requires estimates of the resources
required, cost of development, and development time for each of the
options. These estimates are used as the basis for comparing the
different solutions.

Once the best solution is identified, all later phases of development are carried
out as per this solution. Thus, during the feasibility study, most of the high-level
architectural designs are made. Therefore, feasibility study is considered to be
a very important stage. During this study, it may come to light that none of the
solutions is feasible due to high cost, resource constraints, or some technical
reasons. This scenario would of course lead to the project been abandoned.

4.0 Requirement Analysis and Specification

The aim of the requirement analysis and specification phase is to understand


the exact requirements of the customer and to document them properly. This
phase consists of two distinct activities, namely requirements gathering and
analysis and requirement specification.

Requirement gathering and analysis


The goal of this activity is to collect all relevant information from the customer
regarding the product to be developed with a clear understanding of the
customer requirements and removing incompleteness and inconsistencies in
these requirement. The activity begins by collecting all relevant data regarding
the product to be developed from the users of the product and from the
customer through interviews and discussions. After all ambiguities,
inconsistencies, and incompleteness (depending upon the personal views of
the respondents) have been resolved and all the requirements properly
understood, the requirements specification activity can start. During this activity
the user requirements are systematically organized into a Requirement
Description Sheet.

Requirement specification
The customer requirements identified during the requirement gathering and
analysis activity are organized into a RDS document. The important
components of this document are the functional requirements, the

89
nonfunctional requirements and the goals of implementation. The RDS
document is written using the end-user terminology. This makes the RDS
document understandable by the customer. It serves as a contract between
the development team and the customer. The RDS document produced at the
end of this phase is called the ―black-box‖ specification of the problem.

In other words, the requirement analysis and specification phase concentrates


on what needs to be done and carefully avoids the solution (how to do)
aspects.

5.0 Design

The goal of the design phase is to transform the requirements specified in the
RDS document into a structure that is suitable for implementation in some
programming language. Or we can say that during this phase the software
architecture is derived from the RDS document. 2 different design approaches
are available: the traditional design approach and the object-oriented design
approach.

Traditional design approach


Traditional design consists of two different activities; first a structured analysis
of the requirement specification is carried out where the detailed structure of
the problem is examined. This is followed by a structured design activity.
During structured design, the result of the structured analysis is transformed
into the software design.

Structured analysis involves preparing a detailed analysis of the different


functions to be supported by the system and identification of the data flow
among the different functions. Each function required by the customer is
studied carefully and is decomposed into various subfunctions. Data flows
among the processes or the functions are identified. Data flow diagrams are
used to perform the structured analysis and to document the results.

Structured design is undertaken once the structured analysis activity is


complete. Structured design consists of the 2 main activities: architectural
design (also called high-level design) and detailed design (also called low-level
design). High level design involves decomposing the system into modules and
representing the interfaces and the invocation relationships among the
modules. A high level software design is sometimes referred to as software
architecture. During detailed design, internals of the individual modules are
designed in greater details e.g. the data structures and algorithms of the
modules are designed and documented.

Object-oriented design approach


Object-oriented design (OOD) is a relatively new technique. In this technique,
various objects that occur in the problem domain and the solution domain are

90
first identified and the different relationships that exist among these objects are
identified. The object structure is further refined to obtain the detailed design.
The OOD approach has several benefits such as lower development time and
effort, and better maintainability of the product.

6.0 Coding and Unit Testing

Testing a program consists of subjecting the program to a set of test inputs (or
test cases) and observing if the program behaves as expected. The purpose of
the coding and unit testing phase is to translate the software design into
source code. It is sometimes called implementation phase. Each component of
the design is implemented as a program module. The end-product of this
phase is a set of program modules that have been individually tested.

During this phase each module is unit tested to determine the correct working
of all the individual modules. It involves testing each module in isolation as this
is the most efficient way to debug the errors identified at this stage. Another
reason behind testing a module in isolation is that the other modules, with
which this module has to be interfaced, may not be ready. Unit testing also
involves a precise definition of the test cases, testing criteria, and management
of test cases.

7.0 Integration and System Testing

Integration of different modules is undertaken once they have been coded and
unit tested. During the integration and system testing phase, the modules are
integrated in a planned manner. The different modules making up a software
product are almost never integrated in one shot. Integration is normally carried
out incrementally over a number of steps. During each integration step, the
partially integrated system is tested and a set of previously planned modules
are added to it. Finally, when all the modules have been successfully
integrated and tested, system testing is carried out. The goal of system testing
is to ensure that the developed system conforms to its requirements laid out in
the RDS document. System testing usually consists of three different kinds of
testing activities.
 α- testing: It is the system testing performed by the development
team;
 β- testing: It is the system testing performed by a friendly set of
customers.
 acceptance testing: It is the system testing performed by the
customer himself after the product delivery to determine whether to
accept or reject the delivered testing.

System testing is normally carried out in a planned manner according to the


system test plan document. The system test plan identifies all the testing-
related activities that must be performed, specifies the schedule of testing, and
allocates resources. It also lists all the test cases and the expected outputs for

91
each test case. Immediately after the requirements specification phase, a
system test plan can be prepared which documents the plan for system
testing. It is possible to prepare the system test plan just after the requirements
specification phase, solely based on the RDS document. The results of
integration and system testing are documented in the form of a test-report. The
test report summarizes the outcome of all the testing activities hat were carried
out during this phase.

8.0 Maintenance

Maintenance of a typical software product requires much more effort than the
effort necessary to develop to develop the product itself. Many studies carried
out in the past confirm this and indicate that the relative effort of development
of a typical software product to its maintenance is roughly in the 40:60 ratio.
Maintenance involves performing any one or more of the following three kinds
of activities:

 Correcting errors that were not discovered during the product


development phase that is called corrective maintenance.
 Improving the implementation of the system, and enhancing the
functionalities of the system according to the customer‘s
requirements which is called perfective maintenance.
 Porting the software to work in a new environment is called adaptive
maintenance.

However, in the practical development environments, the engineers commit a


large number of errors in almost every phase of the life cycle. The source of
the defects can be many: oversight, wrong assumptions, use of inappropriate
technology, communication gap among he project engineers, etc. These
defects usually get detected much later in the life cycle. For example, a design
defect might go unnoticed till the coding or testing phase. Once a defect is
detected, the engineers need to go back to the phase where the defect had
occurred and redo some of the work done during that phase and the
subsequent phases to correct the defect and its effect on the later phases. So,
feedback paths are present in this model from every phase to its preceding
phases as shown in figure below to allow for the correction of the errors
committed during a phase that are detected in later phases.

Though errors are inevitable in almost every phase of development, it is


desirable to detect these errors in the same phase in which they occur. Figure
below shows the process how the process actually works:

92
Feasibility Study

Requirement analysis
and specification

Design

Coding and
Unit testing

Integration and
System testing

Maintenance

Figure 55. Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) at Alcatel-Lucent

The errors should be detected as early as possible. For example, if a design


problem is detected in the design phase itself then this problem can be taken
care of much more easily than if it is detected at the end of the integration and
system testing phase. In the later case, it would be necessary not only to
rework the design, but also to appropriately redo the coding and the system
testing, thus incurring higher cost. The principle of detecting errors as close to
their points of introduction as possible is known as phase containment of
errors. This is an important software engineering principle.

The later chapters of this report will deal with the RDS, HLD, Test plan, etc.
required for BSS Local Switching.

93
94
RDS for BSS Local Switching UNIT 2

Chapter 4
Introduction

Now that the software development part has been discussed, in this chapter
we will study the first part of the software development i.e. Requirement
Description Sheet (RDS). RDS deals with all the requirements of the client and
the description about how the requirements would be fulfilled. Given below is
the RDS of BSS Local Switching.

Till now we have discussed about the current product of Alcatel-Lucent i.e.
Spatial Atrium 5020 being employed by TTSL. To overcome the cost barriers
which are preventing TTSL to provide transmission in rural areas (cost of
transmission cannot be high as the ARPU in the rural areas is quite low), a
new solution is being deployed by setting up 3 rd party‘s product i.e. Cell&Sat.
Cell&Sat products will be deployed along with the Spatial Atrium to lower the
cost of transmission.

Now as Spatial Atrium is already with TTSL so it wants some changes in the
working of Spatial Atrium so that along with the Cell&Sat products, it can
enable the BSS Local Switching. The changes will be made in the software
which will be shown in the next releases as required by the company.

So RDS document is made from the side of Alcatel-Lucent to clearly


understand the needs of TTSL and also to show how the solution will be finally
implemented. RDS is finalized after a long series of discussion with the TTSL
employees. After it is approved by TTSL, work on the designing and coding
part will start (as shown in the chapter titled SDCL).

This report deals with the implementation phase as it was the part of the
project in developing test plan and understanding various phases of the
software development life cycle.

*** The documents viz. RDS, HLD, Test Plan etc. are strictly the property of Alcatel-Lucent. No
part of these documents may be photocopied, reproduced, or translated to another language
without prior written consent of Alcatel-Lucent. The information contained herein has been
prepared by Alcatel-Lucent, its employees, agents and customers. Dissemination of the
information and/or concepts contained herein to other parties is prohibited without the prior
written consent of Alcatel-Lucent.

Attached now is the official RDS of the BSS Local Switching.

95
96
HLD for BSS Local Switching UNIT 2

Chapter 5
1.0 Introduction

The purpose of this document is to describe the high level design of the
software modules required to implement feature F3212 RDS11765 <BSS Local
Switching>. The document will be used as reference and guideline for
implementation and testing.

SCOPE
This feature is applicable to A5060 Wireless Call Server (WCS). This feature
will be implemented in Release R5.0.

The Implementation of this feature is limited to GSM and A over TDM


transport. This implementation of this feature is limited to ALU BSS and 3 rd
party (Cell&Sat) products.

1.1 Assumptions

Exception and Incompliance

 In ETC scenarios to an SRF, the WCS will send a CONNECT message


to the calling party before the called party picks up the call if the WCS is
requested to set up a both-way through connection between the UE &
the SRF. In this case, the WCS will not be able to relay any User-User
IE that may be received afterwards from the called party. This should
remain very rare scenarios.

 Support of local switching in MSC pool configuration will require, in


addition, to send the User-User signaling through ISUP, BICC, SIP-I
(and possibly even in SIP if used to interconnect MSC-S). This will not
be supported, as MSC pooling is not deployed yet.

Hardware and Software Constraints


 Solution restricted to ALU BSS and 3rd party (Cell&Sat) Products
 For CSD calls the BSS Local switching functionality is not supported.
 The BSS does not apply local switching if different speech codecs are
used at calling/called accesses.

RELEASE AVAILABILITY
In the deliverables for Release 5.0 of WCS include support of ―BSS Local
Switching‖ with ALU BSS & 3rd Party (Cell&Sat) Products.

Requirements Traceability
This section maps each requirement to sections within this document that
realize the requirement. Use cross-references for easy updating.

97
Requirement Description Section(s)
RDS11765: R001 User-User signaling support 0,0
RDS11765: R002 Interaction with Call Forwarding 0,0
RDS11765: R003 'BSS local switching' option 0,0
RDS11765: R004 Protocol Discriminator of BSS inserted User-User IE 0,0

REFERENCES

External Reference
 3GPP TS 23.002 Network Architecture
 3GPP TS 23.018 Basic Call Handling
 3GPP TS 24.008 Mobile radio interface layer 3 specification; Core
Network Protocols-Stage 3
 http://www.cell-sat.com/
 http://3gsm.converve.com/p_cat_par_3gsm.php?page=3&detail=320

Internal references
 RDS 11765 v3.2 BSS Local Switching

ACRONYMS
BTS Base Transceiver Station
BSC Base Station Controller
CST Cell & Sat Terminal
CSO Cell & Sat Optimiser
CSG Cell & Sat Gateway
CSM Cell & Sat Manager
IDU Indoor Unit
ODU Outdoor Unit
WCS Wireless Call Server
WSS Wireless Softswitch

2.0 FEATURE DESCRIPTION

2.1 FEATURE OVERVIEW

Figure below shows how this feature will be implemented. It shows the place
where Cell&Sat equipments will be required to provide this service.

98
Figure 56. BSS System Level View

The current Atrium WSS does not support User-User Signaling IE inserted by
UE/BSS. If the feature ―BSS Local Switching‖ is enabled by the operator the
WCS will be able to support for User-User Signaling IE in the connect
message inserted by BSS. The WCS will support a User-User IE received in
the CONNECT message from the called mobile, and it will be forwarded in the
CONNECT message to the calling mobile to trigger local switching in BSS
when the BSC <-> BTS links (Abis1) are carried through satellite.

The implementation of this feature is to Support local call switching in BSS for
OPEX saving (to save transmission costs) in network configurations where the
BSC <-> BTS links (Abis) are carried through satellite. In addition, local
switching may also allow improving the speech call quality and provide Cost
effective solution for rural GSM.

1
When the BSS consists of a Base Station Controller (BSC) and one or more Base Transceiver Stations
(BTS), this (Abis) interface is used between the BSC and BTS to support the services offered to the GSM
users and subscribers. The interface also allows control of the radio equipment and radio frequency
allocation in the BTS.

99
Figure 57. Interfaces between BTS & BSC

The Solution is based on ALU BSS and 3rd party (Cell&Sat) products (CST,
CSO, CSG) connected on the Abis interface to the BTS and BSC, requiring the
MSC-S to support relaying of User to User signaling IE to trigger local
switching.

In each CONNECT message from the called mobile (speech calls only), the
BSS (CSO) inserts a User-User IE including certain identifiers and time-stamp.
The BSS (CSO) also analyses each downlink CONNECT message to calling
mobiles (speech calls only). If a User-User IE is found in a downlink
CONNECT message, with same value as previously inserted in a previous
uplink CONNECT, both CONNECT messages are assumed to pertain to the
same call and the BSS is able to locally switch the user plane of that call. To
Support the above mechanism, the WSS (MSC-S) needs to support relaying
the User-User Signaling IE.

2.2 Scenarios and Message flows

 Mobile-to-Mobile calls.
 Supplementary services – Call Forward, Call wait, Call Hold, ECT
 CAMEL

2.3 External Protocols and Messages

The DTAP message connect is modified, the User-User IE is inserted in the


DTAP connect message by BSS.

100
2.4 User Feature Interactions

N/A.

2.5 System FEATURE Interworking

System Features Impacted


(Y)
CALEA Y
CAMEL Y
SS Y

2.5.1 Call Forwards


User-User IE is received in the CONNECT message from the called party. So
the interaction with Call Forward is the receipt of a User-User IE from a
forwarded-to party and its transmission to the calling party, in the same
conditions as those specified 0

2.5.2 Camel interactions

The requirement to forward the User-User IE will be supported even with


CAMEL interactions.

2.5.3 ECT

The interaction with ECT is the receipt of a User-User IE from a transferred


party and its transmission to the calling party, in the same conditions as those
specified 0

2.5.4 Calea

The WCS upon receipt of User-User IE in connect message will check if the
call is intercepted if yes then WCS will increment the four-bit mode field of
the User-User information field. The four-bit mode field will be treated as a
binary encoded integer in the range 0 to 15, and will be incremented by 1
modulo 16 (when to be incremented). Bits 5 to 8 of octet 4 and octets 5 to
N will be transmitted unmodified by the WCS.

Note :-If both subscribers are LEA subjects the four-bit mode field will be
incremented twice.

2.5.5 Interaction with 2nd call and with Call Waiting


In "Call Hold + new call" (A calls B, A puts B on hold, A calls C) and Call
Waiting scenario (A and B in a call, C calls A), the User-User IE will be
transferred in CONNECT between A & C, in the same conditions as those
specified in 0

2.5.6 Billing
N/A

101
2.6 Access Technology impacts

Solution limited to GSM and A over TDM transport.

2.7 MGCF IMPACTS

N/A

3.0 System Level Design

3.1 Software Architecture

3.1.1 BSS Local Switching option


The WCS will support a WCS-wide parameter allowing the operator to enable
or disable this feature. When disabled, the WCS behaves as per existing
implementation (no User-User IE transferred). Default value for this parameter
will be: 'disabled'.

3.1.2 Protocol discriminator of U-U IE inserted by BSS


The WCS will support receipt of the User-User IE in the CONNECT message
received from the called party if the BSS Local switching option is enabled.
The WCS will be able to identify whether the User-User IE received in the
CONNECT message was inserted by BSS or sent by UE based on the
protocol discriminator field configured in the WCS.

The WCS will support a WCS-wide parameter (‗BSS UU PD‘) allowing the
operator to configure the Protocol Discriminator of User-User IE inserted by the
BSS.
Range: 0 to 255
Default value: 16 (i.e. PD '00010000')

If the User-User IE is sent by UE it will be ignored and not relayed, as per


existing WCS implementation.

3.1.3 Mechanism for BSS Local Switching

 The BSS will monitor the signalling messages on the Abis interface, if the
BSS detects of time correlation between SETUP and PAGING RESPONSE
messages in the local switching area it then inserts User-User IE into the
subsequent uplink CONNECT message (from the called mobile).
 The WCS on receipt of the Connect message from the called mobile with
User-User IE inserted in it by BSS will check if WCS wide office parameter
BSS local Switching is enabled -
a) If the value of the feature parameter is disabled then WCS will ignore
the User-User IE and the existing WCS behavior will be applicable.

102
b) If the value of the WCS-wide office parameter is enabled then WCS will
obtain the value of Protocol discriminator field from database and
check-
 The User-User IE is inserted by BSS &
 If the call is local to the WCS
 If the above conditions are met WCS will check if the call is intercepted
if yes then WCS will increment the four-bit mode field of the User-User
information field.
 The WCS will then relay/forward this User-User Signalling IE in the
connect message to the calling mobile.
 The four-bit mode field of User-User IE will be incremented twice if both
subscribers are Lea subjects.
If BSS finds a User-User IE in a downlink CONNECT message, with same
value as previously inserted in a previous uplink CONNECT, then
both CONNECT messages are assumed to pertain to the same call and the
BSS is able to locally switch the user plane of that call. Intercepted calls will not
be locally switched or will be switched with a half-loop

3.1.4 User-User Signaling IE


The purpose of the user-user information element is to convey information between the mobile
station and the remote ISDN user. There are no restrictions on the content of the user-user
information field.

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
User-user IEI octet 1

Length of user-user contents octet 2


User-user protocol discriminator octet 3

Four-bit mode field octet 4*


User-user information

octet N*
Figure 58. User-User Signaling IE format

103
Figure 59 User-User IE Octet 3 bits

The user-user is a type 4 information element with a minimum length of 3


octets and a maximum length of either 35 or 131 octets. In the SETUP
message the user-user information element has a maximum size of 35 octets
in a GSM PLMN. In the USER INFORMATION, ALERTING, CONNECT,
DISCONNECT, PROGRESS, RELEASE and RELEASE COMPLETE
messages the user-user information element has a maximum size of 131
octets in a GSM PLMN. In other networks than GSM PLMNs the maximum
size of the user-user information element is 35 or 131 octets in the messages
mentioned above. The evolution to a single maximum value is the long-term
objective; the exact maximum value is the subject of further study.

NOTE: The user-user information element is transported transparently through a GSM PLMN.

3.2 Inter-process messages


No new inter-process messages are added. .

3.3 Impacted Subsystems/areas


BSS and NSS subsystems impacted.

4.0 Process Level Design

104
Processes Impacted
(Y)
Application
CpCallm Y
EMS Y
Database Y

4.1 Impacted common areas


None

4.2 Impacted processes

4.2.1 CpCallm

Following changes will be done in internal signals

S.No. Signal Change


1. Mate_connect To transfer the user-user IE in basic call user-
user IE will be sent in this signal
2 Ccp_ss_request To transfer the user-user IE from one trio to
another in case of SS user-user IE information
will be sent in this request from Ohcp to ccp
3 ccp_ss_notification User-User IE will be sent in
ccp_ss_notification signal to ohcp/Thcp

Following flowchart explains the logic for transferring User-User IE in


CONNECT message from called to calling party at CpCallm end.

105
Start

THCP receives UU IE in the connect message


of called party

No
Check if BSS local
Switching feature
option is enabled?

Yes

Obtain the value of Protocol Discriminator (PD) field of


U-U IE from database

No Compare PD value = WCS- Yes Check if the called


Existing implementation will wide BSS UU PD party subscriber is
be applicable a LEA subject?

Yes
No

Increment the four-bit mode


Relay the U-U IE to OHCP field of U-U IE

Check if the calling No


party subscriber is
a LEA subject?
Figure 1 Logic for transferring User-User IE in CONNECT message

Yes

Increment the four-bit mode


field of U-U IE

Send the User-User IE in


Connect message to calling party
BSS

Stop

106
4.2.1.1 Changes for SS and Camel scenario

Call Forward

Figure 60 Transfer of U-U IE incase of Call Forward Scenario


Note: - The above call flow is also applicable for Camel scenario. For both
Scenarios (Call forward & Camel) the U-U IE needs to be transferred from one
trio to another.

4.2.2 EMS

4.2.2.1 New parameters [BSS Local Switching & BSS UU PD]


Two new system level configurable parameters are introduced for this
feature
1. BSS Local Switching
2. BSS UU PD
These two parameters are added in the WCS wide parameter group of Call
Manager Tab. Below diagram is to select the above two option

Spatial Atrium
|
|
+ System Parameters [Tree List]
|
|
+ Call Manager [Tab Button]
|
|
+ WCS wide parameter [Group Box]
|
|
+a) BSS Local Switching
+b) BSS UU PD

The first parameter ‗BSS Local Switching‘ will be configurable by selecting


enable /disable from a drop down list. The default value of this parameter will be
disable.
The second parameter ‗BSS UU PD‘ will be configurable by setting any number
between 0 to 255.This parameter is dependent on ‗BSS Local Switching‘, means
if BSS Local Switching‘ is in disable mode user will not able to edit the value of
BSS UU PD parameter, and in enable condition user can assign a value to ‗BSS
UU PD‘ in range [0-255]. Default value of this parameter will be 16.
Dynamic update is required for this parameter.

4.2.2.2 Database Changes


Following new System Level Configuration Parameter need to be added in SYS
Database table: SPATIAL.CONFIGPARAMS

Field Description for BSS Local Switching


Table: SPATIAL.CONFIGPARAMS
Field Name Type Value
*NODENAME CHAR (15) NOT NULL CPSNodes
*SUBSYSTEMNAME CHAR (31) NOT NULL Call Processing
*MANAGERNAME CHAR (31) NOT NULL CallProcesing
*PARAMNAME CHAR (31) NOT NULL bsslocalswitching
PARAMTYPE CHAR (15) NOT NULL Integer
PARAMLENGTH INTEGER 1
PARAMDESCRIPTION CHAR (63) BSS Local Switching
PARAMVALUE CHAR (31) NOT NULL 0
DEFAULTVALUE CHAR (31) 0
LOWVALUE CHAR (31) NULL
HIGHVALUE CHAR (31) NULL
ISMODIFIABLE TINYINT NOT NULL 1
MANAGERLIST CHAR (128) NULL

Field description for BSS UU PD


Table: SPATIAL.CONFIGPARAMS
Field Name Type Value
*NODENAME CHAR (15) NOT NULL CPSNodes
*SUBSYSTEMNAME CHAR (31) NOT NULL Call Processing

108
*MANAGERNAME CHAR (31) NOT NULL CallProcesing
*PARAMNAME CHAR (31) NOT NULL Useruserie
PARAMTYPE CHAR (15) NOT NULL Integer
PARAMLENGTH INTEGER 1
PARAMDESCRIPTION CHAR (63) BSS UU PD
PARAMVALUE CHAR (31) NOT NULL 16
DEFAULTVALUE CHAR (31) 16
LOWVALUE CHAR (31) 0
HIGHVALUE CHAR (31) 255
ISMODIFIABLE TINYINT NOT NULL 1
MANAGERLIST CHAR (128) NULL

Attached diagram shows how parameter will be shown in WEM GUI. New feature
is shown in red color eclipse.

Figure 61 EMS provisioning of BSS Local Switching WCS wide parameters

109
5.0 UT TEST coverage

5.1 UT PLAN FOR CPCALLM


For unit testing of CpCallm, following tools will be used.
 UTT for CsFm, MM and other process
 Egcp Simulator for 7540 MGW.

S.No. TEST CASE CHECK POINT


1 Enable the WCS office wide parameter WCS shall relay UUIE
for BSS local switching and with unmodified.
matching PD & no interception,
execute a Mobile to Mobile call
2. Disable the WCS office wide parameter The WCS shall not relay
for BSS local switching and execute a UUIE.
Mobile to Mobile call
3 Enable the WCS office wide parameter The WCS shall not relay the
for BSS local switching with ‗BSS UU UU IE.
PD‘ field value set to 16 for UU IE and
execute a Mobile to Mobile call by
setting a PD value not matching the PD
value of office wide parameter
4 Call Forward Scenario Check if WCS relays the UU
IE.
5 Call Wait Scenario Check if WCS relays the UU
IE.
6 ECT during Alerting Check if WCS relays the UU
IE.
7 Enable the WCS office wide parameter WCS shall increment the four-
for BSS local switching with matching bit mode field twice and relay
PD & both subscribers being Lea UUIE.
Subjects, execute a Mobile to Mobile
call
8 Scenario with CAMEL Interaction Check if WCS relays the UU
IE.
9 Enable the WCS office wide parameter WCS shall relay UUIE
for BSS local switching with matching incremented by 1
PD & interception on forwarding party,
execute a call-forwarding scenario with
mobile subscribers.
10 Call Hold + New call Check if WCS relays the UU
IE.

110
6.0 Deployment & Maintainability

6.1 Guidelines for provisioning

6.1.1 BSS local switching feature option

The WCS will support a WCS-wide parameter allowing the operator to enable
or disable this feature. When disabled, the WCS behaves as per existing
implementation (no User-User IE transferred). Default value: 'disabled'

6.1.2 Protocol Discriminator of BSS inserted User-User IE

The WCS will support a WCS-wide parameter allowing the operator to


configure the Protocol Discriminator of User-User IE inserted by the BSS.

Range: 0 to 255
Default value: 16 (i.e. PD '00010000')

The operator will not be able to edit this parameter if the BSS Local switching
feature parameter is disabled.

6.2 Guidelines for Dimensioning and Capacity

Describe how the feature can impact system capacity and provide the guidelines
for dimensioning.

6.3 Installation requirements

Describe any installation requirements including the creation/modification of


installation scripts and tools.

6.4 Feature deployment path for a live customer network


 How to migrate from current network feature implementation to this feature
implementation when applicable?

The WCS will support a WCS-wide parameter BSS local switching feature
option allowing the operator to enable or disable this feature. When disabled,
the WCS behaves as per existing implementation (no User-User IE
transferred). Default value: 'disabled'

 Should/Will this feature have the ability to be disabled?

Yes

111
6.5 Guidelines for external documents

Describe the impacts on customer documents for system config parameters,


billing, Alarm& event, WEM GUI & WEM CLI, etc.,

EMS GUI will have two new WCS-wide office parameters one for the feature
functionality & other for the protocol discriminator.

6.6 Debug capability


N/A

7.0 Future enhancements

 It is possible to introduce mechanism to determine at WCS the number


of calls locally switched.
 It is possible to identify and record information in CDR if the call was
locally switched or not.
 Support Local switching functionality on AOIP
 Support of local switching in MSC pool configuration

112
113
Test Plan for BSS Local Switching UNIT 2

Chapter 6
1.0 Introduction

1.1 Feature Description

Figure 62 BSS System Level View

The current Atrium WSS does not support User-User Signaling IE inserted by
UE/BSS. If the feature ―BSS Local Switching‖ is enabled by the operator the
WCS will be able to support for User-User Signaling IE in the connect message
inserted by BSS. The WCS will support a User-User IE received in the
CONNECT message from the called mobile, and it will be forwarded in the
CONNECT message to the calling mobile to trigger local switching in BSS when
the BSC <-> BTS links (Abis2) are carried through satellite.

The implementation of this feature is to Support local call switching in BSS for
OPEX saving (to save transmission costs) in network configurations where the
BSC <-> BTS links (Abis) are carried through satellite. In addition, local switching
may also allow improving the speech call quality and provide Cost effective
solution for rural GSM.

2
When the BSS consists of a Base Station Controller (BSC) and one or more Base Transceiver Stations (BTS), this
(Abis) interface is used between the BSC and BTS to support the services offered to the GSM users and subscribers.
The interface also allows control of the radio equipment and radio frequency allocation in the BTS.

114
Figure 63 Interfaces between BTS & BSC

The Solution is based on ALU BSS and 3rd party (Cell&Sat) products (CST,
CSO, CSG) connected on the Abis interface to the BTS and BSC, requiring the
MSC-S to support relaying of User to User signaling IE to trigger local switching.

In each CONNECT message from the called mobile (speech calls only), the BSS
(CSO) inserts a User-User IE including certain identifiers and time-stamp. The
BSS (CSO) also analyses each downlink CONNECT message to calling mobiles
(speech calls only). If a User-User IE is found in a downlink CONNECT message,
with same value as previously inserted in a previous uplink
CONNECT, both CONNECT messages are assumed to pertain to the same call
and the BSS is able to locally switch the user plane of that call. To Support the
above mechanism, the WSS (MSC-S) needs to support relaying the User-User
Signaling IE.

1.2 Feature Testing Scope


The objective of this document is to test relay of U-U IE from WCS.

2.0 Test Environment

115
2.1 Lab Configuration

EAST
TERMINATING
ORIGINATING SIDE
SIDE (2G/3G/ISUP/BICC)
(2G/3G)

WSS as
Transit MSC

Figure 64 Test Configuration

2.2 Test Equipment

1. WCS

2. EAST

3.0 Test Cases

3.1 EMS

116
3.1.1 Verify that a new parameter BSS Local Switching is added to System
Parameters under Call Manager with default values.

TEST NUMBER: 6.1.1

PURPOSE: To verify that parameter BSS Local Switching is added to System Parameters
under Call Manager with default values.
REFERENCE: SR Number:

REGRESSION:

VERSIONS: HW - SW - EMS -

CONFIGURATION:

PRECONDITION: The load on WCS >= release 5.0

TEST DESCRIPTION:
 Select Call Manager tab under System Parameters on EMS
 Verify that under WCS wide parameter following fields are present
- BSS Local Switching drop down is present with default value as Disabled.
- Protocol Discrimination field is present with default value of 16 and is un-editable.

MESSAGE FLOW:

PASS/FAIL CRITERIA: The test case passes if:


 Under WCS wide parameter following fields are present
- BSS Local Switching drop down is present with default value as Disabled.
- Protocol Discrimination field is present with default value of 16. and is un-editable.
RESULT: TESTER: DATE:

PRT NUMBER:

ECR/COMMENTS:

117
3.1.2 Verify that a Protocol Discriminator field can have values in range of
0-255

TEST NUMBER: 6.1.2

PURPOSE: Verify that Protocol Discriminator can have values in range of 0-255.
REFERENCE: SR Number:

REGRESSION:

VERSIONS: HW - SW - EMS -

CONFIGURATION:
BSS local switching is enabled

PRECONDITION: The load on WCS >= release 5.0

TEST DESCRIPTION:
 Select Call Manager tab under System Parameters on EMS
 Verify that under WCS wide parameter following
- Protocol Discrimination field can have values in range of 0-255.
- Protocol Discrimination field doesn‘t accept values apart from 0-255 e.g. -1, 256.

MESSAGE FLOW:

PASS/FAIL CRITERIA: The test case passes if:


- Protocol Discrimination field can have values in range of 0-255.
- Protocol Discrimination field doesn‘t accept values apart from 0-255.

RESULT: TESTER: DATE:

PRT NUMBER:

ECR/COMMENTS:

118
3.1.3 Verify that a Protocol Discriminator value cannot be modified when
BSS local switching is disabled.

TEST NUMBER: 6.1.3

PURPOSE: Verify that Protocol Discriminator value cannot be modified when BSS local
switching is disabled.
REFERENCE: SR Number:

REGRESSION:

VERSIONS: HW - SW - EMS -

CONFIGURATION:
BSS local switching is disabled

PRECONDITION: The load on WCS >= release 5.0

TEST DESCRIPTION:
 Select Call Manager tab under System Parameters on EMS
 Verify that under WCS wide parameter following
- Protocol Discrimination field is un-editable.
- Protocol Discrimination field has default value of 16

MESSAGE FLOW:

PASS/FAIL CRITERIA: The test case passes if:


- Protocol Discrimination field is un-editable.
- Protocol Discrimination field has default value of 16

RESULT: TESTER: DATE:

PRT NUMBER:

ECR/COMMENTS:

119
3.2 Basic Calls

3.2.1 MS(2G)- MS(2G). Verify that WCS successfully relays U-U IE

TEST NUMBER: 6.2.1

PURPOSE: MS (2G) - MS (2G). Verify that WCS successfully relays U-U IE.
REFERENCE: SR Number:

REGRESSION:

VERSIONS: HW - SW - EMS -

CONFIGURATION:
BSS local switching is enabled & PD =16

PRECONDITION: The load on WCS >= release 5.0

TEST DESCRIPTION:
 2G Mobile originates a call to a 2G Mobile.
 BSS inserts U-U IE with PD =16 in the connect message from called party.
 Call gets connected successfully
 Call is released successfully.
 Verify that WCS relays unmodified U-U IE to BSS in Connect message towards calling
party with PD =16.

MESSAGE FLOW:

PASS/FAIL CRITERIA: The test case passes if:


 WCS relays unmodified U-U IE to BSS in Connect message towards calling party with
PD =16.
RESULT: TESTER: DATE:

PRT NUMBER:

ECR/COMMENTS:

120
3.2.2 MS(2G)-MS(2G). Verify that WCS doesn’t relay U-U IE.

TEST NUMBER: 6.2.2

PURPOSE: MS(2G)-MS(2G). Verify that WCS doesn‘t relay U-U IE.


REFERENCE: SR Number:

REGRESSION:

VERSIONS: HW - SW - EMS -

CONFIGURATION:
BSS local switching is disabled & PD =16

PRECONDITION: The load on WCS >= release 5.0

TEST DESCRIPTION:
 2G Mobile originates a call to a 2G Mobile.
 BSS inserts U-U IE with PD =16 in the connect message from called party.
 Call gets connected successfully
 Call is released successfully.
 Verify that WCS doesn‘t relay U-U IE to BSS in Connect message towards calling
party.

MESSAGE FLOW:

PASS/FAIL CRITERIA: The test case passes if:


 No U-U IE in Connect message towards calling party from WCS.
RESULT: TESTER: DATE:

PRT NUMBER:

ECR/COMMENTS:

121
3.2.3 ISUP-MS(2G). Verify that there is no change in ANM message

TEST NUMBER: 6.2.3

PURPOSE: ISUP-MS(2G). Verify that there is no change in ANM message.


REFERENCE: SR Number:

REGRESSION:

VERSIONS: HW - SW - EMS -

CONFIGURATION:
BSS local switching is enabled & PD =16

PRECONDITION: The load on WCS >= release 5.0

TEST DESCRIPTION:
 ISUP originates a call to a 2G Mobile.
 BSS inserts U-U IE with PD =16 in the connect message from called party.
 Call gets connected successfully
 Call is released successfully
 Verify that there is no change in ANM message.

MESSAGE FLOW:

PASS/FAIL CRITERIA: The test case passes if:


 There is no change in ANM message.
RESULT: TESTER: DATE:

PRT NUMBER:

ECR/COMMENTS:

122
3.2.4 MS(2G)-MS(2G). Verify that WCS doesn’t relay U-U IE.

TEST NUMBER: 6.2.4

PURPOSE: MS(2G)-MS(2G). Verify that WCS doesn‘t relay U-U IE.


REFERENCE: SR Number:

REGRESSION:

VERSIONS: HW - SW - EMS -

CONFIGURATION:
BSS local switching is enabled & PD =16

PRECONDITION: The load on WCS >= release 5.0

TEST DESCRIPTION:
 2G Mobile originates a call to a 2G Mobile.
 BSS inserts U-U IE with PD =15 in the connect message from called party.
 Call gets connected successfully
 Call is released successfully.
 Verify that WCS doesn‘t relay U-U IE to BSS in Connect message towards calling
party.

MESSAGE FLOW:

PASS/FAIL CRITERIA: The test case passes if:


 No U-U IE in Connect message towards calling party from WCS.
RESULT: TESTER: DATE:

PRT NUMBER:

ECR/COMMENTS:

123
3.2.5 MS(2G)-MS(2G). Verify that WCS doesn’t relay U-U IE

TEST NUMBER: 6.2.5

PURPOSE: MS(2G)-MS(2G). Verify that WCS doesn‘t relay U-U IE.


REFERENCE: SR Number:

REGRESSION:

VERSIONS: HW - SW - EMS -

CONFIGURATION:
BSS local switching is enabled & PD =15

PRECONDITION: The load on WCS >= release 5.0

TEST DESCRIPTION:
 2G Mobile originates a call to a 2G Mobile.
 BSS inserts U-U IE with PD =16 in the connect message from called party.
 Call gets connected successfully
 Call is released successfully.
 Verify that WCS doesn‘t relay U-U IE to BSS in Connect message towards calling
party.

MESSAGE FLOW:

PASS/FAIL CRITERIA: The test case passes if:


 No U-U IE in Connect message towards calling party from WCS.
RESULT: TESTER: DATE:

PRT NUMBER:

ECR/COMMENTS:

124
3.2.6 MS(3G)-MS(2G). Verify that WCS ignores U-U IE.

TEST NUMBER: 6.2.6

PURPOSE: MS(3G)-MS(2G). Verify that WCS ignores U-U IE.


REFERENCE: SR Number:

REGRESSION:

VERSIONS: HW - SW - EMS -

CONFIGURATION:
BSS local switching is enabled & PD =16

PRECONDITION: The load on WCS >= release 5.0

TEST DESCRIPTION:
 3G Mobile originates a call to a 2G Mobile.
 BSS inserts U-U IE with PD =16 in the connect message from called party.
 Call gets connected successfully
 Call is released successfully.
 Verify that WCS ignores U-U IE to RNC in Connect message towards calling party.

MESSAGE FLOW:

PASS/FAIL CRITERIA: The test case passes if:


 WCS ignores U-U IE to RNC in Connect message towards calling party.
RESULT: TESTER: DATE:

PRT NUMBER:

ECR/COMMENTS:

125
3.2.7 MS(2G)-MS(2G,TCSI DP12). Verify that WCS successfully relays U-U
IE.

TEST NUMBER: 6.2.7

PURPOSE: MS (2G) - MS (2G,TCSI DP12). Verify that WCS successfully relays U-U IE.
REFERENCE: SR Number:

REGRESSION:

VERSIONS: HW - SW - EMS -

CONFIGURATION:
BSS local switching is enabled & PD =16

PRECONDITION: The load on WCS >= release 5.0

TEST DESCRIPTION:
 2G Mobile originates a call to a 2G Mobile.
 BSS inserts U-U IE with PD =16 in the connect message from called party.
 Call gets connected successfully
 Call is released successfully.
 Verify that WCS relays unmodified U-U IE to BSS in Connect message towards calling
party with PD =16.

MESSAGE FLOW:

PASS/FAIL CRITERIA: The test case passes if:


 WCS relays unmodified U-U IE to BSS in Connect message towards calling party with
PD =16.
RESULT: TESTER: DATE:

PRT NUMBER:

ECR/COMMENTS:

126
3.2.8 MS(2G)-MS(2G) ETC call. Verify that WCS doesn’t relay U-U IE.

TEST NUMBER: 6.2.8

PURPOSE: MS (2G) - MS (2G) ETC call. Verify that WCS doesn‘t relay U-U IE.
REFERENCE: SR Number:

REGRESSION:

VERSIONS: HW - SW - EMS -

CONFIGURATION:
BSS local switching is enabled & PD =16

PRECONDITION: The load on WCS >= release 5.0

TEST DESCRIPTION:
 2G Mobile originates a call to a 2G Mobile.
 WCS sends a connect message to MSa for ETC.
 BSS inserts U-U IE with PD =16 in the connect message from called party.
 Call gets connected successfully
 Call is released successfully.
 Verify that WCS doesn‘t relay U-U IE to BSS in Connect message towards calling
party.

MESSAGE FLOW:

PASS/FAIL CRITERIA: The test case passes if:


 WCS doesn‘t relay U-U IE to BSS in Connect message towards calling party.
RESULT: TESTER: DATE:

PRT NUMBER:

ECR/COMMENTS:

127
3.2.9 MS(2G)-MS(2G) CSD call. Verify that WCS doesn’t relay U-U IE.

TEST NUMBER: 6.2.9

PURPOSE: MS (2G) - MS (2G) CSD call. Verify that WCS doesn‘t relay U-U IE.
REFERENCE: SR Number:

REGRESSION:

VERSIONS: HW - SW - EMS -

CONFIGURATION:
BSS local switching is enabled & PD =16

PRECONDITION: The load on WCS >= release 5.0

TEST DESCRIPTION:
 2G Mobile originates a CSD call to a 2G Mobile.
 BSS inserts U-U IE with PD =16 in the connect message from called party.
 Call gets connected successfully
 Call is released successfully.
 Verify that WCS doesn‘t relay U-U IE to BSS in Connect message towards calling
party.

MESSAGE FLOW:

PASS/FAIL CRITERIA: The test case passes if:


 WCS doesn‘t relay U-U IE to BSS in Connect message towards calling party.
RESULT: TESTER: DATE:

PRT NUMBER:

ECR/COMMENTS:

128
3.3 Calea Scenarios

3.3.1 MS(2G, Calea)-MS(2G). Verify that WCS successfully relays U-U IE


with increment in four bit mode field of U-U IE .

TEST NUMBER: 6.3.1

PURPOSE: MS(2G, Calea)-MS(2G). Verify that WCS successfully relays U-U IE with
increment in four bit mode field of U-U IE.
REFERENCE: SR Number:

REGRESSION:

VERSIONS: HW - SW - EMS -

CONFIGURATION:
BSS local switching is enabled & PD =16

PRECONDITION: The load on WCS >= release 5.0

TEST DESCRIPTION:
 2G Mobile originates a call to a 2G Mobile
 LEA termination of originator gets connected successfully.
 BSS inserts U-U IE with PD =16 in the connect message from called party.
 Call gets connected successfully
 Call is released successfully.
 Verify that WCS increments four bit mode field of U-U IE & relays U-U IE in Connect
message towards calling party.

MESSAGE FLOW:

PASS/FAIL CRITERIA: The test case passes if:


 WCS increments four bit mode field of U-U IE & relays U-U IE in Connect
message towards calling party.
RESULT: TESTER: DATE:

PRT NUMBER:

ECR/COMMENTS:

129
3.3.2 MS(2G)-MS(2G,Calea). Verify that WCS successfully relays U-U IE with
increment in four bit mode field of U-U IE.

TEST NUMBER: 6.3.2

PURPOSE: MS(2G)-MS(2G, Calea). Verify that WCS successfully relays U-U IE with
increment in four bit mode field of U-U IE.
REFERENCE: SR Number:

REGRESSION:

VERSIONS: HW - SW - EMS -

CONFIGURATION:
BSS local switching is enabled & PD =16

PRECONDITION: The load on WCS >= release 5.0

TEST DESCRIPTION:
 2G Mobile originates a call to a 2G Mobile
 LEA termination of terminator gets connected successfully.
 BSS inserts U-U IE with PD =16 in the connect message from called party.
 Call gets connected successfully
 Call is released successfully.
 Verify that WCS increments four bit mode field of U-U IE & relays U-U IE in Connect
message towards calling party.

MESSAGE FLOW:

PASS/FAIL CRITERIA: The test case passes if:


 WCS increments four bit mode field of U-U IE & relays U-U IE in Connect
message towards calling party.
RESULT: TESTER: DATE:

PRT NUMBER:

ECR/COMMENTS:

130
3.3.3 MS(2G,Calea)-MS(2G,Calea). Verify that WCS successfully relays U-U
IE with twice increment in four bit mode field of U-U IE

TEST NUMBER: 6.3.3

PURPOSE: MS(2G,Calea)-MS(2G, Calea). Verify that WCS successfully relays U-U IE with
twice increment in four bit mode field of U-U IE.
REFERENCE: SR Number:

REGRESSION:

VERSIONS: HW - SW - EMS -

CONFIGURATION:
BSS local switching is enabled & PD =16

PRECONDITION: The load on WCS >= release 5.0

TEST DESCRIPTION:
 2G Mobile originates a call to a 2G Mobile
 LEA termination of originator & terminator gets connected successfully.
 BSS inserts U-U IE with PD =16 in the connect message from called party.
 Call gets connected successfully
 Call is released successfully.
 Verify that WCS increments four bit mode field of U-U IE twice & relays U-U IE in
Connect message towards calling party.

MESSAGE FLOW:

PASS/FAIL CRITERIA: The test case passes if:


 WCS increments four bit mode field of U-U IE twice & relays U-U IE in Connect
message towards calling party.
RESULT: TESTER: DATE:

PRT NUMBER:

ECR/COMMENTS:

131
3.3.4 MSa(2G)-MSb(2G)(CFNRy)-MSc(2G,Calea). Verify that WCS
successfully relays U-U IE with increment in four bit mode field of U-U IE

TEST NUMBER: 6.3.4

PURPOSE: MSa(2G)-MSb(2G)(CFNRy)-MSc(2G,Calea). Verify that WCS successfully


relays U-U IE with increment in four bit mode field of U-U IE.
REFERENCE: SR Number:

REGRESSION:

VERSIONS: HW - SW - EMS -

CONFIGURATION:
BSS local switching is enabled & PD =16

PRECONDITION: The load on WCS >= release 5.0

TEST DESCRIPTION:
 MSa originates a call to a MSb.
 MSb is subscribed with CFNRy to MSc.
 LEA termination of terminator gets connected successfully.
 BSS inserts U-U IE with PD =16 in the connect message from MSc.
 Call gets connected successfully
 Call is released successfully.
 Verify that WCS increments four bit mode field of U-U IE & relays U-U IE in Connect
message towards calling party.

MESSAGE FLOW:

PASS/FAIL CRITERIA: The test case passes if:


 WCS increments four bit mode field of U-U IE & relays U-U IE in Connect
message towards calling party.
RESULT: TESTER: DATE:

PRT NUMBER:

ECR/COMMENTS:

132
3.3.5 MSa(2G,Calea,ECT during alerting)-MSb(2G)-MSc(2G). Verify that WCS
successfully relays U-U IE with twice increment in four bit mode field of U-
U IE

TEST NUMBER: 6.3.5

PURPOSE: MSa(2G,Calea,ECT during alerting)- MSb(2G) -MSc(2G). Verify that WCS


relays U-U IE with twice increment in four bit mode of U-U IE.
REFERENCE: SR Number:

REGRESSION:

VERSIONS: HW - SW - EMS -

CONFIGURATION:
BSS local switching is enabled & PD =16

PRECONDITION: The load on WCS >= release 5.0

TEST DESCRIPTION:
 MSa originates call to MSb.
 LEA termination of MSa gets connected successfully
 WCS increments four bit mode field of U-U IE & BSS inserts U-U IE with PD =16 in the
connect message from MSb.
 Call gets connected successfully to MSb.
 MSa holds MSb & calls MSc
 MSa invokes ECT during alerting to MSc
 LEA termination of MSa gets transferred.
 WCS increments four bit mode field of U-U IE & BSS inserts U-U IE with PD =16 in the
connect message from MSc.
 Call gets connected successfully to MSc.
 Call is released successfully.
 Verify that WCS increments four bit mode field of U-U IE twice & relays unmodified U-
U IE to BSS in Connect message towards calling party with PD =16

MESSAGE FLOW:

PASS/FAIL CRITERIA: The test case passes if:


 WCS increments four bit mode field of U-U IE twice & relays unmodified U-U IE to
BSS in Connect message towards calling party with PD =16
RESULT: TESTER: DATE:

PRT NUMBER:

ECR/COMMENTS:

133
3.4 Supplementary Service Scenarios

3.4.1 MSa(2G)- MSb(2G)(CFB)-MSc(2G). Verify that WCS relays U-U IE.

TEST NUMBER: 6.4.1

PURPOSE: MSa(2G)- MSb(2G)(CFB)-MSc(2G). Verify that WCS relays U-U IE.


REFERENCE: SR Number:

REGRESSION:

VERSIONS: HW - SW - EMS -

CONFIGURATION:
BSS local switching is enabled & PD =16

PRECONDITION: The load on WCS >= release 5.0

TEST DESCRIPTION:
 MSa originates call to MSb.
 MSb is subscribed to CFB to MSc.
 BSS inserts U-U IE with PD =16 in the connect message from MSc.
 Call gets connected successfully to MSc
 Call is released successfully.
 Verify that WCS relays unmodified U-U IE to BSS in Connect message towards calling
party with PD =16

MESSAGE FLOW:

PASS/FAIL CRITERIA: The test case passes if:


 WCS relays unmodified U-U IE to BSS in Connect message towards calling party
with PD =16.
RESULT: TESTER: DATE:

PRT NUMBER:

ECR/COMMENTS:

134
3.4.2 MSa(2G)- MSb(2G)(CFNRy)-MSc(2G). Verify that WCS relays U-U IE.

TEST NUMBER: 6.4.2

PURPOSE: MSa(2G)- MSb(2G)(CFNRy)-MSc(2G). Verify that WCS relays U-U IE.


REFERENCE: SR Number:

REGRESSION:

VERSIONS: HW - SW - EMS -

CONFIGURATION:
BSS local switching is enabled & PD =16

PRECONDITION: The load on WCS >= release 5.0

TEST DESCRIPTION:
 MSa originates call to MSb.
 MSb is subscribed to CFNRy to MSc.
 BSS inserts U-U IE with PD =16 in the connect message from MSc.
 Call gets connected successfully to MSc
 Call is released successfully.
 Verify that WCS relays unmodified U-U IE to BSS in Connect message towards calling
party with PD =16

MESSAGE FLOW:

PASS/FAIL CRITERIA: The test case passes if:


 WCS relays unmodified U-U IE to BSS in Connect message towards calling party
with PD =16.
RESULT: TESTER: DATE:

PRT NUMBER:

ECR/COMMENTS:

135
3.4.3 MSa(2G)- MSb(2G)(CFNRc)-MSc(2G).Late Forwarding. Verify that WCS
relays U-U IE.

TEST NUMBER: 6.4.3

PURPOSE: MSa(2G)- MSb(2G)(CFNRc)-MSc(2G). Verify that WCS relays U-U IE.


REFERENCE: SR Number:

REGRESSION:

VERSIONS: HW - SW - EMS -

CONFIGURATION:
BSS local switching is enabled & PD =16

PRECONDITION: The load on WCS >= release 5.0

TEST DESCRIPTION:
 MSa originates call to MSb.
 MSb is subscribed to CFNRc to MSc.
 BSS inserts U-U IE with PD =16 in the connect message from MSc.
 Call gets connected successfully to MSc
 Call is released successfully.
 Verify that WCS relays unmodified U-U IE to BSS in Connect message towards calling
party with PD =16

MESSAGE FLOW:

PASS/FAIL CRITERIA: The test case passes if:


 WCS relays unmodified U-U IE to BSS in Connect message towards calling party
with PD =16.
RESULT: TESTER: DATE:

PRT NUMBER:

ECR/COMMENTS:

136
3.4.4 MSa(2G)- MSb(2G)(CFNRy)-MSc(2G)(CFB)-MSd(2G). Verify that WCS
relays U-U IE.

TEST NUMBER: 6.4.4

PURPOSE: MSa(2G)- MSb(2G)(CFNRy)-MSc(CFB)-MSd(2G). Verify that WCS relays U-U


IE.
REFERENCE: SR Number:

REGRESSION:

VERSIONS: HW - SW - EMS -

CONFIGURATION:
BSS local switching is enabled & PD =16

PRECONDITION: The load on WCS >= release 5.0

TEST DESCRIPTION:
 MSa originates call to MSb.
 MSb is subscribed with CFNRy to MSc.
 MSc is subscribed with CFB to MSd
 BSS inserts U-U IE with PD =16 in the connect message from MSc.
 Call gets connected successfully to MSd
 Call is released successfully.
 Verify that WCS relays unmodified U-U IE to BSS in Connect message towards calling
party with PD =16

MESSAGE FLOW:

PASS/FAIL CRITERIA: The test case passes if:


 WCS relays unmodified U-U IE to BSS in Connect message towards calling party
with PD =16.
RESULT: TESTER: DATE:

PRT NUMBER:

ECR/COMMENTS:

137
3.4.5 MSa(2G)(CH)- MSb(2G)-MSc(2G). Verify that WCS relays U-U IE.

TEST NUMBER: 6.4.5

PURPOSE: MSa(2G)(CH)- MSb(2G) -MSc(2G). Verify that WCS relays U-U IE.
REFERENCE: SR Number:

REGRESSION:

VERSIONS: HW - SW - EMS -

CONFIGURATION:
BSS local switching is enabled & PD =16

PRECONDITION: The load on WCS >= release 5.0

TEST DESCRIPTION:
 MSa originates call to MSb.
 BSS inserts U-U IE with PD =16 in the connect message from MSb.
 Call gets connected successfully to MSb.
 Verify that WCS relays unmodified U-U IE to BSS in Connect message towards
calling party with PD =16
 MSa hold MSb.
 MSa calls MSc.
 BSS inserts U-U IE with PD =16 in the connect message from MSc.
 Call gets connected successfully to MSc.
 Call is released successfully.
 Verify that WCS relays unmodified U-U IE to BSS in Connect message towards
calling party with PD =16

MESSAGE FLOW:

PASS/FAIL CRITERIA: The test case passes if:


 WCS relays unmodified U-U IE to BSS in Connect message towards calling party
with PD =16.
RESULT: TESTER: DATE:

PRT NUMBER:

ECR/COMMENTS:

138
3.4.6 MSa(2G)(CH,CW)- MSb(2G)-MSc(2G). Verify that WCS relays U-U IE.

TEST NUMBER: 6.4.6

PURPOSE: MSa(2G)(CH,CW)- MSb(2G) -MSc(2G). Verify that WCS relays U-U IE.
REFERENCE: SR Number:

REGRESSION:

VERSIONS: HW - SW - EMS -

CONFIGURATION:
BSS local switching is enabled & PD =16

PRECONDITION: The load on WCS >= release 5.0

TEST DESCRIPTION:
 MSa originates call to MSb.
 BSS inserts U-U IE with PD =16 in the connect message from MSb.
 Call gets connected successfully to MSb.
 Verify that WCS relays unmodified U-U IE to BSS in Connect message towards calling
party with PD =16
 MSc calls MSa
 MSa hold MSb & answers MSc.
 BSS inserts U-U IE with PD =16 in the connect message from MSa.
 Call gets connected successfully to MSc.
 Call is released successfully.
 Verify that WCS relays unmodified U-U IE to BSS in Connect message towards calling
party with PD =16

MESSAGE FLOW:

PASS/FAIL CRITERIA: The test case passes if:


 WCS relays unmodified U-U IE to BSS in Connect message towards calling party
with PD =16.
RESULT: TESTER: DATE:

PRT NUMBER:

ECR/COMMENTS:

139
3.4.7 MSa(2G)(ECT)- MSb(2G)-MSc(2G). Verify that WCS relays U-U IE.

TEST NUMBER: 6.4.6

PURPOSE: MSa(2G)(ECT)- MSb(2G) -MSc(2G). Verify that WCS relays U-U IE.
REFERENCE: SR Number:

REGRESSION:

VERSIONS: HW - SW - EMS -

CONFIGURATION:
BSS local switching is enabled & PD =16

PRECONDITION: The load on WCS >= release 5.0

TEST DESCRIPTION:
 MSa originates call to MSb.
 BSS inserts U-U IE with PD =16 in the connect message from MSb.
 Call gets connected successfully to MSb.
 MSc calls MSa
 MSa hold MSb & answers MSc.
 BSS inserts U-U IE with PD =16 in the connect message from MSa.
 Call gets connected successfully to MSc.
 MSa invokes ECT. MSb & MSc are talking.
 Call is released successfully.
 Verify that WCS relays unmodified U-U IE to BSS in Connect message towards calling
party with PD =16

MESSAGE FLOW:

PASS/FAIL CRITERIA: The test case passes if:


 WCS relays unmodified U-U IE to BSS in Connect message towards calling party
with PD =16.
RESULT: TESTER: DATE:

PRT NUMBER:

ECR/COMMENTS:

140
141
CONCLUSION

Thus the report has discussed everything right from the Spatial Atrium to
developing the test plan for BSS Local Switching. It starts with the introduction of
the Spatial Atrium and then discusses the individual components i.e. WSS, WMG
& WEM. The whole report is divided in 2 units- Unit 1 & Unit 2. Unit 1 tells about
the Spatial Atrium and Unit 2 deals with the need and the details of the BSS
Local Switching.

142
REFERNCES

www.alcatel-lucent.com
www.cellnsat.com

All the referred documents are from the internal sources of Alcatel-Lucent and
due to the company policies the source of the documents has not been
disclosed. However, all the documents are provided here, only there source is
not.

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