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IPASJ International Journal of Electrical Engineering (IIJEE)

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJEE/IIJEE.htm


A Publisher for Research Motivation ........ Email:editoriijee@ipasj.org
Volume 7, Issue 5, May 2019 ISSN 2321-600X

Design and Selection of High Frequency


Transformer
Ms. Hinal G. Surati
Assistant professor, C.G.P.I.T-Electrical
Department UKA Tarsadia University, Maliba
Campus, Bardoli , Gujarat, India- 394350

ABSTRACT
The fundamental requirements of magnetic material for power transformers is the highest relative
permeability, the largest saturation flux density, the lowest core loss and the lowest remnant flux density.
Magnetic materials used as the core of power transformers keeps changing as the operating frequency changes
(increased/decreased). At the line frequency of 50/60 Hz, iron, low-silicon iron and silicon steel are the major
materials applicable for the design of cores of the power transformers. They have high saturation flux density,
thus they can handle high power transformation at low operating frequency also. When the operating
frequency of power transformer increased, the eddy current inside the magnetic cores becomes a critical
problem for the transformer designers. Although the laminated core materials have been used, the power loss
generated by the eddy currents still heat up the core and this hot spot generated inside magnetic core can
destroy whole power transformer. Nowadays, Ferrite used is ceramic materials dark gray or black colored in
appearance and very hard composite. General magnetic properties of the ferrite are as permeability of several
tens, very high resistivity, Low coercive force and better heat dissipation.
KEYWORDS: Ferrite,Permeability,efficiency,ceramic,coercive

1. INTRODUCTION
As the operating frequency is increased more and more magnetic materials have been introduced for high
frequency power transformer applications. Table I shows the major properties of magnetic materials commonly
used.
Table I: shows the properties of Soft Magnetic Material

Material B max Resistivity Operating


Initial Per.
K Gausses   cm Frequency
i

Iron 250 22 10 10


6 50-1000Hz
Low silicon iron 400 20 50 10
6 50-1000Hz
Silicon Steel 1500 20 50 10
6 50-1000Hz
Nickle Iron Alloy 2000 16 40 10
6 50-1000Hz
78 permalloy 12000- 8-10 55 10
6 1 kHz-100MHz
100000
Amorphous Alloy 3000-20000 5-16 140 10
6 To 250kHz
Iron Powder 5-80 10 104 100kHz-100MHz
Ferrite-MnZn 750-15000 3-5 10-100 10kHz-2MHz
Ferrite-NiZn 10-1500 3-5 10 4 200kHz-100MHz

Volume 7, Issue 5, May 2019 Page 1


IPASJ International Journal of Electrical Engineering (IIJEE)
Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJEE/IIJEE.htm
A Publisher for Research Motivation ........ Email:editoriijee@ipasj.org
Volume 7, Issue 5, May 2019 ISSN 2321-600X

Used in nowadays, Ferrite is ceramic materials, dark gray or black in appearance and very hard. General
magnetic properties of the ferrite are as follows:
a. Permeability of several tens.
b. A very high resistivity expressed as 108 Ohm-meter.
c. Saturation magnetization is appreciable, but significantly smaller than the ferromagnetic materials.
d. Low coercive force.
e. Curie point varies from 1000C to several degrees C.
f. Smaller physical size.
g. Better Heat dissipation.
h. Frequency range is 10 kHz to 100 MHz.

The Characteristics of High Frequency Transformer Windings When the operating frequency increases, the total
number of turns decreases significantly. Therefore the total length of the copper winding is also decreased
dramatically.

The power loss due to DC resistance almost becomes zero suddenly. It is very good for the power transformer
design. However, with the disappearing of the DC resistance, the ac resistance increases enormously. The power
loss due to this resistance is large than the one generated from DC component.

At high frequencies, the major loss within windings is due to eddy currents produced by the skin and proximity
2
effects. These effects can cause the windings losses to be significantly greater than the I R DC loss calculated
using the DC resistance of the copper winding.

In order to design and select a high frequency transformer, following points have to be considered:

1. Choose an appropriate core.


2. Calculate the primary turns needed, based on theflux density the engineer chooses to operate.
3. Calculate the number of secondary turns, which is represented by the ratio of primary to secondary voltage.

2. DESIGN OF TRANSFORMER
The front dc-dc converter involves an input low-pass filter, a switching bridge, a ferrite core transformer. The
following criteria were followed.
2.1. DESIGN SPECIFICATION :

 Output Voltage Vo : 400V


 Output ripple : 1 % of Vo
 Output current Io : 2.5A

 Switching frequency f s : 300kHz


 Input Voltage Vin : 80V  10 percent
 Input Current : 35A
 Power Supply Rating : 1KW.

2.2. SWITCH DESIGN:


The Half bridge network contains two switches, so two MOSFET's are required.
 Minimum input voltage to the bridge, Vin-min = 80V
 Maximum input voltage to the bridge, Vin-max = 100V

 Maximum switching current, I d max = 1 kW/80 = 12.5A


 Efficiency = 90.2 percent

Justification: Here for half bridge converter two MOSFETs are required.

Volume 7, Issue 5, May 2019 Page 2


IPASJ International Journal of Electrical Engineering (IIJEE)
Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJEE/IIJEE.htm
A Publisher for Research Motivation ........ Email:editoriijee@ipasj.org
Volume 7, Issue 5, May 2019 ISSN 2321-600X

2.3 TRANSFORMER DESIGN :


The Ferrite core transformer is used in the converter because the switching frequency is high and it is more
suitable for high frequency. Transformer with ferrite core was designed, taking reference from. Core size and
required number of turns in primary and secondary winding are calculated as given below. The efficiency of the
transformer is 90.2 percent.

Power (V A) out = Po2 = (V o + V r + V d) Io


Po2 = (400 + 4 + 1.5)2.5
Po2 = 1013.75Watt

2.4 CORE SELECTION :


Area Product for this converter,

1
A p = Po2 [ 2  ]

4K w JB m fs

Where,
Output power Po2 = 1013.75 Watt
Efficiency = 90.2
Winding factor Kw = 0.4
6 2
Current density J = 3x10 A/m
Max. Flux density Bm = 0.2
Frequency fs = 300 kHz

A p = Area of product Ap in mm4


Table II :shows the core selection calculated values
Component Area of core Winding Area Area of product Weight in gram
2 2 4
Ac mm Wa mm Ap in mm
Ferrite Core 90.70 162.76 12811.93 526
ETD/34/17/11

Justification: Choose a suitable core which has a greater Area than the value of Area Product Ap calculated
above.

 ETD 34/17/11 core is suitable for above requirement.


 Ferrite core is used here.
 ETD 34/17/11 core used with material N87 is known as ETD34N87.
The specification of this core ETD34N87 is given in Table II Core Specification.
2.5 NUMBER OF TURNS :

The number of turns is calculated as below.


Primary Winding Turns

V pri max  DutyCycle


= NBA c
f

V pri max  DutyCycle


N p =
fBmax Ac

Volume 7, Issue 5, May 2019 Page 3


IPASJ International Journal of Electrical Engineering (IIJEE)
Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJEE/IIJEE.htm
A Publisher for Research Motivation ........ Email:editoriijee@ipasj.org
Volume 7, Issue 5, May 2019 ISSN 2321-600X

Where,

Frequency of operation of the transformer fs = 300 kHz (in this case)


6
Core cross section area A c = 90.7 x 10
2
Flux density in the core B max = 0.16 wb/m
Duty Cycle = 0.5.
20 SWG for secondary turns, selected using following criteria.

Np = 5 turns

2.6 SECONDARY WINDING TURNS :


The primary voltage in this case is 40V, which requires primary turns of 5. Here is considering 5 turns, because of
considering some safety margins. So voltage per turn is 8V. So, for obtaining 440V in Secondary winding this is
given by 440V

Ns = 55 turns
3. CONCLUSION
Through this design and selection of core and number of turns the mathematical calculation and practical
implementation of high frequency transformer would become easier and simple to understand the concept behind
the theory. Nowadays, Ferrite used is ceramic materials dark gray or black colored in appearance and very hard
composite. General magnetic properties of the ferrite are as permeability of several tens, very high resistivity,
Low coercive force and better heat dissipation.

References
[1] Power electronics by M. D. Singh and K. B. Khanchandani
[2] Juichi Tanaka and Itsuo Yuzurihara, "The High Frequency Drive of A New Multi-Stage Recti_er Circuit", IEEE
transaction on Power Electronics Specialist Con-ference, Japan, Vol- 2/29, pp 1031-1037, April 1988.
[3] An Isolated DC/DC Converter Using High-Frequency Unregulated LLC Resonant Converter for Fuel Cell
Applications Jun-Young Lee, Yu-Seok Jeong, and Byung-Moon Han
[4] T. Kjellqvist, S. Norrga, and S. Ostlund, “Design considerations for a medium frequency transformer in a line side
power conversion system,” in IEEE 35th Annual Power Electronics Specialists Conference (2004), pp. 704–710
[5] G. Bertotti, “General properties of power losses in soft ferromagnetic materials,” IEEE Trans. Magn. 24, 621–630
(1988).
[6] D. C. Jiles and D. L. Atherton, “Theory of ferromagnetic hysteresis,” J. Magn. Mater. 61, 48–60 (1986).

AUTHOR

Ms.HINAL G.SURATI received the B.E degree in Electrical and Electronics Engineering and M.E.
degrees in Electrical Engineering (specialization:power electronics and electrical drives)from M.E.F.G.I
Institute of Technology, Rajkot in 2013 respectively. She is now working as assistant professor in
Electrical Department at Chhotubhai Gopalbhai Patel Institute of Technology and Engineering, UKA
TARSADIA UNIVERSITY, Maliba Campus,Bardoli. Dist. Surat, State-Gujarat. Her area of interest
includes Hybrid power generation, artificial intelligence ,Renewable energy and Machine design.

Volume 7, Issue 5, May 2019 Page 4