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Disaster resilient structure means structures own ability to reduce the magnitude
and/or duration of disruptive events. The effectiveness of a resilient infrastructure or
enterprise depends upon its ability to anticipate, absorb, adapt to, and/or rapidly
recover from a potentially disruptive event.

Disaster is inevitable to cities. flooding, fire, earthquake, tornado etc. are catastrophic
events in our community that can be mitigate if we have better design for buildings
and structures. Disaster events left cities with a lesson to evolve building designs to
become resilient and withstand shock and stress. Through this failure in design can
be avoided and would reestablish function quickly.

Resilient design is the future of building design. As a result of climate change and toxic
human activity catastrophic events in our city is a major threat. A well thought planned
and designed building would probably mitigate the potential increasing cost for
operational failures of disaster by resilient management which should be implemented
so buildings would have more capacity to withstand calamities in the future.


The 4–Rs
resilience can be characterized by four key features:
 Robustness: the ability to maintain critical operations and functions in the face
of crisis. This includes the building itself, the design of the infrastructure (office
buildings, power generation, distribution structures, bridges, dams, levees)
 Resourcefulness: the ability to prepare for future crisis or disruption as it
unfolds. This includes the preparation of an action plan, supply chain
management, prioritizing actions to control and mitigate damage; and
effectively communicating decisions.
 Rapid recovery: the ability to return to and/or reconstitute normal operations
as quickly and efficiently as possible after a disruption. Components of rapid
recovery include carefully drafted contingency plans, competent emergency
operations, and the means to get the right people and resources to the right
 Redundancy, is proposed as another key feature, which mean that there are
back-up resources to support the originals in case of failure that should also be
considered when planning for resilience. In other words, backup resilient
facilities and such.
These four resilience features are simply called the 4Rs. Resilience is multidisciplinary
and needs the cooperation of different disciplines for successful outcome. Without
multidisciplinary cooperation and contributions, there cannot be successful or efficient
resilient infrastructure.

 Columns
R1: Robustness
 Structural connections
 Maintenance of building
 Memorandum of understandings
R2: Resourcefulness
(MOUs) between different
 Roadways leading to building
R3: Rapid Recovery
 Training of all kinds
 Columns
R4: Redundancy  Main water pipe to buildings
 Electric/and or power lines

Table___ - Resilience Example of Individual Building as an Asset

Page 1-2 Reference:


Three types of earthquake resistant structural systems are generally available.

2.1. Moment Resisting Frames

Moment resisting frames is a type of

earthquake resistant structural system
which typically include floor diaphragms
supported on beams which link to
continuous columns. It is usually
considered as rigid structural system.
The role of the frame is to carry the
gravity loads through the flexural action
of the beams and the supporting action of the columns. Lateral loads, imposed within
the plane of the frame, are resisted through the development of bending moments in
the beams and columns. Framed buildings often employ moment resistant frames in
two orthogonal directions, in which case the column elements are common to both
frames. Moment resisting frames are well suited to accommodate high levels of
inelastic deformation. When a capacity design approach is employed, it is usual to
assign the end zones of the flexural beams to accept the post-elastic deformation
expected, and to design the column members such that their dependable strength is
in excess of the over-strength capacity of the beam hinges, thereby ensuring they
remain within their elastic response range regardless of the intensity of ground
shaking. Moment resisting frames are, however, often quite flexible. When they are
designed to be fully ductile, special provisions are often needed to prevent the
premature onset of damage to non-structural components.

2.2 Shear Walls

The major function of shear walls is to resist lateral loads although they are often used
in conjunction with gravity frames and carry a proportion of gravity loads. Shear walls
fulfil their lateral load resisting function by vertical cantilever action.
Since shear walls are generally both
stiff and can be inherently robust, it is
practical to design them to remain
nominally elastic under design
intensity loadings, particularly in
regions of low or moderate seismicity.
Under increased loading intensities,
post-elastic deformations will develop
within the lower portion of the wall (generally considered to extend over a height of
twice the wall length above the foundation support system). This can result in
difficulties in the provision of adequate foundation system tie-down to prevent uplift.
The design of rocking foundations is common with shear walls, although care is
required to ensure permanent rotational offsets are avoided following an earthquake.

2.3. Braced Frames

The bracing elements in a braced frame are typically inclined axially loaded members
which traverse diagonally between floors and column lines. the diagonal Framing
which employ diagonal braces as the means of transmitting lateral load are common
in low-rise and industrial buildings. They are very efficient in direct tension and may
also be detailed to accept axial compression although suppression of compression
buckling requires careful assessment of element slenderness.

Two major shortcomings of braced systems are that their inclined diagonal orientation
often conflicts with conventional occupancy use patterns (either internally or across
windows or external fabric penetrations); and secondly they often require careful
detailing to avoid large local torsion, eccentricities being introduced at the connections
with the diagonal brace being offset from the frame node. A variation on this form of
lateral resisting system is the eccentrically braced frame. This system employs a
horizontal ‘K’ form of bracing with the central zone of the ‘K’ acting in flexure as the
tension/compression legs of the brace drive the beam element into direct flexure.



The study identifies three areas where adaptive design strategies for flood resilience
in buildings are required:

3.1 Self-draining Building designs

water retention in buildings intensifies deterioration and damage levels in buildings. In

effect, the longer water remains within the building the more the tendency for
increased damage to the building envelop and components. As such, it has become
relevant to design buildings that incorporate self-draining abilities. These buildings
should be able to act as natural drains so that water is not retained for long in them in
the event of flooding. this will involve an effective self-draining design system using a
series of open able floor drains through which water can drain out once the flood
waters have stopped rising.

3.2 Amphibious Structure design/ Floating Architecture

Another aspect of flooding that is inimical to current building types and structures is
the fast pace of horizontal run off waters or deluge and vertically rising flood waters.
For this issue adaptive design that tackles rising flood waters without affecting
buildings already exist and such knowledge can be utilized. One of this is the
development of amphibious architecture or floating structure design. Amphibious
architecture refers to buildings that sit on dry land like ordinary buildings, except when
there is a flood, in which case they are capable of rising and floating on the surface
until the floodwater recedes.

3.3 Adapting Existing Buildings for Increased Flood Resilience

Aside from introducing innovative flood resilient designs, there is also a need to find
ways to increase the resilience of existing buildings to flood waters, especially since
majority of the people may not be able to afford the innovative technological designs.
By following a few simple steps drawn from different studies, flood resilience in
buildings can be greatly enhanced.

(This list applies particularly to domestic dwellings in Bayelsa State. It was designed
as part of a radio enlightenment programme to assist home owners and intending
builders within the Yenagoa metropolis enhance flood resilience in their buildings and
if followed systematically, can achieve the set objectives.)

3.3.1. Check if site is located in a high risk flood area or zones. To do this requires
cooperation with planning authorities and survey departments at the State and Local
Government Level.

3.3.2. Take Damp Proof Course (DPC) height levels from benchmarks and Datum
points were available or use level of major roads.

3.3.3. Use trunking, ducting or conduit wiring for electrical pipe works above window
sill level

3.3.4. Rendering foundation walls with mortar to increase its resistance to moisture

3.3.5. Use a Damp Proof Membrane (DPM) at all times when doing oversight concrete

3.3.6. Use appreciable gradient when connecting discharge pipes from inspection
chambers to soak away pits/septic tanks

3.3.7. Due to risk of overloaded sewers where sandcrete blocks are used, precast
septic tanks or plastic sub tanks are recommended as a substitute.

3.3.8. The use of water resilient admixtures to cement to improve impermeability is

recommended for laying of tiles, casting of basement floors and walls. 366

3.3.9. For metal works, quality stainless steel is recommended over wrought iron for
corrosion resistance.

3.3.10. Wet proofing – use of water resistant building materials and finishes e.g. water
resistant wall paper, flooring etc.

3.3.11. Stilting buildings where temporary structures for squatters are being built

3.3.12. Using pad foundations may also be recommended



3.1 PROJECT EXAMPLE 1: Abeno Harukas (Performance based wind resistant

design for a 300m high building)

3.1.1 Outline of building and structure:

“Abeno Harukas” is to be the first building that reaches as high as 300m in the seismic-
prone country of Japan. Situated in Abeno, Osaka, the building will accommodate 60
stories above ground and 5 basement floors and will become a new landmark. The
superstructure is composed of three blocks having setbacks on the north side. The
lower block is for the Kintetsu Department store, the middle one for offices and the
upper one for a hotel. The upper block has a large atrium in the center. Located
between the blocks and a top of the upper one are transfer-truss floors. In order to
enhance horizontal and torsional rigidity against strong earthquakes and wind
excitation, outrigger mega trusses are placed in the transfer floors and the middle
block A total of four types of dampers, both teresistic, are placed mainly at the four
corners in the lower block and around the atrium in the upper block in order to absorb
energies input by earthquakes or wind. In addition, two kinds of mass dampers (AMD
and ATMD) are installed on the 56th floor in order to improve the habitability mainly of
the hotel in the upper block.
Table__: Study systems for wind resistant design

Table__ shows the design win speeds, criteria and other items studied in developing
the performance-based wind-resistant design for this building.

3.2 PROJECT 2: Tokyo Skytree (Performance-based wind resistant design for a 634
m high tower)

Tokyo Skytree is a new core facility for digital broadcasting for the Tokyo metropolitan
area of Japan. It is 634m (2,080 ft) high and is the highest tower in the world of
broadcasting and was completed in 2012. It is expected to be a tourist attraction, a
base for broadcasting and telecommunications, and a quasi-disaster prevention
centre of the Tokyo metropolitan area.

3.2.1 Outline of vibration control


The structural design of this tower, for

example the decision on member
sections, is decided from wind induced
response rather than seismic response.
But it was clarified in basic study that
acceleration during an earthquake is too large to operate the instrument for
broadcasting unless damping is added as a vibration control system.

As unique systems for vibration control, the core column system was invented for this
tower to satisfy the severe requirements. Generally steel towers have poor damping
capacity, and improvement in damping ability was demanded for this tower. The core
column system uses the core shaft of the emergency staircase built with a reinforced
concrete tubular wall as a weight applying the theory of TMD (tuned mass damper)

3.2.2 Tuned mass damper on top:

The gain tower, top of this tower, has to control

wind response to ensure reliability of broadcasting.
Specifically, velocity response against daily wind
has to be controlled under a constant level required
for a new digital broadcasting tower. Two TMD
systems were installed at the top of this tower: the
upper one weighted 40mg (40 metric tons)

3.2.3 Response control system with core


The core column

system, a unique
vibration control system
using a core shaft as an added mass, was developed for
this tower. This column
comprised a circular
cylinder of reinforced
concrete and had a
diameter of 8.0 m a thickness of 600 cm, and a
height of 375 m. it was free from the main steel
frame of the tower. The upper half is connected by
oil dampers and the lower half was connected with
steel members. Therefore, it is a column, but it is
independent of the tower and doesn’t support the
tower’s weight. This vibration control system is
The core column
effective over a wide range of earthquakes. It can
reduce the acceleration response during an
earthquake by a maximum of 50% and a that
during strong wind by maximum of 30%

Oil damper