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PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 BY: NANCY B.

MADARANG
CHAPTER 3: LEARNING FROM OTHERS AND REVIEWING THE LITERATURE

Lesson 1: Selecting Relevant Literature


 The literature review is major part of any research.
 The review is not undertaken for its own sake.
 A literature review is defined as an examination of relevant books, scholarly articles, and any other
sources pertinent to an area of research .
 The primary purpose of the literature review is to establish the state of current “Knowledge” or
agreement about your research topic.
 The objective of the review is to identify, criticize and synthesize the most recent, relevant and
authoritative texts related to the research being undertaken.

Purposes of the Review of Related Literature and Studies


1. To demonstrate a familiarity with a body of knowledge and establish credibility .
2. To show the path of prior research and how a current project is linked to it.
3. To integrate and summarize what is known in an area.
4. To learn from others and stimulate new ideas.

Ten Rules for Writing a Literature Review


1. Define the topic audience.
2. Search and re-search the literature
3. Take notes while reading.
4. Choose the type of review you wish to write.
5. Keep the review focused, but make it of broad interest.
6. Be critical and consistent.
7. Find a logical structure.
8. Make use of feedback.
9. Include your own relevant research.
10. Be up-to-date in your review of literature and studies.

Types of Literature Reviews


1. Argumentative Review
- This form examines literature selectively in order to support or refute an argument, deeply
imbedded assumption, or philosophical problem already established in the literature

2. Integrative Review
- are simply “summaries of past research”, largely found in dissertation proposals and dissertations.
- This is the most common form of review in the social sciences.

3. Historical Review
- The purpose of historical review is to systematically examine past events to give an account of what
has happened in the past.
- It is a flowing, dynamic account of past events which involves an interpretation of these events in an
attempt to recapture the nuances, personalities, and ideas that influences these events.
- The main focus of this is to communicate an understanding of past events.

4. Methodological Review
- “provides not only a summary of the studies but also an actual critique of the strengths and
weaknesses of the methods sections; found in dissertations and review of related literature sections
in journal articles”.
- This approach helps highlight ethical issues which you should be aware of and consider as you go
through your own study.

5. Systematic Review
- The purpose of a systematic review is to attain conclusion regarding the chosen topic.
- This form consists of an overview of existing evidence pertinent to a clearly formulated research
question, which uses pre-specified and standardized methods to identify and critically appraise
relevant research, and to collect, report, and analyze data from the studies that are included in the
review.

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PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 BY: NANCY B. MADARANG

6. Theoretical Review
- The purpose of this form is to examine the body of theory that has accumulated in regard to an
issue, concept, theory, phenomena.
- The theoretical literature review helps to establish what theories already exist, the relationships
between them, to what degree the existing theories have been investigated, and to develop new
hypotheses to be tested.

Functions of Review of Literature and Studies


1. To provide justification of the study
2. To identify gaps, problems and needs of related studies
3. To provide rationale of the study as well as the reasons of conducting the study
4. To have basis that will be used to support findings of the study

Sources for the Literature Review

The term “sources’ refers to print, electronic or visual materials necessary for your research.

1. Primary Sources
Examples: letters, correspondences, diaries, memoirs, autobiographies, official or research topics,
patents and designs and empirical research articles

2. Secondary Sources
Examples: academic journal articles (other than empirical research, articles or reports), conference
proceedings, books (mimeographs or chapters of books), documentaries

3. Tertiary Sources
Examples: Encyclopedias, dictionaries, atlases, handbooks

The Literature Review Process


1. Select a topic
2. Select and choose literature
3. Analyze and interpret literature
4. Write the Review

Lesson 2: Citing Related Literature Using Standard Styles

The Need for Citing Sources

 When writing a research paper, literature citation is important for two reasons:
1. to avoid plagiarism (which is against the student code of conduct or ethical / moral standards, for
that matter) and
2. to assign proper authority to a statement (this adds weight to your paper)
 Giving credit to the source of any information of ideas needs to be done in the text; this is known as
citing literature.

Characteristics of the Materials Cited


1. The materials must be as recent as possible, may be 10 years back.
2. Materials must be as objective and unbiased as possible.
3. Materials must be relevant to the study.
4. Coherence principle must be observed in writing literature review.

Citation Style Guide


 Reference is an important part of a research paper.
 It must be consistent and easy to read across different papers.
 There are predefined styles stating how to set them out – these are called citation styles.
 Different subjects prefer to use different styles.
 Referencing is a method used to demonstrate to the readers that you have conducted a thorough and
appropriate literature search and reading.

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PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 BY: NANCY B. MADARANG

1. APA (American Psychological Association)


- APA is an author/date-based style.
- This means emphasis is placed on the author and the date of a piece of work to uniquely identify it.
- The APA format is the most commonly used style of citing sources within the social sciences and
education researches.

Author, A.A. (Year of publication).Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location:
Publisher.

Note: For “Location”, you should always list the city and the state using the two letter postal
abbreviation without periods (New York, NY).

Examples:
Source In-text citation In a reference list
Web site with author (Kraizer, 2005) or Kraizer (2005) Kraizer, S. (2005). Safe child. Retrieved
February 29, from
http.//www.safechild_org.
Web site with unknown (“Penn State Myths”, 2006) Penn State Myths. (2006) Retrieved December
author 6, 2011, from
http.//www.psoedu.ur/about/myths.
Web site with corporate (Substance Abuse and Mental Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services
author Health Services Administration, Administration (SAMSHA). (2008,
2008) February 15). Stop underage drinking.
Retrieved February 29, 2008, from
http.//www.stopalcoholabuse.gov.
Book by a single author (Rollin, 2006) or Rollin (2006) Rollin, B.E. (2006). Science and ethics. New
York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Book by two authors (Sherman & Price, 2011) or Sherman, C.& Price, G. (2011). The invisible
Sherman & Price (2011) web: Uncovering information sources
search enginescan’t see. Medford, NJ:
Cyber Age Books.
Book by three or more (Goodpaster, Nash &Betignes, Goodpaster, K.E., Nash, L.L., &Betignies, H.
authors 2006) (2006).Business ethics: Policies and
If used first tine Person (3rd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence
Then in subsequent citations, Eribaum Associates.
(Goodpaster et.al., 2006)

Magazine article (Goodwin, 2002) or Goodwin Goodwin, D. K. (2002, Februrary 4). How I
(2002) caused that story. Time, 1959(5), 69.
Newspaper article (Hartevelt, 2007) Hartevelt, J. (2007, December 20). Boy racers.
The Press, p.3.
Thesis / Dissertation (Dewstow, 2006) or Dewstow Dewstow, R.A. (2006). Using the Internet to
2006 enhance teaching at the University of
Waikato. (Master’s Thesis). University
of Campbridge, Hamilton, New
Zealand.

2. MLA (Modern Language Association)


- It is the most often applied by the arts and humanities, particularly in the USA. It is arguably the
most well used of all of the citation styles.

3. Harvard
- It is very similar to APA. Where APA is primarily used in the USA, Harvard referencing is the most
well used referencing style in the UK and Australia, and is encouraged for use with the humanities.

4. Vancouver

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PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 BY: NANCY B. MADARANG
- It is mainly used in medical and scientific papers.

5. Chicago and Turabian


- These are two separate styles but are very similar, just like Harvard and APA.
- These are widely used for history and economics.

Lesson 3. Synthesizing Information from Relevant Literature

 A synthesis is a discussion that draws on one or more sources.


 The ability to infer relationships among sources such as essays, articles, fiction and also non-written
sources such as lectures, interviews and observations will be helpful in synthesizing information taken
from the review of literature.
 Synthesis refers to the bringing together of materials from different sources, and the creation of an
integrated whole.
 All information about the subject or problem discussed in the review are presented, organized and
summarized further in the synthesis. This particular section is referred to as the “synthesis of the art”.
 It is through the review of literature that the research is able to connect the past with the findings of the
present and shows the difference between the data and information collected in the present study.

Types of Syntheses

1. Explanatory synthesis. It helps the readersto understand a topic. Its primary aim is to present the facts
in a reasonably objective manner. Explanations given may entail descriptions, sequence of events or
state of affairs.

2. Argument synthesis. Its purpose is for you to present your own point of view with the support of
relevant facts drawn from services and presented in a logical manner. What is presented may be
debatable.

Categories of Sources

1. Documents. These include written or printed materials that have been produced in some form or
another such as annual reports, books, artwork, cartoons, circulars, records, diaries, notebooks, etc.
They may be published or unpublished; intended for private or public consumption; they may be original
works or copies.

2. Numerical Records. They may be considered as a separate type of source in and of themselves or as a
subcategory of documents. Several records include any type of numerical data in printed form: test
scores, attendance figures, census reports, school budgets and the like.

3. Oral Statements. These may include stories, myths, tales, legends, chants, songs, and other forms of
oral expressions. These materials leave a record for future generations.

4. Relics.These are formal types of historical sources. A relic is any object where physical or visual
characteristics can provide some information about the past. Examples: furniture artwork, clothing,
buildings or equipment.

Lesson 4: Writing Coherent Review of Literature

 Coherence refers to how well a manuscript holds together as a unified document.


 The literature review is an informative, critical and useful synthesis of a particular topic that helps
identify what is known (and unknown) in the subject area: identify areas of controversy, knowledge gaps
or debate and formulate questions that need further research.

Lesson 5: FOLLOWING ETHICAL STANDARDS IN WRITING RELATED LITERATURE


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PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 BY: NANCY B. MADARANG

 Ethicspermeates in many aspects of life.


 Writing is one activity which needs to subscribe to ethical standards. This is especially important to
prevent writers, in particular, researchers, from plagiarism, an act against the Intellectual Rights Law.
 Ethical writing is clear, accurate, fair and honest as mentioned by Kolin (2002).

Understanding Ethics
 Research ethics are standardized rules that guide the design and conduct of research.
 The term ethics refers to questions of right and wrong.
 When researchers think about ethics, they must also ask themselves if it is “right” to conduct a
particular study or carry out certain procedures.
 Webster’s New Word Dictionary defines ethical behavior as conforming to the standards of conduct of a
given profession or group.
 Ethical behavior refers to as being in accordance with rules or standards for right conduct or practice.
 Unethicalbehavior constitutes a violation of such conduct or practice.

Basic Principles of Ethical Practice


1. Obtained informed consent from participants.
Informed consent must be given to the research participants before they will be subjected for
the research. In the case of minors, parents or guardian must be fully aware of the said activity. For
native speakers, informed consent may be translated in their dialect.

2. There should be no pressure on individuals to participate.


Incentives to take part should generally not be provided. If an incentive is used it needs to be
only a token, and not enough to encourage someone to participate who would really prefer not to take
part.

3. Respect individual autonomy.


Autonomymeans the freedom to decide what to do. Even when someone has signed a Consent Form,
they must be made aware that they are free to withdraw from the study at any time, without giving a
reason. They must also be able to request that the data they have given be removed from the study.

4. Avoid causing harm.


The duty of the researcher is not to cause harm. The researcher must make sure that the
principle of voluntary participation is observed in situations where there is interaction with subjects.

5. Main anonymity and confidentially.


Making data “anonymous” means removing the contributor’s name.

6. Take particular care in research with vulnerable groups.


Think about vulnerability in its widest sense. Care is clearly needed in research with young
children, and with people with disability, or minors.

Plagiarism
 It is the most widely recognized and one of the most serious violations of the contract between the
reader and the writer.
 Plagiarismis the using of someone else’s words or ideas, and passing them off as your own.
 Plagiarism is committed when authors present the words, data or ideas of others with the implication
that they are their own, without attribution.
 This act is against the Intellectual Property Rights Law.
 It is a form of research misconduct.
 If there is a word-for-word copying beyond a short phrase or six or seven words of someone else’s text,
that section should be enclosed in quotation marks or indented and referenced at the location in the
manuscript of the copied material, to the original source.
 The work of others should be cited or credited, whether published or unpublished, and whether it had
been written for an oral presentation or material on the website.
 The confidentiality of information relating to each subject must be respected and maintained.

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PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 BY: NANCY B. MADARANG
 Research is a public trust that must be ethically conducted and so trustworthy, and socially responsible if
the results are to be valid and reliable.
 Plagiarismis often associated with phrases such as, kidnapping of words, kidnapping of ideas, fraud, and
literary theft.

Forms of Plagiarism
1. Plagiarism of ideas
- Is appropriating an idea (e.g. an explanation, a theory, a conclusion, a hypothesis, a metaphor) in
whole or part, or with superficial modifications without giving credit to its originator

2. Plagiarism of text

Protecting the Intellectual Property in the Philippines


 Philippine copyright law is enshrined in the Intellectual Property Code of the Philippines, officially
known as Republic Act No. 8293.
 The law is partly based on United States copyright law and the principles of the Berne Convention for
the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works.
 Under Philippine law, original intellectual creations in the literary and artistic domain are copyrightable.

Ethics in Literature Review


1. Research must enhance the scientific community’s current understanding of a phenomenon and
2. Research must communicate what were discovered in the new study to the scientific community.

LESSON 6: ILLUSTRATING AND EXPLAINING CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Writing a Conceptual Framework


 Conceptual Framework is like a recipe or blueprint.
 It provides an outline of the plan on how to conduct the research.
 It is presented in a flow chart, map or diagram
 Not all conceptual frameworks have to include a diagram or graphic.
 Writing a conceptual framework cannot only helpto guide your paper / research to ensure that your
research stay on track, but it also helps to guide fellow researchers or advisers who are analysing your
research.
 In this phase, conducting a literature review can help you refine your central argument or hypothesis.
Your framework introduces the relevant researches or and studies show how your study will help to
contribute to the field of research.
 It maps out the actions required in the course of the study, given the previous knowledge of other
researchers’ points of view and the researchers’ observations on the subject of the study.
 A conceptual framework is used in research to outline possible courses of action or to present a
preferred approach to an idea or thought.

Nature and Purposes

Conceptual Framework
- Consists of concepts that are placed within a logical and sequential design.
- Represents less format structure and used for studies in which existing theory is insufficient.
- Based on specific concepts and propositions and taken from practical observation and intuition.
Purposes of a Conceptual Framework
- To clarify concepts and propose relationships among the concepts in a study
- To provide a context for interpreting the study findings
- To explain observations
- To encourage theory development that is useful and practical

Step by Step Guide on How to Write the Conceptual Framework


1. Choose your topic
- Decide on what will be your research topic. It should be within the field of your specialization.

2. Do a literature review

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PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 BY: NANCY B. MADARANG
–Go over relevant and updated studies related to your own research. Use reliable sources of
information and use appropriate documentation.

3. Isolate the important variables


- Identify the specific variables mentioned in the literature and show their relationships.

4. Generate the conceptual framework


- Build your conceptual framework using the variables studied in the scientific articles you have read.

The Importance of Related Theories and Concepts


 A theoretical framework can be thought of as map or travel plan.
 The theoretical framework dwells on time-tested theories that embody the findings of numerous
investigations on how phenomena occur.
 The theoretical framework provides a general representation of relationships between things in a given
phenomenon.
 The process of designing a theoretical framework is developmental and experiential.

Lesson 7 : DEFINING TERMS IN THE STUDY

Organizing Definitions

 One key to setting up and conducting an effective argument is the establishment of clear, precise and
effective definitions for the key terms in the study.
 Sometimes you need to adopt the definitions or else come up with your own.
 A few principles to keep in mind:
1. Make sure that in the definition, you focus on what something is, not just what the effects are or
what is used for.
2. Extend the definition so that it exactly covers what you want the reader to understand.
3. It is helpful to supplement a definition, where appropriate, to clearly further the meaning of the
term.
4. You are advised not to invent a definition for any term which has already a clear and accepted
definition in place.
5. Finally, once you establish a definition, do not change its meaning in the middle of the article or the
paper.

Understanding Operational Definitions


 Anoperational definition refers to a specific definition of a concept in a research study.
 It defines a concept solely in terms of the operations (or methods) used to produce and measure it.
 Operational definitions help researchers to communicate about their concepts. Hence, the need to
operationally define your concepts.

Two types of Operational Definitions


1. Experimental operational definition which describes how a term’s reference is manipulated.
2. Measured operation definition which describes how referents of a term are measured.

Classification of operational definition


1. Manipulating operational definition
2. Measurement operational definition

Advantages of operational definition

1. Make research methodology used clear to reader.


2. Combine statements to things, either directly or indirectly, observable example is empirical
3. Help assure good communication by specifying how terms are used.

Lesson 8: LISTING RESEARCH HYPOTHESES


Defining a Hypothesis
 A hypothesis is a specific proposition which is presented for testing through research.
 It can be derived from another theory or from a researcher’s “hunch”, which is an informed guess based
in theoretical insights or observations.

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PRACTICAL RESEARCH 2 BY: NANCY B. MADARANG
 It is essentially a statement of what we believe to be factual.
 Hypothesis is a prediction about the relationship between two or more variables.
 Hypothesis are declarative sentences stating expected relationships between the phenomena to which
our concepts refer.
 Hypothesis is a tentative explanation that accounts for a set of facts and can be tested by further
investigation.
 Ahypothesis is simply a testable statement that reflects the aims of your study.

C. research hypothesis is also referred to as substantive, declarative or scientific number of statements of


expected relationship variables.

FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS IN QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH


The hypothesis
1. may be used to compare the variables
2. maybe used to relate the variables
3. maybe used to describe the variables