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Review Paper on Study and analysis of Cryptographic Techniques.

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Department of Information Technology, Department of Information Technology, Department of Information Technology,

DAVIET, Jalandhar DAVIET, Jalandhar DAVIET, Jalandhar

guptakunal42@gmail.com mridulchopra97@gmail.com aaneja0007@gmail.com

Abstract

become very common. Moreover, many of the

Data security has become a crucial issue in

business organisations’ business models are

modern wireless communications due to

increased number of vulnerability attacks entirely dependent on these systems. The

and increase in computational power of growth of internet has also encouraged common

computers. Moreover, with exponential citizens to rely upon these technologies.

growth in computer systems and their Therefore it becomes very important to protect

interconnections via networked systems has their essential data such as credit card details,

maximized the dependency of both passwords, banking transactions and social

organizations and individuals on the security numbers from inadvertent users which

information stored and communicated using tend to gain access to such sensitive

information and exploit it for their personal

these systems. Therefore, it is required to

gains. Therefore a technique called Encryption

take necessary steps to protect data from

intruders. Cryptography is one of the is used to achieve confidentiality of these

techniques which ensure authentication, messages by converting it into an unreadable

integrity, availability, confidentiality and format. There are many encryption techniques

that exist and more and more are evolving every

identification of user data. The main

day. This paper holds some of the popular

objective of this paper is to provide broad

review and analysis of various cryptographic encryption techniques used these days along

with their comparison.

techniques such as encryption and

decryption algorithms and applications of 2. LITERATURE REVIEW

Cryptography. This paper conclusively

compares various cryptographic algorithms 2.1 Cryptography

on the basis of time required to implement

the algorithm and amount of computational Cryptography is a mathematical technique to

strength required to decode the key(s) used achieve message confidentiality by encoding

in algorithms. In the first referenced paper messages so that they become unreadable. Plain

author surveys various modern symmetric text, Cipher Text and Key are important

key cryptography algorithms such as AES, components involved in cryptography concept.

DES, 3DES, Blowfish. Various types of

known-plaintext attacks are discussed and 2.2 Plain Text

crypto algorithms both Symmetric and

A simple text message that a sender wants to

Asymmetric which provide immunity

send to its receiver is known as plain text. It is

against these kinds of attacks are discussed

in human readable format.

in subsequent paper. The last referenced

paper, author throws some light on RSA, 2.3 Cipher Text

DSA, Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange

Algorithm and Elliptic Curve Cryptography It is a secret message generated from the plain

and also provides a detailed analysis text so that only intended reader can read it.

highlighting complexity, strength and

domain of each algorithm. 2.4 Encryption

1. INTRODUCTION text is known as encryption. It is usually done

by sender.

Cryptography is science of achieving message

confidentiality by converting our message into 2.5 Decryption

a format that is unreadable to humans. With

exponential growth in networking technology The process of converting cipher text into plain

text is known as encryption. It is usually done

by receiver.

2.6 Key 2. Apply Expansion Permutation

into cipher text and vice-a-versa thus forming

an important aspect of encryption and 4, Apply P-box Permutation

decryption processes.

5. Apply XOR and Swap

3. RELATED WORKS small. It is therefore considered vulnerable to

various attacks such as exhaustive key search

This subsection describes and examines attacks. Therefore DES is not considered very

previous work on most common algorithm secure these days to implement and hence its

replacement was needed.

3.1 DES

3.2 3 DES

DES is a block cipher which uses a shared

secret key for both encryption and decryption 3DES is an advanced version of DES. Like

processes. It follows Fiestel Cipher structure. It DES it takes 64 bit plain text as input and gives

takes 64 bits of plain text as input and result is 64 bit cipher text as output but uses 192 bit key

a cipher text of length same as that of plain text for encryption and decryption processes. The

i.e. 64 bits. 64 bit key is used for the conversion fact that makes 3 DES more secure than DES is

purposes. DES involves a series of complex that it applies the DES operation 3 times to its

operations called rounds to convert cipher text input cipher text. In 3 DES first encryption

into plain text. Each of the input plain text goes operations DES is applied using key K1, then

through 16 such rounds. Each of these rounds decryption operation is applied to DES using

uses their own round keys which are generated key K2.At last again DES encryption is applied

from the original 64 bit key by using successive using key K3 and result is the cipher text.

permuted choice and left circular shift

operations. After one round is completed the C(t) = Ek1(Dk2(Ek3(t)))

output of the round acts as input of the next

round. If it is the last round, then the output is Where C(t) is cipher text produced from plain

divided into two halves and both halves are text t,

swapped to obtain the cipher text. Ek1 is the encryption method using key K1

possible combinations.

combination so 3DES is a strongest encryption

algorithm.

level steps are:Steps

Fourth row is shifted three positions to

left.

3. Mix Columns

Each Column is now transformed by using a

special mathematical function. This function

four bytes of one column of the matrix as input

and outputs completely new four bytes. These

four bytes then replace the contents of a column

of the original matrix.It should be noted that

this step is not performed in last round.

The output of step 3 is now considered as 128

bits and XORed to 128 bits round key. This acts

Figure 3.2: 3DES steps as input to another round. If this is final round

output is the cipher text.

The major drawback of this algorithm is that it

too time consuming

cipher. It consists a sequence of operations

associated with each other involving replacing

of input by outputs of a process and some

involve rearrangement of bits. Thus it is said to

be based upon ‘substitution permutation

network’. AES performs all computations on

bytes. It treats 128 bits of plain text as block of

16 bytes. These bytes are arranged in a form of

4 by 4 matrixes. The number of rounds used in

the AES varies according to the length of the

key used. It uses 10 rounds for 128 bits key, 12

rounds for 192 bit keys and 14 rounds for 256

bits key.

The 16 input bits are replaced by referring a Blowfish is a symmetric block cipher, designed

fixed table (s-box) given in the design. This by Schneier at the Cambridge University in

results in the formation of a matrix which has 4 December 1993 to overcome the problems

rows and 4 columns. associated with DES algorithm. It is to be noted

that Blowfish is unpatented, license-free and

2. Shift Rows freely available for all users. Moreover, it

brings many other benefits to the table which

Next step of AES to shift each row of the above involves high efficiency & suitability for

formed matrix to the left. Any bits that fall off implementing hardware. Due to all these

are reinserted to the right. It is done as follows: reasons, it has originated as a strong, powerful

encryption algorithm and a drop-in replacement

First row is not shifted. for DES or IDEA over time.

Second row is shifted one position to Basically, It has a 64-bit block size and variable

left. key lengths from 32 bits to a maximum of 448

Third row is shifted two positions to bits.

left.

The algorithm comprises of mainly two parts b. e is not factor of n

i.e., a key expansion part and a data- encryption c. 1<e<(n) where (n)=(p-1)*(q-1)

part. Key expansion converts a key of

maximum 448 bits into several subkey arrays 4. Our public key is made of n and e.

totaling to 4168 bytes. Data encryption occurs

via a 16-round Feistel network, which is a 2. Generating Private Key

general method of transforming any function

1. Calculate (n) s.t. (n)=(p-1)*(q-1)

into a permutation. Each round further consists

of a key-dependent Permutation, a key and 2. Calculate d s.t. d*e mod()=1

3. To calculate d apply following iterative

data-dependent substitution. All the operations

in BA are XORs and additions procedure with i as iteration variable:

on 32-bit words. The only additional operations a. Assume four variables a,b,d,k.

are four indexed array data lookups which are b. For i=1 take a=1;b=0;d=

processed per round. c. For i=2 take a=0;b=1,d=e

d. For i>=3 take ki=mod(di-1/di)

Since Blowfish is a Feistel network, thus it can ai=ai-2-(ai-1*ki-1)

be inverted simply by XORing to the ciphertext bi=bi-2-(bi-1*ki-1)

block, and then using the P-entries in reverse di=bi-2-(bi-1*ki-1)

order. e.Repeat above steps until d=1 is

obtained

However, In order to analyze the security of this

algorithm, some cryptographic tests may be 4. Let y=bn where n is number of iterations.

applied such as randomness test, avalanche

criteria, and correlation coefficient. (i) if y > then d= y mod

Thus, It may be concluded that it is quite

efficient for data-encryption on large (ii) if y < 0 then d=y+

microprocessors with large data caches and the

applications where the key does not change Now we can calculate our plain text and cipher

often, like a communications link or an text as follows:

automatic file encryptor.

C = Pe mod n

3.5 RSA P = Cd mod n

RSA algorithm is a asymmetric cryptographic

algorithm i.e. it uses two keys public key and 4. Comparison of Various Algorithms

private key. The public key of receiver is used

by sender to encrypt the message and receiver The above discussed algorithms are analysed on

uses its private key to decrypt message. For two basis of various parameters such as throughput,

way communication, two sets of public and tenability, power consumption and security

private keys are required. against attacks. This comparison is listed in the

The idea that lays the foundation of RSA is that table below:

it is difficult to factorise a large integer. The

public key consists of two numbers where one DES 3DE AES Blow RSA

S fish

number is multiplication of two large numbers

Key Same Same Same Same Diffe

and private key is also generated from these two Used key key key key rent

numbers. used used used used key

RSA involves two major steps: for for for for used

1) Generation of Public Key encry encry encry encry for

2) Generation of Private Key ption ption ption ption encry

and and and and ption

1. Generation Public Key decry decry decry decry and

ption ption ption ption decry

1. Select two prime numbers p and q. ption

2. Calculate n=p*q. Throu Lowe Lowe Lowe Very Low

ghput r r r High

3. Also calculate a small no e such that than

a. e is integer

than than Blow

AES DES fish [2] Ritu Tripathi and Sanjay Agrawal,

Encry High Mod High High High

ption erate

“Comparative Study of Symmetric and

Ratio Asymmetric Cryptography Techniques”,

Tunabi No No No Yes Yes International Journal of Advance

lity Foundation and Research in Computer

Power High High High Very High

(IJAFRC) Volume 1, Issue 6, June 2014,

Consu er er er Low

mption than than than ISSN 2348 – 4853.

AES DES Blow

fish [3] Nitin Jirwan, Ajay Singh and Dr. Sandip

Key 56 112 128,1 32 >102

Vijay, “Review and Analysis of

Length bits to 920r bits 4 bits

168 256 to Cryptography Techniques”, International

bits bits 448 Journal of Scientific & Engineering

bits Research Volume 4, Issue3, March-2013,

Speed Fast Fast Fast Fast Fast

ISSN 2229-5518.

Securit Brute Brute Chos Dicti Timi

y force force en onary ng

against attac attac plain attac attac

attacks k k, text, ks ks

chose know

n- n

plaint plain

ext, text

know

n

plaint

ext

5. Conclusion

Data being an important asset these days, its security

has become very crucial. Various popular

encryption and decryption techniques used have

been discussed in this paper. Those encryption

techniques are studied and analyzed well to

conclusively discuss the performance of the

encryption methods. This paper presents the

performance evaluation of selected symmetric and

asymmetric algorithms. The selected algorithms are

AES, 3DES, Blowfish and DES. From the above

discussions it can be concluded that blowfish is the

most strongest of all followed by AES while 3DES

is least secure to be used these days.

References

“A Survey on Various Cryptography

Techniques ”, International Journal of

Emerging Trends & Technology in

Computer Science (IJETTCS) Volume 3,

Issue 4, July-August 2014, ISSN 2278-

6856.

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