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SOLAR SYSTEM

PRESENTED BY

THANITTHA CHIVATXARANUKUL

JIRANICH CHOTIPIMAI

PANYAWAREE SARINGKARNPOONPERM

YAVITHA SIRI-U-VITHTAYA

CHANYA THEDRATANAWONG

TEACHER

GOPINATH SUBRAMANIAN

CONTENTS

Abstract

Objective

Introduction

Newton discovered that Gravity is Universal

The Universal Law of Gravity Equation

The Universal Gravitational Constant

Gravity and Distance : The inverse-square law

Ocean tides

Gravitational Fields

Kepler's law: Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion

Material (Model)

Procedure (Model)

Discussion (Model)

Conslusion (Model)

References

ABSTRACT

simulation and academic research of solar system

which related to gravitational force, Kepler’s Law

and universal gravity. First of all, the work schedule

will be planned from the beginning to the end. We

started to explore the various kind of sources either

the internet, books, or articles in order to find out

information and make sure that it supports the idea

of our project. Once we got enough information, we

began to prepare materials for our physical work and

follow the plan until the work is all done and

success. However, all the details and information

will be discussed in this lab report.

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this project is to makes sure that

everyone who did this project and read this lab

report understands clearly about the gravitational

force, Kepler’s Law and universal gravity. We aim the

readers to get as many benefits as possible from our

experiments and make it useful and be able to apply

to their daily life.

INTRODUCTION

The solar system is the system which consists of

Sun, Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn,

Uranus, and Neptune. They are putted together by

the gravitational of the sun. According to Kepler's

first laws of planetary motion which is The path of

the planets about the sun is elliptical in shape, with

the center of the sun being located at one focus,

explain how the planets are moving around the Sun

and their revolutions are changed little by little all

the time. The Earth is also has a gravity which make

organisms can stay on the ground even the earth is

not flat. Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation is

used to explain gravitational force. This law states

that every massive particle in the universe attracts

every other massive particle with a force which is

directly proportional to the product of their masses

and inversely proportional to the square of the

distance between them. This general, physical law

was derived from observations made by induction.

the law say that every point mass attracts every

single other point mass by a force pointing along the

line intersecting both points. The force is

proportional to the product of the two masses and

inversely proportional to the square of the distance

between the point masses. According to the law, the

main thing that make most of natural phenomenon

happened is because of the gravitational. The next

law that came right after the Newton’s Law is

Inverse-square law. A law that states that the

influence (such as sound) of a point source (such as

radio) is inversely proportional to the square of the

distance from the source of the particular quantity.

system model to explain how each law is works. we

will make only the Inner planets, which is Mercury,

Venus, Earth and Mars, also including the Suns, to

show their orbit. the reasons why we make only 4

planets is that we are focus on the Earth and

phenomenon that happen because of the gravity.

NEWTON DISCOVERY OF GRAVITY

he discovered that Gravity is Universal

The constant G is also known as the universal

gravitational constant. It is termed a universal

constant since it is considered to be the same at

all the places and all times, and thus universally

characterizes the intrinsic strength of the

gravitational force. The numerical value of G is

very small, which is basically the reason for the

force of gravity to be the weakest force of the

nature.

The Law of Universal Gravitation states that every

point mass attracts every other point mass in the

universe by a force pointing in a straight line

between the centers of the mass of two points.

Moreover, this attractive force always points

inward, from one point to the other.

THE UNIVERSAL LAW OF GRAVITY

EQUATION

Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation is about

the universality of gravity. It states that every

particle in the universe attracts every other particle

with a force of gravitational attraction which is

along a line joining them. That’s means that the

gravity is universal.

According to Newton’s universal law of

2

g r a v i t a t i o n . I t s t a t e s t h a t FG r a v = G x m1 x m2 / r . T h e FG r a v

in the equation represents the force of gravity

between the 2 objects. The G represents the

u n i v e r s a l g r a v i t a t i o n a l c o n s t a n t m1 a n d m2 m e a n s t h e

mass of the 2 objects and the d represent the

distance between the 2 objects which started to

count on the center of each object called center of

mass (CM).

From the equation that we discussed above it can

2

b e s e e n t h a t F G r a v i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o m 1 x m

2 /d . S I n c e

the gravitational force is directly proportional to the

mass of the two objects time each other and then

divided by the distance separating the object, the

more mass the object is the greater gravitational

force it is. In contrast, the more distance the two

objects are apart, the lower the gravitational force

it is.

Other than what we wrote above, we can think

proportionally about this equation which we can

divided it into effects of mass on FGrav and effects

of Distance on FGrav. For the effects of mass on

FGrav, according to the picture above it can be said

that it the mass of the FGrav become twice, that’s

means that one of the mass of the object became

twice or the. If the FGrav become triple, then it

means that one of the mass of the objects become

triple. If the FGrav become quadruple, it can means

that each of the mass of the 2 objects become twice,

one of the mass of the objects become quadruple, or

the distance between the 2 objects became half of

the distance that it was before.

The formula that we were discussed above is also

be able to adapt with the Newton’s second laws of

motion which states that F = m x a. Where F

represents the force, m represents the mass of the

object, and a represents the acceleration. Therefore

w h e n F = m x a a n d FG r a v = G x m1 x m2 / d2 , t h e n m x a = G

x m1 x m2 / d2. A f t e r t h a t w e c a n c a n c e l m w h i c h i s o n

t h e l e f t s i d e w i t h t h e m1 w h i c h i s o n t h e r i g h t s i d e .

After that the formula will come out as a = G x m2/ d2

o r a = G m2 / r2.

THE UNIVERSAL GRAVITATIONAL

CONSTANT

The universal gravitational constant is the

proportionality constant used in Newton’s Law of

Universal Gravitation which is represented by capital

“ G ” i n t h e f o r m u l a o f FG r a v = G x m1 x m2 / r2.

h a s i t s v a l u e a t 6 . 6 7 x 1 0 - 1 1 N m 2/ k g 2. T h e d i f f e r e n c e

between the capital “G” and the lowercase “g” is that

the value of the capital “G” will always be fixed. The

value of “G” will never be changed in any place. For

the lowercase “g”, the value of the lowercase “g” can

be changed depends on the place, the height, etc.

GRAVITY AND DISTANCE : THE

INVERSE-SQUARE LAW

Gravitation refers to the attraction between

objects and consists of mass. It is stated by Newton

that “The gravitational attraction force between two

point masses is directly proportional to the product

of their masses and inversely proportional to the

square of their separation distance. The force is

always attractive and acts along the line joining

them.”

gravitational force. The point of masses located at

the object’s center of mass.

OCEAN TIDES

interaction attraction of the moon

day. A body of water with diurnal tides, like the

Gulf of Mexico, has only one high tide and one

low tide in a 25-hour period.

2. Semi-diurnal Tide: These are tides occurring

twice a day. This means a body of water with semi-

diurnal tides, like the Atlantic Ocean, will have

two high tides and two low tides in one day, much

like the eastern seaboard of North America.

most of North America that’s in contact with the

Pacific Basin, have mixed tides, where a single

low tide follows two high tides.

right angle, as when we see a half moon, their

gravitational pulls fight each other and we notice

a smaller difference between high and low tides.

These are called neap tides.

fall in a straight line, which we call syzygy (siz-

eh-gee), we notice the greatest difference

between high and low tide water levels. These

spring tides occur twice each month, during the

full and new Moon. If the Moon is at perigee, the

closest it approaches Earth in its orbit, the tides

are especially high and low.

6. Rip Tide: A rip current, commonly referred to

simply as a rip, or by the misnomer rip tide, is a

strong channel of water flowing seaward from near

the shore, typically through the surf line. Typical

flow is at 0.5 meter-per-second (1–2 feet-per-

second), and can be as fast as 2.5 meters-per-second

(8 feet-per-second), which is faster than any human

swimmer. They can occur at any beach with breaking

waves, including oceans, seas and even large lakes.

growth) of small marine algae (Aureococcus

anophagefferens). Although algae of many types are

found in all natural freshwater and marine

ecosystems, blooms of the Brown Tide organism

literally turn the water deep brown, making it

unappealing to swimmers and fishermen alike. While

not harmful to humans, the presence of the Brown

Tide is a problem for bay scallops and eelgrass, and

to a lesser degree other finfish and shellfish. Brown

Tide is unlike most other algal blooms because of its

unusually high concentrations, the extent of area it

covers and the length of time it persists.

8. Red Tide: Harmful algal blooms, (HAB) occur

when colonies of algae grow out of control while

producing toxic or harmful effects on people, fish,

shellfish, marine mammals and birds. The human

illnesses caused by HABs, though rare, can be

debilitating or even fatal. Many people call HABs 'red

tides,' scientists prefer the term harmful algal

bloom. One of the best known HABs in the nation

occurs nearly every summer along Florida’s Gulf

Coast.

GRAVITATIONAL FIELDS

A field is a region in which a force is felt. It can

be represented by vectors showing a value and a

direction. Fields are spatial constructs and are

independent of time.

Gravity is a very mysterious force. Nobody knows

why objects have this attractive force between them,

even if they are far apart. This attraction occurs for

any object with mass, however small. The force is

very small, and always attractive. We never get a

repulsive gravitational force. Gravity can be shown

as a gravitational field.

We are all familiar with the magnetic field of a

bar magnet. The field lines show up as areas of

attraction and repulsion at the poles and the

concentration of field lines at any point. The closer

we are to the magnet, the stronger the lines of

force.

For an example, The Earth, in common with many

other planets, is very nearly a perfect sphere

(relatively smoother than a billiards ball). Its

gravity field is radial with the pull being directly

towards the centre. The closer in we get, the

stronger the pull.

KEPLER’S LAWS

KEPLER'S LAWS OF PLANETARY MOTION

Who is Kepler’s

discovered three major laws of planetary motion. He

discovered as following:

1. The planets move in elliptical orbits with the

Sun at one focus

2. The time necessary to traverse any arc of a

planetary orbit is proportional to the area of the

sector between the central body and that arc.

3. There is an exact relationship between the

square of the planets’ periodic times and the cubes

of the radii of their orbits.

Kepler himself did not call these discoveries

‘laws’. He regarded them as celestial harmonies the

reflected God’s design for the universe.

Kepler’s discoveries turned Nicolaus Copernicus’s

Sun-centred system into a dynamic universe, with

the Sun actively pushing the planets around in non

circular orbits. And it was Kepler’s notion of a

physical astronomy that fixed a new problematic for

other important 17th-century world-system builders,

the most famous of whom was Newton.

Johannes Kepler, used data collected by Tycho

Brahe without using a telescope and developed three

laws which described the motion of the planet

across the sky.

As summaries below:

The Laws of Orbits : All planets move in

elliptical orbits, with the sun at one of it foci.

The Laws of Areas : A line that connects planet

to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times.

The Laws of Periods : The square of the period

of any planet is proportional to the cube of the

semimajor axis of its orbit.

The Law of ellipse: Planets move in elliptical

orbits with the sun at one of the foci

center on major axis

You may think that most objects in space that

orbit something else move in circles, but that

isn't the case. Although some objects follow

circular orbits, most orbits are shaped more like

"stretched out" circles or ovals.

Fact about ellipse : An ellipse is a special

curve in which the sum of the distances from

every point on the curve to two other points is a

constant. The two other points (represented here

by the tack locations) are known as the foci of

the ellipse.

This is one of Kepler's laws. The elliptical

shape of the orbit is a result of the inverse

square force of gravity.

exaggerated here.

Orbit Eccentricity : The eccentricity of an

ellipse can be defined as the ratio of the

distance between the foci to the major axis of

the ellipse. That means Circle has eccentricity

of zero.

On planetary orbits, only Pluto has the

largest eccentricity.

- Planetary orbit eccentricities

- Mercury = .206

- Venus = .0068

- Earth = .0167

- Mar = .0934

- Jupiter = .0485

- Saturn = .0556

- Uranus = .0472

- Neptune = .0086

- Pluto = .25

Earth's orbit is almost a perfect circle; its

eccentricity is only 0.0167!

Pluto has the least circular orbit of any of the

planets in our Solar System. Pluto's orbit has an

eccentricity of 0.2488.

More Fact about the orbit : Because the Sun is at

the focus, not the center, of the ellipse, the planet

moves closer to and further away from the Sun

every orbit.

- The far away point is called aphelion

The First law had states that planets move in

elliptical orbits. Now the second law will explains

how planets move faster when they are close to the

Sun than when they are far away.

travelling in an elliptical orbit around the sun.

the sun and the planet sweeps equal areas in equal

times. A planet will move through equal area of

space in an equal amount of time.

- Perihelion: Closest to sun [Velocity increase]

- Ahelion: farest from sun [Velocity decrease]

Thus, the speed of the planet increases as it

nears the sun and decreases as it recedes from the

sun.

The Law of Harmonies (Law of Periods): The

farther a planet is from the focus, the longer the

period of revolution

For example : Earth is closer to the sun than

Jupiter, therefore the Earth has a shorter period of

revolution (ESRT)

of any planet is proportional to the cube of the

semimajor axis of its orbit..

WORK LOG

MATERIAL (MODEL)

- Box

- Water Color

- Brush

- Card Board

- Plastic Ball

- Wire

- LEDs

- Bread Board

- Switch

- AA Battery x4

PRECEDURE (MODEL)

2. Finalize the model

3. Gather materials needed

model of planets and moon. [Mercury Venus Earth

moon and Mars]

5. Bend lends into circular shape which in to

create the path of the planet. [4 different size]

6.Cover the lead with dark tape

open side for the viewer to see

8. Cut the top part of the box , one at the center

for spinning mercury path model and another

surround [but left it uncut for four sides so the

cardboard won’t fall.]

9. Connect planets [both that will able to spin and

unable to spin with the box]

10. Paint the box covered with black

11. Make some holes at the opposite side where we

had cut out as the view side.

12. Connect the circuit that will open up leds that

will replaced where holes are and the lamp

representing as the sun.

DISCUSSION

Ours model is kind of different from what we had

expected at first, so at first we thought that we

going to do stand model with only three planets plus

the moon but finally it turns out to be the box style

model instead. Ours model shows the movement of

two planet which is the mercury and the Earth at

different speed. Sadly that we aren’t able to find

the motors that each had different speed in the

rush of time so we changed the model to be able to

move by ours own hand instead of being automation.

The model also show the path of the planets around

the sun which aren’t imperfectly circle but as

ellipse.

So as said we had run into many of the error

during the process of making this model. At first

ours materials came so late so we had to wait for

those materials until the last week of this project

and had to start things quickly as possible. We can’t

also code the light for that path or find motors that

had different speed in this rushy time so we fix ours

problem with handmade cardboard for hand rotation

instead.

CONCLUSION

understand and be able to conclude the topic of

universal gravity and Kepler’s laws of Physics. It

shows that the gravity, which was discovered by

Newton, is universal since we could apply the

constant in other planets as well. Moreover, the

Kepler’s laws allows us to know the three major

laws of planetary motions. For example, we might

think that the planets move in circular, but

according to the Kepler’s laws, the planets move in

elliptical orbits.

REFERENCES

https://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/circles/

Lesson-3/Newton-s-Law-of-Universal-Gravitation

https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/engineerin

g/universal-gravitational-constant

https://opentextbc.ca/physicstestbook2/chapter/

newtons-universal-law-of-gravitation/

https://www.universetoday.com/34838/gravitation

al-constant/

http://galileo.phys.virginia.edu/classes/152.mf1i.s

pring02/GravField.htm

https://www.britannica.com/science/gravitational

-field

http://bioprofe.com/en/what-is-gravitational-

field/

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