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Study and Analysis of Cryptography Techniques

Kunal Gupta Mridul Chopra Ashutosh Aneja


Department of Information Technology, Department of Information Technology, Department of Information Technology,
DAVIET, Jalandhar DAVIET, Jalandhar DAVIET, Jalandhar
guptakunal42@gmail.com mridulchopra97@gmail.com aaneja0007@gmail.com

the exchange of data through these systems has


Abstract
become very common. Moreover, many of the
Data security has become a crucial issue in
business organisations’ business models are
modern wireless communications due to
increased number of vulnerability attacks entirely dependent on these systems. The
and increase in computational power of growth of internet has also encouraged common
computers. Moreover, with exponential citizens to rely upon these technologies.
growth in computer systems and their Therefore it becomes very important to protect
interconnections via networked systems has their essential data such as credit card details,
maximized the dependency of both passwords, banking transactions and social
organizations and individuals on the security numbers from inadvertent users which
information stored and communicated using tend to gain access to such sensitive
information and exploit it for their personal
these systems. Therefore, it is required to
gains. Therefore a technique called Encryption
take necessary steps to protect data from
intruders. Cryptography is one of the is used to achieve confidentiality of these
techniques which ensure authentication, messages by converting it into an unreadable
integrity, availability, confidentiality and format. There are many encryption techniques
that exist and more and more are evolving every
identification of user data. The main
day. This paper holds some of the popular
objective of this paper is to provide broad
review and analysis of various cryptographic encryption techniques used these days along
with their comparison.
techniques such as encryption and
decryption algorithms and applications of 2. LITERATURE REVIEW
Cryptography. This paper conclusively
compares various cryptographic algorithms 2.1 Cryptography
on the basis of time required to implement
the algorithm and amount of computational Cryptography is a mathematical technique to
strength required to decode the key(s) used achieve message confidentiality by encoding
in algorithms. In the first referenced paper messages so that they become unreadable. Plain
author surveys various modern symmetric text, Cipher Text and Key are important
key cryptography algorithms such as AES, components involved in cryptography concept.
DES, 3DES, Blowfish. Various types of
known-plaintext attacks are discussed and 2.2 Plain Text
crypto algorithms both Symmetric and
A simple text message that a sender wants to
Asymmetric which provide immunity
send to its receiver is known as plain text. It is
against these kinds of attacks are discussed
in human readable format.
in subsequent paper. The last referenced
paper, author throws some light on RSA, 2.3 Cipher Text
DSA, Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange
Algorithm and Elliptic Curve Cryptography It is a secret message generated from the plain
and also provides a detailed analysis text so that only intended reader can read it.
highlighting complexity, strength and
domain of each algorithm. 2.4 Encryption

The process of converting plain text into cipher


1. INTRODUCTION text is known as encryption. It is usually done
by sender.
Cryptography is science of achieving message
confidentiality by converting our message into 2.5 Decryption
a format that is unreadable to humans. With
exponential growth in networking technology The process of converting cipher text into plain
text is known as encryption. It is usually done
by receiver.
2.6 Key 2. Apply Expansion Permutation

Key serves as a means of converting plain text 3. Apply S- box Permutation


into cipher text and vice-a-versa thus forming
an important aspect of encryption and 4, Apply P-box Permutation
decryption processes.
5. Apply XOR and Swap

The DES uses only 64 bit key which is very


3. RELATED WORKS small. It is therefore considered vulnerable to
various attacks such as exhaustive key search
This subsection describes and examines attacks. Therefore DES is not considered very
previous work on most common algorithm secure these days to implement and hence its
replacement was needed.
3.1 DES
3.2 3 DES
DES is a block cipher which uses a shared
secret key for both encryption and decryption 3DES is an advanced version of DES. Like
processes. It follows Fiestel Cipher structure. It DES it takes 64 bit plain text as input and gives
takes 64 bits of plain text as input and result is 64 bit cipher text as output but uses 192 bit key
a cipher text of length same as that of plain text for encryption and decryption processes. The
i.e. 64 bits. 64 bit key is used for the conversion fact that makes 3 DES more secure than DES is
purposes. DES involves a series of complex that it applies the DES operation 3 times to its
operations called rounds to convert cipher text input cipher text. In 3 DES first encryption
into plain text. Each of the input plain text goes operations DES is applied using key K1, then
through 16 such rounds. Each of these rounds decryption operation is applied to DES using
uses their own round keys which are generated key K2.At last again DES encryption is applied
from the original 64 bit key by using successive using key K3 and result is the cipher text.
permuted choice and left circular shift
operations. After one round is completed the C(t) = Ek1(Dk2(Ek3(t)))
output of the round acts as input of the next
round. If it is the last round, then the output is Where C(t) is cipher text produced from plain
divided into two halves and both halves are text t,
swapped to obtain the cipher text. Ek1 is the encryption method using key K1

Dk2 is the decryption method using key K2

Ek3 is the encryption method using key K3

3DES algorithm with three keys requires 2^168


possible combinations.

It is practically not possible to try such a huge


combination so 3DES is a strongest encryption
algorithm.

The Broad Figure 3.1: DES


level steps are:Steps

1. Apply Key Transformation


 Fourth row is shifted three positions to
left.
3. Mix Columns
Each Column is now transformed by using a
special mathematical function. This function
four bytes of one column of the matrix as input
and outputs completely new four bytes. These
four bytes then replace the contents of a column
of the original matrix.It should be noted that
this step is not performed in last round.

4. Add Round Key


The output of step 3 is now considered as 128
bits and XORed to 128 bits round key. This acts
Figure 3.2: 3DES steps as input to another round. If this is final round
output is the cipher text.
The major drawback of this algorithm is that it
too time consuming

3.3 AES (Advanced Encryption Standard)

Unlike DES, AES is iterative rather than Fiestel


cipher. It consists a sequence of operations
associated with each other involving replacing
of input by outputs of a process and some
involve rearrangement of bits. Thus it is said to
be based upon ‘substitution permutation
network’. AES performs all computations on
bytes. It treats 128 bits of plain text as block of
16 bytes. These bytes are arranged in a form of
4 by 4 matrixes. The number of rounds used in
the AES varies according to the length of the
key used. It uses 10 rounds for 128 bits key, 12
rounds for 192 bit keys and 14 rounds for 256
bits key.

AES Encryption involves following steps: Figure 3.3: AES steps

1. Byte Substitution 3.4 BlowFish


The 16 input bits are replaced by referring a Blowfish is a symmetric block cipher, designed
fixed table (s-box) given in the design. This by Schneier at the Cambridge University in
results in the formation of a matrix which has 4 December 1993 to overcome the problems
rows and 4 columns. associated with DES algorithm. It is to be noted
that Blowfish is unpatented, license-free and
2. Shift Rows freely available for all users. Moreover, it
brings many other benefits to the table which
Next step of AES to shift each row of the above involves high efficiency & suitability for
formed matrix to the left. Any bits that fall off implementing hardware. Due to all these
are reinserted to the right. It is done as follows: reasons, it has originated as a strong, powerful
encryption algorithm and a drop-in replacement
 First row is not shifted. for DES or IDEA over time.
 Second row is shifted one position to Basically, It has a 64-bit block size and variable
left. key lengths from 32 bits to a maximum of 448
 Third row is shifted two positions to bits.
left.
The algorithm comprises of mainly two parts b. e is not factor of n
i.e., a key expansion part and a data- encryption c. 1<e<(n) where (n)=(p-1)*(q-1)
part. Key expansion converts a key of
maximum 448 bits into several subkey arrays 4. Our public key is made of n and e.
totaling to 4168 bytes. Data encryption occurs
via a 16-round Feistel network, which is a 2. Generating Private Key
general method of transforming any function
1. Calculate (n) s.t. (n)=(p-1)*(q-1)
into a permutation. Each round further consists
of a key-dependent Permutation, a key and 2. Calculate d s.t. d*e mod()=1
3. To calculate d apply following iterative
data-dependent substitution. All the operations
in BA are XORs and additions procedure with i as iteration variable:
on 32-bit words. The only additional operations a. Assume four variables a,b,d,k.
are four indexed array data lookups which are b. For i=1 take a=1;b=0;d=
processed per round. c. For i=2 take a=0;b=1,d=e
d. For i>=3 take ki=mod(di-1/di)
Since Blowfish is a Feistel network, thus it can ai=ai-2-(ai-1*ki-1)
be inverted simply by XORing to the ciphertext bi=bi-2-(bi-1*ki-1)
block, and then using the P-entries in reverse di=bi-2-(bi-1*ki-1)
order. e.Repeat above steps until d=1 is
obtained
However, In order to analyze the security of this
algorithm, some cryptographic tests may be 4. Let y=bn where n is number of iterations.
applied such as randomness test, avalanche
criteria, and correlation coefficient. (i) if y >  then d= y mod 
Thus, It may be concluded that it is quite
efficient for data-encryption on large (ii) if y < 0 then d=y+
microprocessors with large data caches and the
applications where the key does not change Now we can calculate our plain text and cipher
often, like a communications link or an text as follows:
automatic file encryptor.
C = Pe mod n
3.5 RSA P = Cd mod n
RSA algorithm is a asymmetric cryptographic
algorithm i.e. it uses two keys public key and 4. Comparison of Various Algorithms
private key. The public key of receiver is used
by sender to encrypt the message and receiver The above discussed algorithms are analysed on
uses its private key to decrypt message. For two basis of various parameters such as throughput,
way communication, two sets of public and tenability, power consumption and security
private keys are required. against attacks. This comparison is listed in the
The idea that lays the foundation of RSA is that table below:
it is difficult to factorise a large integer. The
public key consists of two numbers where one DES 3DE AES Blow RSA
S fish
number is multiplication of two large numbers
Key Same Same Same Same Diffe
and private key is also generated from these two Used key key key key rent
numbers. used used used used key
RSA involves two major steps: for for for for used
1) Generation of Public Key encry encry encry encry for
2) Generation of Private Key ption ption ption ption encry
and and and and ption
1. Generation Public Key decry decry decry decry and
ption ption ption ption decry
1. Select two prime numbers p and q. ption
2. Calculate n=p*q. Throu Lowe Lowe Lowe Very Low
ghput r r r High
3. Also calculate a small no e such that than
a. e is integer
than than Blow
AES DES fish [2] Ritu Tripathi and Sanjay Agrawal,
Encry High Mod High High High
ption erate
“Comparative Study of Symmetric and
Ratio Asymmetric Cryptography Techniques”,
Tunabi No No No Yes Yes International Journal of Advance
lity Foundation and Research in Computer
Power High High High Very High
(IJAFRC) Volume 1, Issue 6, June 2014,
Consu er er er Low
mption than than than ISSN 2348 – 4853.
AES DES Blow
fish [3] Nitin Jirwan, Ajay Singh and Dr. Sandip
Key 56 112 128,1 32 >102
Vijay, “Review and Analysis of
Length bits to 920r bits 4 bits
168 256 to Cryptography Techniques”, International
bits bits 448 Journal of Scientific & Engineering
bits Research Volume 4, Issue3, March-2013,
Speed Fast Fast Fast Fast Fast
ISSN 2229-5518.
Securit Brute Brute Chos Dicti Timi
y force force en onary ng
against attac attac plain attac attac
attacks k k, text, ks ks
chose know
n- n
plaint plain
ext, text
know
n
plaint
ext

5. Conclusion
Data being an important asset these days, its security
has become very crucial. Various popular
encryption and decryption techniques used have
been discussed in this paper. Those encryption
techniques are studied and analyzed well to
conclusively discuss the performance of the
encryption methods. This paper presents the
performance evaluation of selected symmetric and
asymmetric algorithms. The selected algorithms are
AES, 3DES, Blowfish and DES. From the above
discussions it can be concluded that blowfish is the
most strongest of all followed by AES while 3DES
is least secure to be used these days.

References

[1] Mitali, Vijay Kumar and Arvind Sharma,


“A Survey on Various Cryptography
Techniques ”, International Journal of
Emerging Trends & Technology in
Computer Science (IJETTCS) Volume 3,
Issue 4, July-August 2014, ISSN 2278-
6856.