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MATHEMATICS
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English Medium
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SEVENTH STANDARD
Part  I
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No
i
Preface
The Textbook Society, Karnataka, has been engaged in producing new
textbooks according to the new syllabi which in turn are designed on
NCF  2005 since June 2010. Textbooks are prepared in 12 languages;
seven of them serve as the media of instruction. From Standard 1 to 4
there is the EVS, mathematics and 5th to 10th there are three core sub
jects, namely, mathematics, science and social science.
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NCF  2005 has a number of special features and they are:
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connecting knowledge to life activities.
learning to shift from rote methods.
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enriching the curriculum beyond textbooks.
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learning experiences for the construction of knowledge.
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making examinations flexible and integrating them with classroom
experiences.
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caring concerns within the democratic policy of the country.
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in their nature. On the other hand they help the learner in the all
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life comfortable. In the same way he has given himself to pleasures
and reached the stage in which he seems to have forgotten basic sci
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ences. We hope that at least a good number of young learners take to
science in higher studies and become leading scientists and contrib
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ute their share to the existing stock of knowledge in order to make life
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prosperous. Ample opportunity has been given to learners to think,
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read, discuss and learn on their own with very little help from teach
ers. Learning is expected to be activity centered with the learners doing
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experiments, assignments and projects.
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2007 have been included in the Text Book. This new Text Book has
given importance to enhance the creativity of students by including ac
tivities. Many projects are included to help students to gain knowledge.
This Text Book has been written in such a way that students need not
memorise historical dates and other information.
The Textbook Society expresses grateful thanks to the Chairper
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sons, Writers, Scrutinisers, Artists, Staff of DIETs and CTEs and the
Members of the Editorial Board and Printers in helping the Textbook
Society in producing these textbooks.
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No
iii
Chairperson's Letter
Dear All,
NCF 2005 intends that the aim of learning Mathematics to be of higher value rather than
mere learning algorithms and this is stated as learning of Mathematics is 'Mathemetisation.
To achieve this objective our educational system, that is administration, class, school, society
and persons in these agencies has to provide opportunities to the child to gain excellence
experiences and fecilitate to construct knowledge himself.
The logical thinking adopted to solve a problem is to be of higher significance rather than
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knowing the solution to the problem. This develops rational and logical thinking among learners
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and enables them to explore their own method or approach of finding the solution and keeps
them to be active participants. To make it possible, teachers have to become friendly facilitators
to provide learning opportunities to the learners; as well as encourage pupils to learn with
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co  operation, in peer groups.
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'Mathematics' is a challenge at 7th standard because it has to be nearer to the experiences
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and environment of learner and the learner has to comprehend the logical process and the
abstract idea/concept.
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Scope for exploration and creation is required in Mathematics instead of the rote problems
and complicated calculations. Students have to be encouraged to solve the problems in different
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ways. To achieve this, previous learning is linked with present topics of learning Model activities,
activities that can be done by the students and activities that have to be performed by the
©
students are given to the possible extent Illustration, figures, laws/ principles and worked (model)
problems are given to facilitate better comprehension of the subject. Additional information /
issues are included here and there to enrich learning. To make learning easier and meaningful
simple language along with wider scope and social situations are used. For reinforcement of
each unit exercises, based on knowledge, understanding, skills and application are given as
far as possible. Our Committee is grateful to the chief coordinator, the managing director,
the joint director and programme coordinator of karnataka textbooks society for providing an
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opportunity and responsibility of producing this textbook through which we have the pleasure to
reach and serve larger educational community. We thank the editorial board and the scrutinizers
for the valuable guidance and suggestions the members and DIETS involved in 'Try  out' for
the feedback. All of this is attended to improve the text.
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No
iv
Text Book Committee
Chair Person :
Sri Kaleshwar Rao Bagoor # 3 Santhasa, 1st Cross, Aravinda Marga, J.P. Nagar, IInd
Phase, Bengaluru.
Members :
Smt B. Keerthi Principal, Siliconcity P. U. College, Konanakunte, Bengaluru
62.
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Sri Subramanya Bhat Assistant Teacher, K.V.S.M High school, Kanchana, Puttur (T)
he
Sri Sadananda Kumar Government Girls P. U. College, Hampi Road, Hospete Ballari
District 583218.
Sri Pramod G. Kulkarni V. B. Darbar P. U. College, Vijayapura.
Sri C. L. Bhaskar Assistant Professor Vijaya Teachers College, Jayanagar 4th
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Block Bengaluru  56001.
Smt Renuka Assistant Teacher, Goverment composite P. U. College
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Sri Jangi bl Kamalapur Taluk Hospete. Ballari District.
Art Teacher. DSERT Bengaluru.
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Scrutinizers :
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Prof. Prabhakar R. V. Deen Vijaya College Jayanagar and Assistant Secretary B. H.
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Editorial Committee :
Dr Ravindra Former NCERT Director Arehalli BSK 3rd stage Bengaluru  61.
Dr Upadya B. S. Lecturer and Head, Department of Mathematics, Education
RIE, Mysuru.
Dr Prasad S. V. Lecturer RIE Mysuru.
Dr Sharad Sure Assistant Professor Azim Premji university, PES School of
Engineering Campus Konappana Agra Hara Bengaluru.
Translation Committee :
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Smt Vasanthi Rao Retired Teacher, Chord Road, IInd Stage Bengaluru.
Sri Sadananda Kumar Government Girls P. U. College. Hampi Road, Hospet Ballari
District 583218.
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Bengaluru.
Chief  Coordinators :
Sri G. S. Mudambaditaya Coordinator, Curriculum revision and Text Book Preparation.
Guidance :
Sri Nagendra Kumar Managing Director, Karanataka, Text Book Society.
Smt. C. Nagamani Deputy Director, Karnataka, Text Book Society.
Programme Coordinators :
Smt Vijaya Kulkarni Assistant Director, Karanataka Text Book Society.
Smt Prema B. R. Technical Assistant ,Karanataka Text Book Society.
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About the Revision of Textbooks
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the basic expectations there in, which the textbook experts
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should follow: “The textbooks should aim at inculcating
social equality, moral values, development of personality,
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scientific temper, critical acumen, secularism and the sense
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of national commitment”, he said.
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Later, for the revision of the textbooks from class I to
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examine and review text and even to prepare new text and
revise if necessary. Eventually, a new order was passed on
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were sent in advance and later meetings were held for dis
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cussions. Women associations and science related organi
station were also invited for discussions. Thus, on the basis
of all inputs received from various sources, the textbooks
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have been revised where ever necessary.
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Another very important aspect has to be shared here. We
constituted three expert committees. They were constituted
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to make suggestions after making a comparative study of the
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the state text books have been enriched based on the com
parative analysis and suggestions made by the experts. The
state textbooks have been guarded not to go lower in stan
dards than the textbooks of central school. Besides, these
textbooks have been examined along side with the textbooks
of Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra
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states.
Another clarification has to be given here. Whatever we
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who sincerely worked hard in forming the committees and
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managed to see the task reach its logical completion. We
thank all the members of the staff who cooperated in this
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venture. Our thanks are also due to the subject experts and
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to the associations who gave valuable suggestions.
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Narasimhaiah Prof. Baraguru Ramachandrappa
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Bengaluru. Bengaluru.
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No
viii
Text Books Revision Committee
Chairmaninchief.
Prof. Barguru Ramchandrappa, State Revision Committee, Karnataka
textbooks Society®, Bengaluru.
Revision Committee
Chairperson
Dr. Narasimhamurthy S.K. Professor and Chairman, Department
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of Mathematics , Kuvempu University,
Shankaraghatta577 451. Shivamogga
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Members
Dr. B . Chaluvaraju, Professor, Department of Mathematics,
Bengaluru University, Bengaluru.
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Sri. B. K. Vishwanath Rao, Rtd., Principal, No.94, ''Prashanthi'', 30th
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Cross, BSK 2nd Stage, Bengaluru.
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Sri Narasimha murthy G.N., ‘Beladingalu’ No.23/1,5th cross, Hosalli,
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Sri Shankarmurthy M.V.
Bengaluru.
Rtd Headmaster, Sarvodaya Highschool,
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Bengaluru
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Chief Advisors
Sri Narasimaiah, Managing Director, Karnataka Textbooks
Society®, Banashankari 3rd stage,
Bengaluru85.
Smt Nagamani C. Karnataka Textbooks Society®,
Banashankari 3rd stage, Bengaluru85.
Programme coordinator:
Smt. Vijaya Kulkarni, Asst.Director, Karnataka Textbooks
Society®, Banashankari 3rd stage,
Bengaluru85.
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CONTENTS
Part  I
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1 Integers 1  25
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2 Fractions 26  51
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3 blRational Numbers 52  79
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CHAPTER– 1
INTEGERS
After studying this chapter you :
multiply positive integer by positive integer as well as
by negative integer,
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multiply negative integer by negative integer,
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compare integers and identify smaller, greater among
given integers,
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follow proper method in multiplication, as well as relate
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multiplication and division of numbers,
divide an integer by another integer,
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understand why an integer can not to be divisible by
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zero,
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1
Positive integers, negative integers along with zero are
termed as integers. We know how to add and subtract integers
on the number line.
Example 1 : Rita wanted to play a game. She jumped 3
steps to her right and then she decided to jump 5 steps
to her left.How can you show her jumping on the number
line ?
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If we consider the first position of Rita as zero, then the
jumps can be shown on the number line, where does she
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reach ?
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0 1 2 3
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3 2 1 0 1 2 3
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3 + (–5) = –2
Remember :
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Exercise 1.1
2
Multiplication of integers.
Multiplication of a positive integer by a positive integer:
If a sign is not attached to a number, it is considered to
be positive.
What is multiplication ?
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We know that multiplication is repeated addition. Let us
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observe this from the following example.
Example 1:
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Bharath bought 3 pencil boxes from a shop. If each box
contains 6 pencils, find the total number of pencils Bharatha
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6 + 6 + 6 = 18 (addition)
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0 6 12 18
Example 2 :
Know this :
5 friends went to a shop. Each Z is used to represent
one bought 12 mangoes. How many Integers. Zahlen is
mangoes did they buy altogether? the German word for
× = Integers. Integers are
also represented by ‘I’.
3
Multiplication of a positive integer by a negative integer :
Nidhi was fond of Almonds. Her mother kept some almonds
in a container. Nidhi ate 2 almonds each day. Every day the
number of almonds is reduced by 2. After three days the
container was empty!
How many almonds were there in the container?
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Let us denote the reduced number
of almonds by a negative integer –2
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–2, –2, –2. Now add these integers.
(–2)+(–2)+(–2) = –6
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∴ 3 × (–2) = –6
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Nidhi ate 6 almonds in 3 days.
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So, there were 6 almonds in the
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box.
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7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
(–2) × 3 = –6
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1×4=4
2×4=8
3×4=12
4×4=16
5×4=20
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Example 2 : Let us try this; 4 × (–5) = ?
4 × (–5) = –20
If we multiply a positive integer by a negative integer we
get a negative integer.
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Example 3 : (+5) × (–6) =?
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+5 × (–6) =–30
This means 5 times –6
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5 × (–6)=(–6) + (–6) + (–6) + (–6) + (–6)= –30
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I any ha ha No sign
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sign? ...
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I have neither positive sign, nor negative sign. I am free from sign
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1×4=4=8–4
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0×4=0=4–4
–1 × 4 = 0 – 4 = – 4
–2 × 4 = –4 – 4 = –8
–3 × 4 = –8 – 4 = –12
–4 × 4 = –12 – 4 = –16
–5 × 4 = –16 – 4 = –20
Thus we get (–5) × 4 = –20
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When we multiply a negative integer and a positive
integer, we multiply them as whole numbers and put a
negative sign to the product. We get a negative integer.
Example 1: (–6) × 7 =?
Multiply the absolute values.
6 × 7 = 42
5 × 7 = 35 = 42 – 7
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4 × 7 = 28 = 35 – 7
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3 × 7 = 21 = 28 – 7
2 × 7 = 14 = 21 – 7
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1 × 7 = 7 = 14 – 7
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–1 × 7 = 0 –7 = –7
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–2 × 7 = –7 – 7 = –14
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–3 × 7 = –14 – 7 = –21
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–4 × 7 = –21 – 7 = –28
–5 × 7 = –28 – 7 = –35
–6 × 7 = –35 –7 = –42
∴ (–6) × 7 = –42
If we multiply two integers having unlike signs then,
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Example 3:
A diver dives into the sea. He dives at
a speed of 9m per minute. Find out the
position of the diver in the water after
6 min if he maintains the same speed.
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If we consider the water level as zero (0), under water diver’s
position can be taken as negative number.
Here 9 is negative number.
Therefore, in 6 minutes divers position will be = –9 × 6 = –54
The diver is 54 m below the water level or he will be at a
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distance of –54 metre.
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Multiplication of an integer by '0'
Observe the following pattern
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6 × 2 = 12 = 12  0
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4 × 2 = 8 = 10 – 2
3×2=6=8–2
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2×2=4=6–2
1×2=2=4–2
0×2=0=22
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∴0×2=0
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ii) –10 × 0 = 0
iii) 0 × 0 = 0
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Multiplication of a negative integer by a negative integer:
Read this:
I eat.
Which integer is greater Hey it's zero
I do not eat.
than any negative integer and my friend.
I fast.
less than any positive integer?
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I do not fast.
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The first and the last sentences give the same meaning.
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By generalising this
a × b = a × b + 0
= a × b + a (–b) – a (–b)
= a ( b + –b) – a (–b)
= a (0) – a (–b)
= 0 –a (–b)
∴ ab = (–a) (–b) = –a × –b
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–a × –b = a × b
The product of two negative integers is a positive integer.
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Let us multiply the following numbers using a pattern.
(–3) × (– 6) = ? Let us write this in the form of a pattern,
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The product of two negative integers is a positive integer.
We multiply the absolute values and then assign positive sign
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to the product.
– 3 × 6 = –18
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– 3 × 5 = –15 = –18 – (– 3) (recall the additive inverse
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– 3 × 3 = –9 =–12 – ( – 3)
6th Standard)
– 3 × 2 = – 6 = –9 – ( – 3)
– 3 × 1 = – 3 =–6 – (– 3)
– 3 × 0 = 0 =–3 – (– 3)
 3 × 1 = ?
3 × 1 = 0  ( 3) = 0 + 3 = 3
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3 × 2 = 3  ( 3) = 3 + 3 = 6
3 × 3 = 6  ( 3) = 6 + 3 = 9
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3 ×  4 = 9  ( 3) = 9 + 3 = 12
No
3 × 5 = 12 –(3) = 12 + 3 = 15
3 × 6 = 15 –(3) = 15 + 3 = 18
We know that any number multiplied by '0', the product
is '0' only. 3 × 0 = 0 = 3  (3)
If two integers have like sign then, their product is always
positive.
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Example 1 : (–4) × (–3) = ?
Multiply the absolute numbers. 4 × 3 = 12
But the product of two negative integers is a positive
integer. Thus ( – 4) × ( – 3) = 12
Multiplication of more than two integers:
Example 1: 3×5×6=?
3 × 5 × 6 = 15 × 6 = 90
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Example 2: 3 × 5 × (–6) =?
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3 × 5 × (–6) = 15 × (–6) = –90
Example 3: 2×3×5×6=?
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2 × 3 × 5 × 6 = 6 × 30 = 180
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Example 4: 2 × 3 × (–5) × (–6) =?
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2 × 3 × (–5) × (–6) = 6 × 30 = 180
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number.
Step 3 : If the number of negative integers counted in the
step 2 is even, the product is just the product from step 1,
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Solution: One dozen = 12
The cost of one banana = ` 3
To find the amount to pay, multiply 12 by 3
Total amount Nandan has to pay = 12 × 3 = 36.
So, Nandan has to pay ` 36 to the shop keeper.
Example 2: A submarine is submerging from the surface at
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the rate of 15m/minute. At what depth is the submarine after
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5 minutes?
Solution: Note that moving downwards is negative.
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Change in position of submarine in one minute = –15 m
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∴The position of submarine after 5 minutes = –15 × 5
= –75 m
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So, the submarine is at depth of 75 m from the surface
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after 5 minutes.
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Exercise 1.2
× –3 6 11 –5
7 –21
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No
–8
–2
12
–9
–4
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2) Multiply the number in the outer circle by the number
in the inner circle and fill in the appropriated boxes
given outside the circle by their product.
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or numbers and enjoy. 5
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6
7
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3) Let us play one more game.
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Take a board marked from (– 50) to 50 as shown in the
figure
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–50 –49 –48 –47 –46 –45 –44 –43 –42 –41
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–31 –32 –33 –34 –35 –36 –37 –38 –39 –40
–30 –29 –28 –27 –26 –25 –24 –23 –22 –21
–11 –12 –13 –14 –15 –16 –17 –18 –19 –20
to
–10 –9 –8 –7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
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10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20
30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39
50 49 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40
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ii) Take a bag containing two blue
dice and two red dice. Let the
number of dots on the blue dice
indicate the positive integers
and number of dots on the
red dice indicate the negative
integers.
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Rules of the game:
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Every player has to place the pawn at '0' in the beginning .
Every player will take out two dice at a time from the bag
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and throw them.
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After every throw, the player has to multiply the numbers
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marked on the dice.
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The player will move his/her pawn to the product what he/
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she will obtain. The player who reaches the greater number
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Exercise 1.3
I. Find the products of the following integers :
1) 5, (– 3) 2) (– 3), 8
3) 7, (– 34) 4) (–3), (– 12)
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1) 4× + 7= + 28
2) 3× + 5= – .......
3) + 9× – 7= .......
4) 6× – 7= + .......
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III. Tick the correct answer in the following situations :
1) An open tank filled with water is on the terrace of a
building. Evaporation causes the height of the water
level to change by 2cm each day.
If the first day the water level is x cm, then after 6 days
the level is
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a) x cm + (2 × 6) cm b) x cm – (2 × 6) cm
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c) x cm – (2 × –6) cm d) 6 × x cm – 2 cm
2) During the past 8 weeks Mr. Girish has deposited
` 7500 each week to his bank account. He has a bank
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balance of ` 62000 now. So his bank balance 8 weeks
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ago if no interest is added up in this period was,
a) ` (62000 – 8 × 7 × 7500) b) ` (62000 – 8 × 7500)
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c) ` (62000 + 8 × 7500) d) ` (8 × 7500 – 62000)
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Think:
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Division of integers.
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Situation 1 :
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14
Latha : So let us take 4 sweets each.
Jose : Do you know Latha that 5 ×4 is also equal to 20.
Shrinidhi : Multiplication and division are related.
Latha, Jose ,Shrinidhi, Rabia: Any way thank you Uma.
Uma : Friends, if I have not taken the share, you could
have got more sweets .
Latha : yes, 20 ÷ 4 = 5.
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Situation 2 :
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Jack and Jill were playing in a village.
After some time they were thirsty.
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They wanted to drink some water.
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They saw a well and a bucket with a
rope. They decided to fetch the water
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from that well. After drinking water
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Raju : 28 feet
Jill : Thank you uncle. Hey Jack, let us assume that
ground level as zero.
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Jill : It is –7. Therefore –28 ÷ 4 = –7. The speed of the
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bucket is –7 feet per min.
Negative sign indicates the movement of the bucket
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downwards.
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Jack : Enough Jill. Let us continue playing.
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(Both Jack and Jill went back to play).
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We know the relation between multiplication and division.
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Example : i) 6 × 2 = 12 = 2 × 6
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So 12 ÷ 6 = 2 and 12 ÷ 2 = 6
ii) (– 4) × 5 = – 20 using method applied in (i) we can write
(– 20) ÷ 5 = – 4 and (– 20) ÷ – 4 = 5.
Each multiplication statement has two division statements.
Fill up the table with your answers.
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( – 8) × 2 = – 16 –16 ÷ 2 = – 8, –16 ÷ – 8 = 2
No
(– 5 ) × (– 4 ) = 20 20 ÷ – 4 = – 5, ––––––––––––––––
9 × (– 4) = – 36 –36 ÷ – 4 = 9, – 36 ÷ 9 = – 4
( – 7)× (– 6) = 42 –––––––––––––––, 42 ÷ – 7= – 6
3 × (– 10) = – 30 – 30 ÷ – 10 = 3, –––––––––––––––
16
Observations from the above table are
• Division involving two integers with the same signs
always results in a positive integer.
• Division involving two numbers with different signs
always results in a negative integer.
What happens if we divide an integer by zero?
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Know this
S. Ramanujan, a great Indian Mathematician asked
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this question in the class, when he was a student.
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Let us see this by an activity :
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1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 +......+ 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
that is, 1 , 16 times = 8
2
Again cut each of these 16 pieces into 2 pieces.
1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 +....+ 1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 1
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
that is, 1 , 32 times = 8
4
17
or 8 =32 0.25+0.25+………+0.25 (0.25,32 times) =8
0.25
similarly 8 = 80 0.1+0.1+……….+0.1 (0.1,80 times) =8
0.1
8 =800 0.01+0.01+……+0.01 (0.01, 800 times) =8
0.01
8 = ? How many zeroes add up to 8?
0
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That is no group of zeroes can be found to make eight. So
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we cannot divide any integer by zero.
(Note: Division of any number by zero is not defined)
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Exercise 1.4
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4) (– 28) ÷ (– 7) 5) 0 ÷ (– 8)
5) –––– ÷ ( – 3) = 10
24 ÷ (–12)
(–24) ÷ 12
(–24) ÷ (–12)
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IV. Patil purchased 8 packets of Dharwad peda. Each
packet contains equal number of pedas. There were
320 pedas in total. Calculate the number of pedas in
each packet.
Properties of integers.
a) Commutative property:
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Addition: 2 + (– 5) = (–3) and (–5) + 2 = (–3).
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For any two Integers a and b, if a+ b = b +a then, this
property is called commutative property.
When we add integers, order doesn't matter, we get the
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same answer.
The Integers satisfy the commutative property under
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addition. bl
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Multiplication: 2 × −5 = −5 × 2 = –10
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b) Associative Property
Addition: (4 + −2) + −5 = 2 + –5 = –3.
4 + (−2 + −5) = 4 + –7 = –3.
For any three integers a,b and c, (a+b)+c = a+(b+c)
When we add three integers, it doesn't matter if we start
adding the first pair or the last pair; the answer is the same.
So the Integers satisfy the associative property under
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addition.
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Multiplication: (4 × −2) × −5 = –8 × –5 = 40
4 × (−2 × −5) = 4 × 10 = 40
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For any three integers a, b, c; a × (b × c) = (a × b) × c
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When we multiply three integers, it doesn't matter if we
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start multiplying the first pair or the last pair; the answer is
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the same.
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Subtraction: 6 – (3 – 7) = 6 – (–4) = 10
(6 – 3) – 7 = 3 – 7 = –4
6 – (3 – 7) ≠ (6 – 3) – 7
It is clear that the Integers do not satisfy the associative
property under subtraction.
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Division: 8 ÷ (4 ÷ 2) = 4
(8 ÷ 4) ÷ 2 = 1
t
8 ÷ (4 ÷ 2) ≠(8 ÷ 4) ÷ 2
No
20
Zero is the identity element for addition. By adding zero
on either side, the number will not change.
d) Multiplicative Identity
(−3) × 1 = (–3) = 1 × (−3) = −3
For any Integer a, a × 1 = a = 1 × a
One is the identity element for multiplication. By multiplying
d
1 on either side, the number remains same.
he
e) Distributive Property
Observe the multiplication of the numbers inside the
is
re S
brackets by the number outside, given below.
B
bl
Example 1 : 3 × (2 + (−4))= (3 × 2) + (3 × (−4))
Example 2 : [(–2) × (5 − 7)] = [(–2) × 5)] – [(–2) × (–7)]
be T
pu
For any three integers a, b and c
K
a × (b + c) = (a × b) + (a × c)
©
a × (b – c) = (a × b) – (a × c)
Exercise 1.5
to
Verbal problems.
Example 1 : Ramya went to a textile shop to buy trouser pieces
and shirt pieces to her 3 brothers. The cost of a trouser piece is
` 450 and the cost of a shirt piece is ` 320. What is the amount
she has to pay in the textile shop for 3 pairs of dresses?
21
Solution: The cost of a trouser piece = ` 450
Therefore, the cost of 3 trouser pieces = 3 × 450
= ` 1350
The cost of a shirt piece = ` 320
Therefore, the cost of 3 shirt pieces = 3×320
d
= ` 960
he
Therefore, the total amount spent by Ramya in the textiles
= 1350+960
is
re S
total amount = ` 2310.
B
bl
Example 2 : Sona had ` 1020 in her bank account. She
be T
pu
deposited ` 200 on Monday, withdrew ` 500 on the same
K
Solution:
Here depositing the amount is considered as positive and
withdrawing as negative.
The amount Sona had in the bank account = ` 1020
to
d
The loss by selling pencils =`8
he
Number of boxes of pencils sold = 4000
Total loss by selling pencils = 4000 × 8
is
= ` 32000
re S
= 32000 – 30000
B
bl
The total loss by selling pen and pencils = ` 2000
be T
pu
Example 4: A quiz question paper contains 12 questions,
K
Solution:
t
23
Marks given for one incorrect answer = –2
Marks for 4 (10 – 6) incorrect answer = –2 × 4= –8
Therefore, Manjula's total marks = 30 + (–8) = 22
39 > 22, Bharathi scores more
d
Exercise 1.6
he
I. Solve the following Verbal Problems.
is
re S
1) Monika had 5 boxes of chocolates with her. If each box
B
bl
contains 25 chocolates, find the total chocolates she had.
be T
pu
2) Aftab observed that the normal temperature of Bengaluru
K
Evening : 5 pm: + 20 C
24
5) There are 38 students in a class. The cost of a set of books
for one student is `1235. Find the cost of books for 38
sets.
6) In a container 45kg sugar was there. Three years old
Meera spilt 750gm of sugar. How many packets of 250gm
of sugar can be made from the remaining sugar?
d
he
is
re S B
bl
be T
pu
K
t ©
to
No
25
CHAPTER  2
FRACTIONS
d
multiply a fraction by another fraction,
he
understand the use 'of ' in proper order,
write and use reciprocal of a fraction,
is
re S
divide a fraction by a whole number and a whole
B
bl
number by a fraction,
divide a fraction by another fraction,
be T
pu
solve statement problems involving multiplication and
K
division of fractions.
©
1 , 2 , 2 3 , 7 , 11 , 5 , 2 1 , 6 , 15 , 4 1
No
3 5 5 4 9 6 8 13 13 6
Observe each fraction and write in respective row.
d
9 41
2
=
2 2 3 = 11
4 4
he
12 = 2 2 5 1 = 31
5 5 6 6
is
re S
15 2 3
= 4 2 = 30
B
bl 6 6 7 7
be T
12 1 1 6 3 = 33
pu
= 5 5
11 11
K
8
has 3 parts of chocolate. Who has got more chocolate?
4
What is your conclusion?
to
a) b)
t
No
b) 3 = 3 # 2 = 6
4 4#2 8
27
Example 2 :
Shaila decorated 5 part of a school hall and Renu
12
decorated 3 part of the same hall. Find out total part of the
6
hall decorated by them?
The part of the hall decorated by Shaila = 5
12
d
The part of the hall decorated by Renu = 3
6
he
Total part of the hall decorated 5 3
= +
by Shaila and Renu together 12 6
5 3 2
is
= + #
re S
12 6 # 2
5 6
B
bl = +
12 12
5 6 11
= + =
be T
12 12
pu
K
8 3
There was 12 kg of sugar in a container. 8 kg of sugar is
utilized. Find the remaining quantity of sugar in the container?
The sugar in the container = 8 kg
12
The sugar used up 3 kg
=
to
8 The L.C.M. of
Remaining sugar
8 3 denominators
 =
12 8
2 12,8
t
8 2 3 3
= #  # 2 6,4
No
12 # 2 8 # 3
16  9 3,2
=
24 24 2×2×3×2
16  9 7 =24
= =
24 24
∴ Remaining sugar = 7 kg
24
28
Exercise 2.1
21 , 7 , 18 , 6 2 , 5, 3
d
6 12 16 9 4 20
he
II Write two equivalent fractions for each of the following.
1) 3 2) 4 3) 7
is
re S
6 5 10
B
bl
III Reduce the following fractions to the lowest form.
be T
pu
1) 8 2) 18 3) 28
K
12 30 56
©
1) 15 2) 25 3) 97
8 12 4
1) 3 3 2) 8 1 3) 4 5
4 2 6
t
VI Simplify.
No
1 3 2
1) 3 + 5 2) 3 2 + 4 + 5
4 3
3) 9 2 4) 4 3  2 5
15 5 5 6
29
Multiplication of Fractions :
A class teacher gave pictorial problems to solve. Sanvi and
Puneeth solved these problems as follows.
1) There are 5 parts each of 2) There are 3 parts each of
which is 1 . Join them and which is 3 . Join them and
4 4
write write
d
he
1 1 11 11 111 11 111 111 111 1 1 3 11 13 3 3 3
+ + ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ +++ + + + + 3 + + + 3 3 3
4 4 44 44 444 44 444 444 444 4 4 44 + 44 + 44 4 4 4 + +
4 4 4
is
1 1 1 1
1 + 1++ 1 ++1 + 1++ 1 5 1
11 ++ 1
1511 1 11511 1 +3 51 5
re S
=` 4 = ` 4 =4` j =4=++` 4 == `++ +j+= ++= +3j =
+ +j3= = 3 + 3 + 3 3 3 3
4 4 4 4j 4 4 44 4 + 4+ 3 4
43 3 = + +
4
=( )= 5
B
4
= =
5
bl
5 11+1+1+1+1
15 1 15 1 1 5
= = = = = = = = =1 = 1 = 9
44 4 44
1
44
1
5
4
1
4 4
=
4 4 9 4
3 + 3 +=34 =
9
4
be T
1 4 9 1
pu
9 21 = =2 9 1
4 4 = = 9 = =2
4 = 4= 2 1 4 4 4 4
K
4 4
Shreya who is observing the above, posed a question to
©
the teacher.
The above two sums Yes, of course, you are
have repetitive addition right! You can solve the
of fractions. Can we above problems using
multiply these fractions
as we do for whole multiplication process.
to
numbers?
t
No
d
of each circle are shaded?
he
Each circle has 1 part shaded
4
∴Total parts shaded = 1 + 1 + 1 = 1 # 3
is
re S
4 4 4 4
Now the total of 3 shaded parts can be represented
B
bl as below.
be T
That is 3 part.
pu
4
K
Hence # 3 = 1 # 3 = 3 .
1
4 4 4
The numerator is multiplied by the whole number and written
©
1 #3 1 # 3 1#3 3
= = =
4 4 1 4#1 4
t
Example 2 : 2 # 2 = ?
No
5
To find the product of this join the strips of 2 . (two times)
5
2
5
4
+ =
5
2
5
31
Product of Whole number and
numerator 2 #2 2 # 2 2#2 4
= 5 = = =
5 1 5#1 5
Product of denominators
Example 3 : 2 x 3 = ?
9
d
+ + =
is he
Product of the numerators →
re S
2 #3 2 # 3 2#3 6
= = =
Product of the denominators → 9 9 1 9#1 9
B
bl
be T
pu
Alternate method
K
6 3 #2 2 2
= =
9 3 #3 3
6 2
=9 =3
3
Example 4 : 5 # 2
12
to
5 #2 5 2
= = #
12 1 12 # 1
10 2 # 5 ← Common factor of 10 and 12 is 2
= =
12 2 # 6
t
No
2 #5 5
= =
2 # 6 6 ← Answer is in the reduced form
Do it yourself : a) 3 # 2 b) 3 # 3 c) 2 # 4 d) 5 # 3
7 10 9 15
32
Multiplication of improper fraction by a whole number.
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
d
he
1 1 1 1 1
4 4 4 4 4
is
re S
In each group there are
[ 1 5
]
B
bl 4
×5=
4
be T
Total parts 5 #3
pu
=
4
K
5 3 5 3 15
= # = # =
4 1 4#1 4
©
Example 2 : 9 # 3 = ?
7
9 # 3 9 # 3 9 # 3 27 3 6
to
= = = =
7 7 1 7#1 7 7
Example 3 : 10 # 6 = ?
5
t
5 # 12
10 # 6 = 10 # 6 = 10 # 6 = 60 =
No
= 12
5 1 5 1#5 5 5 #1
Do it yourself : a) 8 # 3 b) 13 # 2 c) 6 # 5 d) 12 # 8
5 6 3 7
33
Multiplication of whole numbers by mixed fractions.
Observe these examples
Example 1 : How many parts are given in total ?
1 1
1
4 + 1 1
1
4 + 1 1
1
4
d
21 + 21 + 21 = ?
he
4 4 4
1
Hence 2 of 3.
4 Step 1 : Convert the mixed fraction into
is
1
re S
= 2 #3 improper fraction.
4
9 # 3 9#3
B
=
4 1 4#1
27 6 3
bl
= Step 2 : Then multiply.
The total parts = 6 3
be T
= = 4
pu
4 4
K
19
24 #7 = ? 5 98
Example 2 :
©
5
5
14 # 7 14 # 7 98
= = = 48
5 1 5#1 5
3 45
= 19 3
5
Do it Yourself: a) 5 1 # 7 b) 3 2 # 3 c) 8 # 2 1 d) 12 # 3 1
2 6 4 2
to
34
What is the total parts shaded by Rekha?
We say this as 1 of 3. Let us learn the method of using the
2
"of " in fractions Alternate method
1 of 3 1 # 3
=
'of 'means multiplication,
2 2 1 3 of 1 =
2
1 # 3 3 1 1 consider 'of ' as multiplication 3 # 1
= = = 2
2#1 2 2 use the sign '×'
d
3 1 3 1
= # = =1
∴ Total parts shaded = 1 1 1 2 2 2
he
2
is
re S
Example 2 : Milk business is carried out in Ravi's house. One
day Ravi filled 8 bottles each with 4 litre of milk. Find out
B
bl 5
how many litres of milk did he used to fill 8 bottles
be T
pu
K
©
4 l 4 l 4 l 4 l 4 l 4 l 4 l 4 l
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
4 of 8 Alternate Method
5 4
4 4 #8 8 of 5
= #8 =
t
5 5 1
No
4 8 32 4
= # = = 8#
5#1 5 5
8 4 32 6 2 l
=6 l
2 = # = =
5 1#5 5 5
2 Litres
Quantity of milk filled by Ravi = 6 5
35
Example 3 : In a class of 42 Students, 2 of them practised
7
volley ball, 3 of them practised karate and the remaining
7
practiced Kabbadi.
a) Find the number of students who practiced Volleyball?
b) Find the number of students who practiced Karate?
d
c) Find the number of students who practiced Kabbadi?
he
a) The number of students = 2 of 42
7
who practiced Volley ball 2 2 # 426
= # 42 =
is
7 7
re S
1
= 12
B
bl
∴ Number of students who practiced volley ball = 12
be T
= 42  30
= 12
t
Do it yourself :1) a) 3 of 9 b) 2 of 15 c) 5 of 4 d) 5 of 20
4 6 7 6
2) There are 45 students in a class. Of them 3 are girls.
5
Find out the number of girls and number of boys in this
class
36
Exercise 2.2
d
4 4
he
1) 1
4
1
+4 + 4 +4 +4
1 1 1
= ___× ___
is
re S
2)
1
+
1
+
1
= ___× ___
B
2
bl 2 2
be T
pu
+ = ___× ___
K
3)
©
1 1 1 1
4) 1
3
+ 1
3
+ 1
3
+ 1
3
= _× _
3 3 3 3
A. 1) 2 # 2 2) 4 # 3 3) 2 # 5 4) 7 # 6
7 5 9 8
t
No
5) 9 # 1 6) 10 # 2 7) 15 # 3 8) 13 # 1
2 3 5 4
B. 1) 2 1 # 5 2) 3 1 # 8 3) 6 3 # 4 4) 9 # 2 1
4 2 5 2
5) 3 # 4 3 6) 2 # 1 3 7) 14 # 2 1 8) 30 # 3 7
5 10 7 10
37
III. Simplify and write the answer in its lowest form.
4) 1) 6 of 2 2) 10 of 3 3) 16 of 1 4) 28 of 2
3 5 8 7
5) 3 of 20 6) 2 of 56 7) 7 of 6 8) 5 of 4
4 8 10 9
3) 1) Madhu scored 3 of 50 marks in maths test. Find the
d
5
marks scored by her
he
2) A school arranged an excursion for 60 students. The
is
students were asked to bring lunch for themselves. 3
re S
12
of them brought Chapathis, 2 of them brought Pulao
B
bl 5
and 7 of them brought Chitranna. Find the
be T
20
pu
a) number of students who brought Chapathis
K
4
taken by her neighbour. Find how much sugar the neighbour
took?
t
4
1 3
The quantity taken by the neighbour = of kg
2 4
1 #3
=
2 4
3
= kg
8
38
There are two fractions in this problem and we will learn
to find out the product of it. Let us understand the method
of multiplying a fraction by another fraction.
Example 1 :
What is the 1 part of shaded region in figure?
4
Shaded region = 1
d
2
1 of the shaded region is = 1 of 1
he
4 4 2
is
re S
one part from it. 1 of 1 is 1 the part of the whole thing.
B
bl 4
1 of 1
2 8
4 2
pu
1 #1 fractions and write as the numerator
=
K
4 2
1 1 1 Multiply denominator of both
= # =
©
2 4
=
3 #1 numerator
4 2
denominator
t
3 1 3
= # = kg
No
4#2 8
39
3 of 1 1 of 3
Verify : 4 2 and 2 4. Are they equal?
Do it yourself : a) 1 # 1 b) 3 # 1
3 4 5 3
c) 5 # 2 d) 3 # 2
6 7 8 5
d
mixed fractions. Let us learn it now.
he
Example 1 :
is
re S
Veena bought 4 1 m cloth to prepare a doll. She used 1
2 3
B
bl
of the cloth to prepare one doll. Find the length of cloth she
used to prepare a doll?
be T
pu
The length of the cloth bought by Veena = 4 1 m
K
2
The length used for preparing one doll 1 of4 1
©
3 2
1 #4 1
3 2
1 #9
=
3 2 [convert 4 12 into improper fractions]
9 1 9
= # =
3#2 6
to
3 #3 3 1
= = = 1 [taking common factor]
2 #
3 2 2
t
2
Example 2 :
The rate of 1 metre ribbon is ` 4 3 . Gowthami purchased
5
2 1 metre length of the ribbon. Find the cost of the ribbon she
2
purchased
40
The cost of 1m ribbon = ` 43
5
The cost of 2 1 m ribbon = ` 4 3 # 2 1 ←[Here there are two
2 5 2
mixed fractions]
23 # 5 ← [Both converted into
1
=
51 2
improper fractions and
d
multiplied]
he
23 1
2 = 11 2
1
is
∴ Cost of the ribbon is ` 11 2
re S B
bl Exercise 2.3
be T
pu
K
1) 5 # 2 2) 7 # 3 3) 4 # 7 4) 9 # 5
©
6 3 8 4 5 9 5 3
5) 1 # 7 6) 11 # 3 7) 4 # 9 8) 1 # 13
3 9 3 10 7 5 2 12
1) 3 # 2 1 2) 4 # 3 5 3) 5 # 2 1 4) 3 # 4 1
4 5 5 6 3 2 7 3
t
5) 4 3 # 2 1 6)5 1 # 3 7) 3 5 # 5 8) 6 1 # 3 1
No
5 2 4 2 9 4 5
III. Do it yourself:
1) 3 2 # 4 2) 4 2 # 3 3) 5 3 # 2 1 4) 25 # 3 1
5 3 5 4 2 2
41
IV. Solve the problems.
d
of 1 3 hour a day. She completed reading the book in 6
he
4
days. Calculate the number of hours she took to read
novel completely.
is
re S
4) The cost of 1m zip is ` 5 1 . Find the cost of 8 4 m zip?
B
bl 4
1
5
5) A thin rectangular sheet of metal has 3 m length and
2
be T
Division of fractions
Radha distributed 4 biscuits among her friends such that
each got half of a biscuit. How many friends of Radha got 1
2
biscuits. This is shown below.
to
42
The 4 biscuits are distributed among 8 friends then each
will get half bisect.
It can be written as 4 ' 1 = 8
2
That means 1 #8 4
=
2
Let us study the operation used here.
When 4 is divided by 1 means 4 # 2 getting 8 halves
d
2 1
he
i.e, 4 is multiplied by 2
By inter changing the numerator
4 ' 12
and denominator of 1 we get 2 .
is
re S
2 8 2 1
= 4# = This is the inverse of 1
1 1 2
B
=8
bl
be T
Reciprocal of 3 is 5 Reciprocal of 7 is 8
5 3 8 7
Reciprocal of 9 is 4 Reciprocal of 2 is 3
4 9 3 2
to
43
• What is the inverse of 8?
8 is written as 8
1
8=
8
1
( )
The inverse of 8 is 1
8
Observe the product when a fraction is multiplied by its
inverse.
d
1 #4 4 1 1
= = =
What is your inference?
4 1 4 1
he
2 # 5 10 1 1
= = =
5 2 10 1
2 #3 6 1 1
= = =
is
3 2 6 1
re S
5#1 = 5 =1 = 1
5 5 1
B
bl
Note: Any number except zero is multiplied by its inverse
be T
pu
the product is equal to 1.
K
a) 3 b) 5 c) 13 d) 3 1
4 9 4
= # process .
1 3
32 10 2
= =
3 3
44
Example 2 : How many 1 part can be obtained from three
4
circular discs?
d
he
From three discs we can get 12 equal parts each of which
is
re S
are 1 of the circle.
4
B
bl
This can be written as
be T
45
Do it yourself: a) 6 ' 3 b) 8 ' 1 c) 2 ' 3
5 4 5
d) 9 ' 3 e) 15 ' 2 1 f) 12 ' 3 1
7 2 4
d
Here divisor is 2, multiply dividend by the inverse of 2.
he
3 '2 3 # 1 3
= =
5 5 2 10
is
re S
Similarly
B
bl
1) 7 ' 5 = 7 # 1 =
be T
8 8 5
pu
K
2) 5 ' 10 = =
©
51 '9
4
21 ' 9 21 # 1 21
= = =
4 4 9 36
t
Similarly
No
1) 3 1 ' 5 = 7 ' 5 = 7 # 1 =
2 2 2 5
2) 4 2 ' 7 = = =
3
46
Division of a fraction by a fraction
Example 1 : 1 ' 3 , 1 is divided by 3 Here 1 is to be
4 5 4 5 4
3
multiplied by the reciprocal of the divisor .
5
Then 1 ' 3 = 1 # 5 = 5
4 5 4 3 12
Example 2 : 2 ' 3
d
3 8
2 ' 3 2 # 8 16 1 7
he
=
3 8 3 3
=
9
=
9
Similarly 1) 7 1
' = 7 3
# = =
10 3 10 1
is
re S B
bl 2) 5 ' 3 =
6 7
=
be T
pu
Try this : a) 8 ' 2 , b) 3 ' 9 , c) 2 3 ' 5 , d) 5 ' 1
K
9 7 5 10 4 12 11 2
©
Exercise 2.4
I. Simplify.
7 3 7
II. Write the inverse of these.
t
2 1
1) 5 2) 7 3) 12
No
9
4) 2 1 5) 9 6) 4 2
6 3
III. Simplify.
2 6
1) 3 ' 5 2) 7 ' 3 3) 7 ' 13
8
4) ' 4 5) 2 3 ' 7 6) 3 1 ' 14
9
5 4 2
47
IV. Simplify.
d
1) The cost of 6 chocolates is `10 1 . What is the cost of one
2
he
chocolate?
2) A school was provided with 12 3 l of milk for a day. Each
4
is
re S
child was given 3 l of milk. Find out how many children
20
B
bl
got the milk?
be T
2
each note book.
©
Mixed Operations
We come across many instances in our daily life,
to
48
3
1
2
( 2 )
3
4
+
1
2
=
7
2
( )
11 1 × 2 ← L.C.M of the denominators of
+
4 2×2
fractions which are to be added
=
7
2
( )
11
4
+
2
4
=
2×2

7 × 2 13
4
← Equalising the Denominator
=
14
 =
13 14  13
=
1
d
4 4 4 4
he
∴ Remaining amount with Asma = ` 1
4
BODMAS means divide first, then multiply, then add and
is
re S
at last substract.
B
bl
Example 2 : A tailor bought 12 pieces of cloth, each measuring
2 m. He stitched two curtains each measuring 2 1 m. Calculate
be T
5 8
pu
the length of the remaining cloth.
K
= ( 25 × 12)  (2 18 × 2)
=(
2
× 12 )  ( 17 × 21 )
t
5 1 8
No
=
24
5
 17
4 ← The
=
24 × 4
5×4
 174×5
×5
denominators
=
96
20
 85
20
are equalized
96  85 11
= =
20 20
11
∴ Remaining length of the cloth =
20
m
49
Example 3 : Simplify : 2 1 # 1 + 1 ' 2  1
2 2 4 5 2
In the above sum there are multiplication, addition,
division and subtraction.
Remember
According to BODMAS rule we have to do division first then
d
multiplication, addition and finally subtraction.
he
Solution: 2
1
2
× 1
2
+ ( 14 ÷ 2
5
) 1
2
is
re S B
2
bl 1
2
× 1
2
( 58 )  12
+
1 '2 1 #5 5
=
4 5 4 2 8
=
Step 1
be T
( 1
× ) + 58  12
1
pu
= 2
2 2
K
5 5 1
©
+ 
4 8 2
Step 2 21 # 1 = 5 # 1 = 5
=
5
4
(
+
5
8

1
2
) 2 2 2 2 4
Step 3 15  1 5 5 5#2 5
+ = +
8 2 4 8 4#2 8
to
15  1 # 4 10 + 5 15
= =
8 2#4 8 8
15  4
=
8 8
t
15  4 11
No
= =
8 8
Step 4 11 1 3
=
8 8
50
Exercise 2.5
I. Simplify.
1) 7  1 # 1 2) 2 3 + 3 # 1 1  3 3) 2 1 # 3  1 ' 2 1
8 4 2 5 5 2 10 4 4 4 2
4) 4 1  1 ' 1 + 3 5) 2 3 + 3 # 7 6) 3 4 1 1
+ ' #
d
2 4 5 5 5 5 2 15 5 3 4
II. Solve these problems.
he
1) A school bought 15 m ribbon for a function. Out of
is
re S
which 4 14 m , is used for arch (toran), 4 7 m is used
10
B
bl
for badges, remaining length is used for decorating the
be T
pu
manuscript magazine. Find the length of the ribbon
K
2
The shop keeper has ' 1 m' scale. How many times has
2
he to use this scale to measure 2 1 m cloth?
t
2
No
51
CHAPTER  3
RATIONAL NUMBERS
After studying this chapter you will:
know the meaning, standard form and equivalents of
rational numbers,
d
develop the skill of representing the rational numbers
he
on a number line,
know the comparison of rational numbers, method of
is
finding the rational numbers between any two rational
re S
numbers,
B
bl
know about operations on rational numbers (Addition,
be T
decimal form,
know the multiplication, division operation of decimal
numbers. Also know the method of solving problems
related to them,
understand the method of converting measuring units
(about measurement of length and mass).
to
52
In the beginning only natural numbers were there in use
'0' (zero) is invented to represent the non existence of an object.
In this way whole numbers came into existence. Integers set
developed because negative numbers also occur, while finding
the difference of two natural numbers.
(Example : 35=2, 1015=5), a new set of numbers like  5
is obtained, these are called negative integers. So, due to the
d
necessity, the development of integers set came to existence.
he
Know this : A well defined, related objects, ideas, or
numbers represents a set.
is
re S
In the same way, while dividing one integer by another
B
bl
integer, a new set will be obtained. Example : 5 3 ,  10 . These
7
numbers are not in integer set. So the set of rational numbers
be T
pu
(Q) came into existence.
K
p
All the numbers of the form q
are rational numbers.
p
In q
, q ≠ o and p,q are integers.
t
No
d
number, whole number and integers.
he
Therefore, it is the biggest set.
Think! All fractions are rational numbers. But all rational
is
numbers are not fractions? Give reason.
re S B
p bl
Know this : rational number is derived from the word
ratio q = p : q
be T
pu
K
5 4 10 7 11
In these numbers the common factor of numerator and
denominator is 1 (or H.C.F is 1). These rational numbers are
said to be in standard (simplest) form.
Consider 4 (Divide both numerator and
to
10
denominator by 2)
4 2 Standard form of 4 is 2
` =
10 5 10 5
t
No
15 = 15
3
3
= . (Divide both numerator and
25 25 5 5
denominator by 5)
3 is standard form of 15
5 25
d
he
Recall the method of obtaining equivalent fractions. In the
same way equivalent rational numbers can be obtained by
is
multiplying or dividing both numerator and denominator of
re S
a rational number by the same nonzero integer.
B
bl
Example 1 :Write 4 equivalent rational numbers of 2 .
be T
3
pu
a) 2 # 2 = 4 b) 2 # 3 = 6 c) 2 # 4 = 8 d) 2 # 5 = 10
K
3#2 6 3#3 9 3 # 4 12 3 # 5 15
Example 2 : Write 4 equivalent rational numbers of  5
©
7
a)  5 # 2 =  10 b)  5 # 3 =  15
7#2 14 7#3 21
c)  5 # 4 =  20 d)  5 # 5 =  25
7#4 28 7#5 35
Example 3 : Write 4 rational numbers equivalent to 40 .
to
80
a) 40 ' 2 20 b) 40 ' 4 10
= =
80 ' 2 40 80 ' 4 20
t
c) 40 ' 5 = 8 d) 40 ' 10 = 4
No
80 ' 5 16 80 ' 10 8
p1 p2
Know this: If q1 and q2 are equivalent rational numbers.
Then p1 × q2 = p2 × q1.
55
Representing (locating) rational numbers on a
number Line :
Already, you know the method of representing whole
numbers and integers on a number line:
On the number line, positive integers are on the right
side and negative integers are on the left side of zero at equal
d
distance.
he
Example 1 : Represent 3 on a number line.
5
is
To represent a rational number on the number line, divide
re S
the unit length on the number line into the number of parts
B
bl
as in the denominator of the rational number. Then mark the
be T
1 0 +1
0 3
+
©
5
Note that the distance between 0 and 1 is divided into 5
equal parts
Example 2 : Represent 5 on a number line
2
to
3 2 1 0 +1 +2 +3
0 5
2
t
No
56
Exercise 3.1
2) 3 is a rational number.
d
0
3)  3 is a fraction.
he
4
4) 5 is a not rational number.
7
is
5) 0 is a rational number.
re S
4
B

8 bl
6) 5 is a positive rational number.
be T
1) 28 2) 120 3)  15 4)  32
20 150 40  56
III. Write 4 equivalent rational numbers to each of the
following.
1)  2 2) 3 3) 4 4) 80
9 10 5 96
to
1) 3 ,  4 , 5 2) 7 , 5 , 9
No
7 7 7 4 4 4
3) ,  2 , 8 4)
5 6 , 7 , 8
3 3 3 5 5 5
V. Group the following rational numbers as positive and
negative rational numbers.
 4 , 7 , 5 ,  10 , 7 ,  2 ,  11
5 6  3  7 9 15  6
57
VI. Fill up the blanks.
1) 3 = 12 2)  5 = 3)  12 =  3
4 6 24 28
4) 15 = 5)  18 = 9 6) =
5
20 4 14  12 2
d
You have learnt addition, subtraction, multiplication
and division of integers and fractions. Now, let us do these
he
operations with rational numbers.
Addition : Rule used in the addition of fractions is to be
is
re S
used here also. If denominator is same, then write the same
B
bl
denominator and add the numerator and write as numerator.
be T
Example 1 :
pu
K
10 10 10 10 5
Example 2 :
t
No
a) 2 1 8 + 3 11 LCM of 3 and 4 = 12
+ = =
3 4 12 12
b)
( 35 )+ 10
7
6 + 7 1 LCM of 5 and 10 = 10
=
7 10
58
c)
( 56 )+( 45 ) LCM of 6 and 5 = 30
ú25 + 24 49
=
30 30
d) 5 1 3 LCM of 3,2,4 = 12
+ + 2 3,2,4
3 2 4
2 × 3 × 2 = 12 3 3,1,2
20 + 6 + 9 35
= = 2 1,1,2
d
12 12 1,1,1
he
Example 3 : Shanthamma bought 1 kg beans, 1 kg green
2 4
is
chillies, 3 kg potatoes, 1 kg ginger from a vegetable shop.
re S
2 10
What is the total weight of vegetables she bought?
B
Solution:
bl
be T
pu
Weight of beans = 1 kg
K
2
Weight of green chillies = 1 kg
©
4
Weight of potato = 3 kg
2
Weight of ginger = 1 kg
10
∴Total weight = 1 + 1 + 3 + 1 LCM of 2, 4, 2, 10 = 20
2 4 2 10
10 + 5 + 30 + 2 2 2,4,2,10
to
= 2 1,2,1,5
20
47 5 1,1,1,5
= 1,1,1,1
20
t
7 kg
=2
No
20
2 × 2 × 5 = 20
59
Solution:
Cloth required to stitch a shirt = 5 m
4
Cloth required to stitch a pant = 2 m
3
Cloth required to stitch a cap = 1 m
4
5 2
∴ Total cloth required = + 1 LCM of 4, 3, 4
+
d
4 3 4
15 + 8 + 3 4 4,3,4
he
= 3 1,3,1
12 1,1,1
26
=
12
is
re S
2
=2
12
B
LCM bl =2 m
1
6 4 × 3 = 12
be T
Subtraction :
In integers, when we subtract 5 from 8, we write 8 5, That
can be written as 8 + (5), which means the additive inverse
60
of the number to be subtracted is added.
To subtract 4 from 7 means 4 is subtracted from 7.
i.e., 7 + 4 = 11 ( Additive inverse of 4 is + 4)
In the subtraction of rational numbers, same method to
be followed.
Example 1 : a) Subtract 1 from 5 .
d
7 7
he
=
5
7
+ ( ) =
5
7

1
7
1
7
=
5 1
7
=
4
7
b) Subtract  1 from 7 .
is
8 8
re S
=
7
8
1
8
( ) =
7
8
+
1
8
=
7 +1
8
81
= 1 =1
8
B
bl
be T
proceed.
Example 2 : Subtract 2 from 5 LCM of 6 and 3 =
©
3 6
3 6,3
5 2 = 54 1 2 2,1
= = 1,1 3×2=6
6 3 6 6
Example 3 : Subtract 3 from 11 LCM of 7 and 4 = 28
4 7
7 7,4
11  3 = 4 1,4
to
7 4 1,1
44  21
= 7 × 4 = 28
28
23
t
=
28
No
61
Example 5 : A teacher brought 13 3 kg sweets to distribute
4
among the children, on the occasion of Gandhi Jayanthi.
If he distributes 12 7 kg sweets to the children, what is the
8
weight of remaining sweets ?
Solution :
Total weight of sweet brought = 13 3 kg
4
Weight of sweet distributed among the children = 12 7 Kg
d
8
3
∴ Weight of remaining sweet = 13  12 7 4 4,8
he
4 8 2 1,2
55  103 1,1
=
4 8
is
110  103
re S
= 4×2=8
8
B
bl
∴ Weight of remaining sweet = 7 kg
8
be T
by him?
Solution :
Part of the salary used for food by Rahim in a month = 1
2
Part of the salary used for children's education = 1
to
5
Part of the salary used for other expenses = = 1
4
∴ Total part of salary spent 1 1 1 2 2,5,4
t
= + + 5 1,5,2
No
2 5 4
2 1,1,2
10 + 4 + 5 1,1,1
=
20
19
2 = × 5 × 2 = 20
20
LCM of 2, 5, 2 = 20
62
19
∴ Remaining part of the salary = 1  20
20  19
=
20
1
=
20
d
Exercise 3.2
he
1) Find the sum of the following.
is
re S
a) 2 + 7 b) 2 + 2 c)  3 + 5 d) 5 + 1 + 3
5 10 3 9 5 6 7 3 2
B
bl
2) Subtract.
be T
pu
a) 5 from 1
b) 5 from  1
8 4 6 6
K
c) 3 from 4 d) 7 from 3
©
5 15 8 4
3) Usha bought 5 3 kg of pulses and 2 2 kg of vegetables
4 3
from the market. What was the total weight of pulses and
vegetables she bought?
4) As "Kshira Bhagya" plan a school got 15 3 kg milk powder
4
to
1
per week. 14 5 Kg of milk powder is used, what is the
quantity of remaining milk powder?
t
7 3
m of cloth for his son and 3 3
4
m cloth for his daughter is
used for stitching dress. What is the length of remaining
cloth?
6) There are four cows in Leela's house. One day 20 3 l of
5
milk is collected from them. If Leela sold 18 2 l out of this,
3
what is the quantity of milk remaining?
63
Multiplication of rational numbers :
Example 1 :
Note : While multiplying rational
a) 3 # 3 = 9
d
4 1 4 numbers, multiply the numerator by
the numerator and the denominator
he
b) 2 # 4 = 8 by the denominator
3 3 9
is
re S
15
c) 3 × 5= 4
B
4
21 bl
×( 43 ) = 3
be T
d)
pu
5 2
10
K
31
e) #1 # 5 = 1#5 = 5
4 2 6 2 4 # 2 # 2 16
©
Solution :
to
2 # 100
= 20
= 40 pages.
51
64
3
Solution : Cost of 1 m of cloth ` 30 4
3 1
Cost of 14 1 m of cloth = 30 4 14 2
2
123 29
=
4 2
3567 7
= = 445
8 8
d
1 7
Therefore, the cost of 14 2 m cloth = `445 8
he
Multiplicative inverse (Reciprocal) of rational numbers:
is
re S
To obtain the reciprocal (multiplicative inverse) of a rational
B
bl
number, interchange the numbers in the numerator and
be T
4 3
2) Multiplicative inverse of 5 is 2
©
2 5
3) Multiplicative inverse of 3 is 10
10 3
4) Multiplicative inverse of 4 is 1
4
5) Multiplicative inverse of a is 1 . (where a≠0)
a
to
1 i.e; a # 1 = 1 ).
a
Think ! : '0' has no multiplicative inverse. Why?
Division of rational numbers :
We know that dividing a fraction by another fraction
means, multiplying the dividend by the reciprocal of the
divisor. Division of rational numbers to be done in the same
65
way.
21 3
Example 1 : a) 3 ' 1 means 3 # =
4 2 42 1 2
10 2  4
b) 2 ' 3 means  2 # =
5 10 51 3 3
 31
c)  5 '  4 =  5 # =+
5
d
6 3 62 4 8
31
he
d) 3 ' 6 = # 7 = 7
8 7 8 6 2 16
is
42 3 6
÷
re S
e) 4 2
= × =
5 3 5 2 5
B
bl f)  12 ' 10 =
12 6
# 1
=
62
=
2
be T
15 15 10 5 75 25 25
pu
K
451
# 1
No
=
4 451
1
=
Each student gets 1 l of milk 4
4 3
3) Find the weight of apple got by each, if 3 kg of apple
5
is shared equally by 3 friends.
Solution :
Total weight of apple = 3 3 kg.
5
66
Number of friends who shared the apple = 3
∴ Weight of apple each gets = 3 3 ' 3
5
18 ' 3
=
5
618
= #1
5 31
6
=
d
5
1
=1
he
5
∴ Each of the friends gets 1 1 kg of apple
5
Exercise 3.4
is
re S
I) Multiply the following:
B
bl
1) 5 # 3 2)  7 # 5 3) 7 # 3
be T
4 10 8 42 15 14
pu
K
4) 5 # 2 5) 7 # 6 # 2 6) 9 # 5 # 2
6 15 9 8 7 10 3 3
©
1) 3 2) 9 3) 10
5 4
4) 7 5) 1
to
6) 0.
2 5
IV) Write the multiplicative inverse (reciprocal) of the
following.
t
No
1) 9 2) 5 3) 13 4) 5
10 6 18 7
V) A box has 15 3 kg sugar. How many packets of each
4
containing 1 3 kg can be made?
4
VI) A student requires 2 3 m cloth for an uniform. Find the
4
total length of cloth required to stitch uniform for 44 such
students?
67
VII) A rectangular garden has length 3 1 m and breadth 2 3 m
5 4
What is its area?
VIII) In a school 20 4 l of milk is brought for distribution.
5
If 1 l of milk is given to each student, find the number of
5
students in the school?
d
To write rational numbers as decimals.
he
You know already, the method of writing fractions in
decimal form. In the same way, rational numbers can be
is
written in decimal form.
re S
Decimal numbers have two parts.
B
bl
In 61.35, 61 is the integer part and 35 is the decimal part.
be T
pu
Method of reading 61.35 → Sixty one point three five.
K
Example 1 :
No
a) 7 = 0.7 b) 27 = 2.7
10 10
c) 3 = 0.6 d) 3 = 0.75
5 4
68
e) 1
= 0.005 f) 1 = 0.3333 ...
200 3
g) 5 = 0.8333
h) 1 = 0.090909 ...
d
6
11
is he
re S B
bl
In the same way, any rational number can be expressed
be T
in decimal form.
pu
If we observe the above examples while writing a rational
K
show that the digits are repeated in the decimal part. These
are called, repeating decimals or recurring decimals.
1) Terminating decimals :
t
No
69
Think ! All rational numbers can be written as terminat
ing or recurring decimals. But if digits in the decimal part
neither end nor repeat then what type of numbers are they.
Can they be written in the form a ?
b
Examples of converting rational numbers into decimals
d
A) 2 = 0.285714285714 b) 1 5 = 1.555 ...
7 9
he
14 1.555 ...
=
9
is
re S B
bl
be T
pu
c) 4 2 = 62 = 4.133 ...
K
15 15
©
d) 3
= 0.024
to
125
t
No
Exercise 3.5
1) 4 2) 3 3) 5 4) 3
5 8 16 14
70
II) Identify terminating, non terminating and recurring
decimals.
1) 5 2) 1 3) 2 4) 1
8 12 9 16
3) Classify the following decimals as terminating, non
terminating, recurring and not belonging to any of this
group of decimals.
d
a) 8.751 b) 2.5444 ...
he
c) 0.0303... d) 9.2874
e) 2.456731456731456731 ... f) 10.56173824931685...
is
re S
g) 3.147521896397...
B
bl
To write the decimals as rational numbers :
be T
pu
To convert a decimal into a rational number, write the
K
b) 0.12×0.6 = 0.072
c) 1.2×1.5 = 1.80
d) 0.003×0.12 = 0.00036
71
e) 0.13×0.0005 = 0.000065
f) 3.41×2.678 = 9.13198
Example 2 : What is the area of a rectangle, if its length is
4.7 cm and breadth is 3.5 cm?
Length of a rectangle = 4.7 cm
Breadth of a rectangle = 3.5 cm
d
∴ Area of a rectangle = Length × Breadth
he
= 4.7 × 3.5 = 16.45 sq. cm
Example 3 : Find the cost of 3.20 m of cloth, if the cost of
is
1 m of cloth is ` 98.75
re S
Cost of 1 m of cloth
B
bl
∴ Cost of 3.20 m of cloth
= ` 98.75
= 98.75 × 3.20
be T
pu
Cost of 3.20 m of cloth = ` 316
K
Example 1 :
No
72
To divide decimal number by a decimal:
Example 1 :
a) 8.4 b) 3.24
0.4 1.8
21 3.24 # 100
8.4 # 10 84 =
1.8 # 100
= = = 21
0.4 # 10 4
32418 18
d
= = = 1.8
18010 10
he
Note: Multiply both numerator and denominator by the
same integer to remove decimal points and then divide.
is
re S
c) 6.25 d) 0.729 ' 1.80
B
12.5
bl
6.25 # 100 625 25
1
1
=
0.729
1.80
be T
= = = 81
pu
12.5 # 100 1250
50
2 0.729 # 1000 729 243 81
2 = = =
K
Observe :
To make an integer a number having 1 decimal place must
be multiplied by 10, 2 decimal place by 100 ... continued.
Example 2 :
to
48.4
=
1.1
= 44 km/hr
73
Example 3 :
If Kavitha purchased 12.5 m cloth for ` 427.50 to stitch the
dress for her children, then find the cost of cloth per meter?
d
∴ Cost of cloth per metre = 427.50 ÷ 12.5
he
427.50 # 100
12.50 # 100
4275 0171 171
is
re S
= =
1250 5
B
bl
∴ Cost of cloth per metre =
`34.20
5
be T
pu
K
know this
©
Exercise 3.6
I. Multiply.
t
No
1) 8.6×4 2) 3.75×2
3) 4.105×9 4) 2.56×1.3
5) 0.03×1.456 6) 11.2×0.15
74
II. Divide.
1) 0.42÷6 2) 0.144÷12
3) 4.97÷10 4) 6.75÷0.25
5) 2.86÷1.3 6) 68.8÷0.16
d
he
1) If the cost of sugar per kg is ` 35.45 then find the cost of
20.25 kg of sugar.
is
2) If a bus travels 4.25 hrs at a speed of 28.25KM per hour then
re S
find the distance travelled by it.
B
bl
3) If a car travels 21.5 km distance per litre of petrol then find
be T
75
know this
1 inch = 2.54 cm 1 ounce = 28.35 gram
d
3 feet = 1 yard 1 metre = 100 cm
he
220 yards = 1 furlong 1 cm = 10 mm
is
re S
1 mile = 1.61 kilometer 1 gram = 1000 milli gram
B
1 km bl= 0.62 mile
be T
pu
Do you know this?
K
a) 45 m = 45 × 100 = 4500 cm
No
c) 4 3 m = 19 # 100 = 19 # 25 = 475 cm
4 4
d) 3.02 m = 3.02 × 100 = 302.00 = 302 cm
Note : To convert metre into cm it should be multiplied by
100 a 1m = 100 cm 1 cm = 1 m
100
76
Example 2 : Convert these into metres.
a) 20 cm = 20 = 1 m
100 5
b) 2 cm = 2 = 1 m
100 50
c) 415 cm = 415 = 4.15 m
100
d
d) 0.003 cm = 0.003 # 1 = 3 # 1 = 3 m
100 1000 100 100000
he
e) 4.5 km = 4.5 × 1000 = 4500 m
is
re S
f) 25 km = 25 × 1000 = 25000 m
B
bl
g) 2.1 km = 2.1 × 1000 = 2100 m
be T
pu
Example 3 : Write these in cm.
K
a) 6mm b) 23 mm c) 276 mm
= 23 = 2.3 cm
©
= 6 # 1 = 3 cm 10 = 276 = 27.6 cm
10 5 10
200
a) 720 g b) 3150 g
No
77
Example 6 : Write these in grams.
a) 1.4 kg c) 3.42 kg
b) 10 1 kg
2
1.4×1000 3.42 kg
10 1 kg =
2
= 1400 g 21 # 1000500 10500 g = 3.42 × 1000 = 3420 g
=
21
d
Example 7 : Write these in grams.
he
a) 740 mg b) 210 mg
740 74 37 g 210
= = 21 g
is
1000 100 50 =
1000 100
re S B
bl
Example 8 : Write 125 mg in kg.
1000gm = 1kg
be T
51
pu
1255 # 1
= 1000000mg = 1kg
K
1 kg
=
8000
78
Exercise 3.7
a) 2.51 kg b) 72.5 mg
d
a) 625 gm b) 10825 mg
he
3) Write these in kilo metres
is
re S
4) Write these in metres
B
bl
a) 2.7 km b) 7525 cm c) 1.58 km
be T
pu
K
5) Write these in cm
©
a) 12.5 m b) 4.7 km
to
t
No
79
CHAPTER– 4
ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS
After studying this chapter you :
come to know algebraic expressions,
define meaning of algebraic expression,
d
obtain algebraic expressions by combining variables
he
with themselves or with other variables,
convert verbal statements into algebraic expression.
is
comprehend the meaning of degree of algebraic
re S
expression,
B
bl
apply fundamental operations to algebraic expressions.
be T
pu
Introduction :
K
80
Suma and Madhu went on forming the letter 'C' by using
matchsticks and put them one after the other.
Finally they thought of preparing
a table which shows relation between
d
number of sticks required and number
he
of 'C's
No. of 1 2 3 4 5 ... 20 ... 25 ... n
'C' formed
is
re S
No. of 3 6 9 12 15 ... 60 ... 75 ... 3n
B
bl
sticks used 1×3 2×3 3×3 4×3 5×3 ... 20×3 ... 25×3 ... n×3
be T
that is
Number of matchsticks required=3×number of 'C's to form 'c'.
©
If 'n' stands for number of 'C's formed, then, number of
matchsticks required = 3 × n = 3n
We know that 'n' is a literal number
Thus,
to
81
The word "variable" means some thing that can vary ie.,
change. The value of a variable is not fixed. It can take different
values. Yah, a,b,c,....x,y,z
some examples for variable, are used to repre
sent variables as
You know that; well as unknowns.
Area of rectangle = Length × Breadth
d
A = l × b
he
In the following table different rectangle of same area is
is
listed.
re S
Name of Measures of
B
rectangle bl length (l) breadth(b) Area A = l × b
be T
pu
cm cm sq cm
K
ABCD 20 cm 3 cm 60 sq cm
©
PQRS 15 cm 4 cm 60 sq cm
KLMN 12 cm 5 cm 60 sq cm
to
WXYZ 10 cm 6 cm 60 sq cm
The above table shows 'l' has different values for different
t
rectangles. Thus the literal numbers like 'l' and 'b' are called
variables.
A variable is a literal number or any symbol which
attains different values according to the situation.
The symbols that are used to represent unknown numbers
are also called variables.
82
Know this :
Historical Background :
Around 300 BC, use of letters to denote unknowns
and forming expressions from them was quite common
in India. Many great mathematicians – Aryabhatta
(476 AD), Brahmagupta (598 AD), Mahavira (who lived
around 850 AD) and Bhaskara II (1114 AD) contributed a
d
lot to the study of algebra. They name dvariables as beeja,
he
varna. The Indian name for algebra is Beejaganit.
Francois Viete, one of the great mathematicians of 16th
century, was the first person who used letters to describe
is
re S
general arithmetic patterns.
B
Constant :bl
be T
pu
Can the number of sides of a triangle be more than 3 ?
K
d
m are algebraic terms
18 by 2 i.e., 18 ÷ 2 = 9
he
Can you find the product of x and 3 ?
is
re S
Yes, the product is 3 x
B
bl
Can you find the quotient obtained by dividing y by 4 ?
be T
y
Yes, the quotient is 4
pu
y
K
variable
In the algebraic term
t
84
Exercise 4.1
I. Make a list of the variable or variables in each of the
following algebraic terms
1) 5x 2) –3a 3) 7x y 4) 3 x 2y
4
5) 0.8a2b 6) m2n2 7) xyz 8) –5m2np
d
2. Make a list of the numerical constant in each of the
following algebraic terms
he
1) 2x 2) –5x 2y 3) m2n 4) –8p
6) 3 x 2y
is
5) 9p2qr 7) 0.5pqr2 8) 0.008mn
re S
4
B
bl Algebraic Expressions
be T
Similarly,
The product of a number and 8 is 88
t
No
8× = 88
i.e., 8 × 11 = 88
Therefore the required number is 11.
If we have too many unknown quantities, it becomes
difficult to create mathematical statement. To simplify we
denote unknown quantities by the variables x, y, z and so on.
85
Consider the following example
A girl is now 10 years old. How old will she be
1) 5 years later ?
2) 3 years ago ?
3) x years later ?
d
4) y years ago ?
he
Solution : The girl becomes 1 year older every year.
1) 5 years later she will be (10 + 5) = 15 years old.
is
2) 3 years ago she was (10 – 3) = 7 years old.
re S
3) 'x' years later she will be (10 + x) years old.
B
bl
4) 'y' years ago she was (10 – y) years old.
be T
pu
The expressions (10 + x), (10 – y) which contain variables
K
IIIly 2 × y × y = 2y2
No
a because
How is 3x + 2 obtained ?
The expression 3x + 2 is
obtained by multiplying x by 3 and adding 2 to the product.
i.e., (x × 3) + 2 = 3x + 2
86
How is 2pq + 7 obtained ?
The expression 2pq + 7 is obtained as follows;
By multiplying p and q we get pq, then multiplying it by 2
to get 2pq and 7 is added to the product to get the expression.
All the above expressions x2, 2y2, 3x + 2, 2pq + 7 are called
algebraic expressions.
d
Look at the Table;
he
Statement Algebraic expression
8 is added to x x+8
is
re S
5 is subtracted from y y–5
B
bl
p is multiplied by 6 6×p
be T
pu
'm' is divided by n m÷n
K
2x + 3y 2x, + 3y 2
x2 – 4 x + 3 x2, – 4x, + 3 3
3ab – 4bc – 6cd 3ab, – 4bc, 6cd 3
–2p2q + 3q2r – rp + 4pqr – 2p2r, + 3q2r, – rp, 4pqr 4
87
Now consider the expression, 2x + 3y
In this expression there are two variables x and y and
two numbers 2 and 3. 2x is one term of the expression and
3y is another term. Similarly identify the terms in other
expressions.
Product, Factor and Coefficient :
d
We know that 4 × 5 = 20
he
Here 20 is product, 4 and 5 are factors of 20
When two variables are multiplied, what is the product ?
is
re S
Suppose, we multiply 'x' and 'y', what is the product ?
B
bl
We write the product of 'x' and 'y' as (x × y) or xy
be T
uct.
The product of 5 × m × n = 5mn
5, m and n are factors of 5mn
Expression : 8x2 + 5 xy  8
No
Terms : 8x2y +5xy 8
Factors : 8 x x y 5 x y 2 4
88
Coefficient : When a variable is written
Let us consider the product with out its numerical
of x and 8, 8x. In this 8 is a coefficient its numerical
number, x is a variable. coefficient is 1
x = 1 x
8x means + 8x, 8 is the
y = + y
numerical factor. It is also
called arithmetical factor
d
z = +1z
or numerical coefficient of
he
x. Similarly, x is called the
variable factor or variable
is
re S
coefficient of 8.
Look at some more examples.
B
bl Literal
be T
Numerical
pu
Product Co–efficient coefficient
coefficient
K
in it
8xy co–efficient of y is 8x x
©
8
=8×x×y co–efficient of x is 8y 8 y
co–efficient of 8 is xy 1 xy
co–efficient of x is–21y
2
–21 y
co–efficient of 21 is –x2y 1 x2y
t
No
Exercise 4.2
4) 3p + 4q 5) (20 × 7) – (5 × 10) – 45 6) 2y + 6 – 4z
89
II. a) Write the terms of the following algebraic expressions:
1) 3x + 4y 2) 2pq – 8qr 3) 3 x 2 – 3x + z
4) ab + bc – ca 5) 9m + 6n 6) – 3xy + x – y
d
he
III. Write the following statements as algebraic expressions:
1) 8 is added to 'x'
is
re S
2) 7 is subtracted from 'y'
B
bl
3) p is multiplied by 12
be T
4) q is divided by 5
pu
K
1) 3x 2) –4x 3) 3 x
4
4) 10.5x 5) 168x 6) 8 x

9
V. Write the variable coefficient in the following
1) 3m 2) –9xy 3) 16pqr
4) 10c 5)  5 mn 6) 0.8 x 2 y
4
90
VI. Write the coefficients of 27 xyz as directed
d
Like and Unlike Terms
he
Four Students Rama, Suma, Salma and Robert are
discussing in the class room.
is
re S
Rama says : 20 pens + 5 pens = 25 pens
B
bl
Suma says : 50 note books – 5 note books = 45 note books
be T
pu
Salma says : 20 pens + 15 note books = 35
K
You cannot add like this. Salma reacted why she could not
add like this ?
Robert : They are different things, we cannot add or
subtract things of different types.
to
91
Teacher : What type of terms does Box 1 contain?
Students: Box –1 contains the group of algebraic terms
with the same literal factors and the same exponent.
Teacher : What does Box 2 contain?
Students: Box –2 contains the group of algebraic terms
with either different literal factors or the same literal factors
d
with different exponents.
he
Therefore –
Groups 1, 2, 3 in box 1 represent group of like terms.
is
re S
Groups 1, 2, 3 in box 2 represent group of unlike terms.
B
bl
Algebraic terms having the same literal factors with the
be T
7
ab+bc+ca 9p2+q2–rq+pq–8
t
92
The classification is done in the following manner
i) Monomial : An expression having only one term
ii) Binomial : An expression having two unlike terms
iii) Trinomial : An expression having three unlike terms
iv) Polynomial : An expression having more unlike terms.
but in Algebra, irrespective of number
d
of terms, the expression is known as
he
a polynomial. In general all algebraic
expressions with terms having positive
exponents are called polynomials.
is
re S
Note : In algebra, like terms can be added or subtracted
B
bl
a + 3a = 4a, 3ab + 5ab + 6ab = 14ab ∴ a + 3a is not a binomial,
it is monomial. Similarly, 3ab + 5ab + 6ab is not trinomial,
be T
pu
it is monomial.
K
Algebraic Expression
©
Polynomial
t
No
Know this :
+ and  sign separates algebraic
terms.
× and ÷ sign do not separate
algebraic terms.
93
Some special features of a polynomial in Algebra
1) Any expression with one or more terms is called a
polynomial. Hence a monomial, a binomial and a
trinomial are polynomials.
2) The index or exponent of the variable in each term
should be whole number.
3) Terms like x½, 5x –2
, 1/x, p1/3 are not polynomials.
d
Activity: Identification of monomial, binomial and trinomial
he
expressions.
is
re S B
bl
be T
pu
Step 1 : Place 3 open boxes A, B, C and label them as
K
d
If the length of each side is 'x' cm, then
he
Area of square = x cm × x cm
= x2 sq cm
is
Similarly,
re S
Volume of a cube = length ×
B
bl
breadth × height If length, breadth and
be T
= (2 × 2 × 2) cubic cm
©
= 23 cubic cm
= 8 cubic cm
If the length, the breadth and the height of a cube are 'y'
cm then, volume of the cube = (y × y × y) cubic cm
= y3 cubic cm or c cm.
to
or exponential numbers.
t
d
The numbers x, y, m, k are
known as bases. The index or
he
exponent indicates the number
of times the base is to be used base
as a factor.
is
re S
a2 = a × a (base 'a' is used as factor twice)
B
bl
x3 = x × x × x (base x is used as a factor thrice)
be T
96
More about degree of polynomials
consider the expression
3x4 – 4x3y2 + 8xy + 7
d
In – 4x3 y2, add index of x to the index of y
he
ie
.. 3+2=5. It is 5th degree
is
In the above expressions the highest degree term is – 4x3y2
re S
and its degree is 5, Therefore the degree of this polynomial
B
bl
is 5. Hence,
be T
pu
The degree of polynomial with more than one variable is the
K
Excercise 4 .3
1) 2x + y 2) 2xy 3) 5 + 6a + 4b
4) 3x2 + 5x 5) xyz 6) ab – bc
t
7) 2y  7 z + x 8) 3xp ÷ q 9) a2 – 3ab + c
No
3
10) x + 4 – 3x
2
97
III. Mark the group of like terms by 'L' and unlike terms by 'U'.
1) 3x, 5x, 8x
2) x3, –3x2, 8x
d
he
IV. Group the like terms together
is
re S
2) 7ab, 6bc, –8ba, 2ca, – 3ab, 2abc, 4ab, 2a2b
B
bl
be T
1) 3xy 2)  2 ab 3) 0.3p
3
4) 24xyz 5) –18p2q 6)  9 m2 np
11
1) xy in –3axy 2) ab in 4a2b
3) z2 in p2yz2
t
No
4) xy in 10xy 5) 15 in –15p2
6) mn in –mn
1) 3x2 2) 3 – p2 + p3 3) 7m2n
98
VIII. Complete the following table
x5
d
(ab)6
he
(13p)9
is
re S
(–y)10
B
bl
be T
(xyz)7
pu
K
(0.59)20
©
99
Let the 1st basket contain 8 apples and 8 mangoes,
the 2nd basket contain 6 apples and 4 oranges,
and the 3rd basket contain 5 mangoes and 6 oranges.
How do we speak about the fruits, if the fruits are put
together in a new basket?.
d
When these fruits are put together in one basket, then
he
there are 8 + 6 =14 apples,
8 + 5 = 13 mangoes and
is
re S
and 4 + 6 = 10 oranges.
B
bl
The same procedure is followed in addition and subtraction
be T
pu
of algebraic expressions. We add or subtract like terms.
K
100
Example 1 : Add 4x, 8x and 5x
Solution 4x + 8x + 5x All are like terms
= (4 + 8 + 5)x Add numerical coefficients of
variable x
= 17x And put variable ‘x’ with this
numerical coefficient
d
Example 2 : Add 3a, 5b, 8a and 2b
he
Solution 3a + 5b + 8a + 2b There are two variables a and b
= 3a + 8a + 5b + 2b Add numerical coefficient of a
and put “a” with the numerical
is
= (3+8)a + (5+2)b
re S
coefficient and similarly for
= 11a + 7b variable b.
B
bl
be T
pu
Example 3 : Add 3x2y, 2xy2 and 7yx2
K
i) x2y = yx2
= (3+7)x2y + 2xy2
ii) x2y ≠ xy2
= 10x2y + 2xy2
horizontal line, like terms are written together and are added.
Example 1 : Add (3a + 2b) and (5a + 7b)
t
No
= 3a + 5a + 2b + 7b
= 8a + 9b
101
ii) Column method : Expressions are written in such
that a way their like terms are arranged one below the other
in a column. Then addition of the terms is done column wise.
Solution:
3a + 2b ... Addend
d
5a + 7b ... Addendum
he
8a + 9b ... Sum
is
re S B
bl
Example 2 : Add (14m2n–10n2) and (10m2n+6n2)
be T
= 24m2n – 4n2
to
= 4x + 3y + 5z + 2x + 5y – 2z + 3x – 4y – z +2x + 5y – 2z
= 9x + 4y + 2z 9x + 4y + 2z
102
Excercise 4.4
d
1) 5x + 7x – 3x + 2x – 6x
he
2) 5a2 + 2a2–a2 + 7a2
3) 5xy + 6xy – 9xy – xy + 10xy – 2xy
is
re S
4) 2x 2
+ 4y – 3z + x2 – y + z + 4x2 + 3y + z
B
bl
III. Find the sum of the following binomials:
be T
103
Subtraction of algebraic expressions
a) Subtraction of monomials
i) Only like terms can be subtracted
ii) Subtract their numerical coefficient to find their
difference
Example 1: Subtract 5x from 12x.
d
Solution: (12x) – (5x)
he
= (12 – 5) x
is
= 7x
re S
Example 2 : Subtract 5xy from the sum of 7xy and 3xy
B
bl
Solution: (7xy + 3xy) – 5xy
be T
pu
= 10 xy – 5 xy
K
= 5xy
©
d
he
Example 1 : Subtract (5x+3y) from (9x+7y)
9x + 7y minuend
is
re S
(–)5x + (–) 3y subtrahend
B
bl
4x + 4y → Difference
be T
pu
Example 2: Subtract (ax + by) from (2ax + 5by)
K
= (2 – 1)ax + (5 – 1) by ax + 4 by difference
to
= ax + 4by
105
Excercise 4.5
2) 6a2b, 14a2b
d
he
3) –6ab, 10ab
4) 8x2y, –14x2y
is
re S B
bl
II. Subtract :
be T
pu
1) (7x + 4y) from (12x + 6y)
K
106
Multiplication of algebraic expressions
Look at the shelf
5 glasses
5 glasses
5 glasses
d
5 glasses
he
The glasses are arranged in 4 rows. In each row there are
5 glasses. What is the total number of glasses in four rows ?
is
re S
5 + 5 + 5 + 5 = 20 glasses
B
bl
We have already learnt that multiplication is repeated
be T
addition.
pu
K
5 × 4 = 20 glasses
©
2x × 4 = 8x glasses
to
107
Solution : Multiply the numerical coefficient first and then
the literal coefficient. Note :
(3x) (5y) = (3 × x) × (5 × y) 3 × 5 ≠ 35
= (3 × 5) × ( x × y)
But, a × b = ab
If variables are written
= 15xy side by side it indicates
Example 2 : Multiply (–20x) by (+3y) their product.
d
Solution : (–20x) (+3y) = (–20 × x) (3× y)
he
= (–20 × 3) (x × y)
= –60xy
is
re S
Example 3 : Find the product of (2x), (–3x), (4x)
B
Solution : bl (–2x) (–3x) (4x)
be T
pu
= (–2 ×–3 × 4) (x × x × x)
K
= +24x 3
©
108
Example 1 : Multiply (3x + 2y) by 5y
Solution : 5y (3x + 2y)
= 15xy + 10y2
d
Example 2 : Find the product of (8y – 3) and 4x
he
Solution : 4x × (8y – 3)
is
re S
= 32xy – 12x
B
bl
be T
pu
Example 3 : Find the product of (8x –17y) and ( – 2x)
K
109
(x + 1) (x + 2)
d
L – Multiply the LAST terms 1×2=2
he
so, (x + 1) (x +2)
is
= x2 + 2x + x + 2
re S B
bl
= x2 + 3x +2
be T
pu
K
= 2a (a–7) + 5 (a–7)
= 2a2 – 14a + 5a – 35
= 2a2 – 9a – 35
to
(n – 11) (n – 5) = n (n – 5) – 11 ( n – 5)
No
110
Exercise 4.6
I. Multiply:
1) 7x , 8y, 5z 2) –2p, 59, –4r 3) (6m) , (–8n) , (+3p)
4) (–3a) , (–b) , (–6c) 5) –3x , 4x , 5x 6) (–2p) (+3p2) (–3p3)
d
he
1) 6xy, 2yz and 7xz 2) –7ab, 5bc and –6ca
3) 4x2y, –3y2z and x2 4) –3a2, –2b3 and –4e4
is
re S
III. Multiply:
B
bl
1) (6x + 7y) by 2z
3) (–18x – y) by 2z
2) (3p – 5q) by –5p
4) (2ab + 3bc) by 6abc
be T
pu
K
IV. Multiply
©
1) (x + 4) (x + 8) 2) (5n + 2) (n –3)
3) (3a –b) (2a + b) 4) (5x – 2p) (5x + 2p)
5) (2x – 7) (x – 3)
t to
No
111
CHAPTER 5
PAIR OF ANGLES
After studying this chapter you :
understand the meaning of adjacent angles,
complementary angles, supplementary angles,
d
and vertically opposite angles,
he
identify adjacent angles, complementary angles,
supplementary angles, linear pair and vertically
opposite angles,
is
re S
solve the problems based on adjacent angles,
B
bl
complementary angles, supplementary angles, linear
pair and vertically opposite angles.
be T
pu
In our day to day activities the knowledge of geometry is
K
112
Example : figure (i) is a horizontal line
Figure (ii)  Figure (iii) 
d
A X
he
O B P O Y O
is
Fig i Fig ii O L Fig iv
re S
Fig iii
B
bl
Example : In the above figure AOB is an acute angle
be T
pu
Some letters in the English alphabet are given below. Mark
K
the angles that you can notice and try to name them as acute,
obtuse and right angle.
©
113
• A Line Segment has a beginning point and an end
point. It is a part of the line.
P
X Y Q
K
N
d
M
he
L O
is
re S
• A ray has a beginning point but no end point. Think
B
bl
of Sun's rays. They start from Sun and move in all
directions.
be T
pu
K
©
Sun
to
d
position
he
clockwise anticlockwise
Terminal Terminal
Position Position
is
Note : An angle formed by clockwise or anti clockwise
re S
direction, the value of the angle remains the same.
B
bl Congruent [Equal] Angles :
be T
pu
Look at the following figures, What is the measure of each
K
angle?
Plane  1
©
400 400
40 0
to
Plane  2 Plane  3
t
No
500
300 30 0
500
115
The angles having the same measurement on a same
plane are called equal ( Congruent ) angles.
CONGRUENT is derived from a Latin word, CONGRUENTEM
which means "to agree" this word is used for 'equal'
Pair of angles :
d
In geometry, certain pair of angles can have special
he
features. Our knowledge of acute, right, and obtuse angles
helps to know the relation between pairs of angles.
is
Adjacent angles :
re S B
bl
be T
angle AOB .
No
That is to say;
i) They have one common vertex.
ii) They have one common arm separating the two arms.
The pair of angles which have one common vertex and one
common arm (side), which separates the angles are called
adjacent angles.
116
In the given figure, AOB and BOC are adjacent angles.
Activity  1 :
A
In the given figure, locate the three pairs of
adjacent angles. O
d
C
he
Think
• Can two obtuse angles be adjacent angles? Justify
is
re S
• Can acute angle be adjacent to obtuse angles? Justify?
B
bl
Think : Look at the angles AOB and
be T
pu
AOC Are they adjacent angles ?
K
©
Exercise 5.1
1. Look at these figures and fill up the table given below :
to
(ii)
(i) (iii)
t
No
(vii)
(iv) (v)
(vi)
117
Figure Angles Arms Common Common Angles are
Vertex Arm adjacent or
not
1 2 3 4 5
d
yes
he
i AOB , BOC OA, OB, OC O OB AOB
& BOC
is
re S
ii
B
iii
bl
be T
pu
K
iv
©
vi
vii
to
118
Angles
(Yes/No)
Common
Common
adjacent
Name of
Name of
Pairs of
Vertex
angles
vertex
arms
Arm
the
the
d
AOB and BOD
he
AOD and BOC
is
re S
BOC and AOB
B
bl
AOD and AOB
be T
pu
Group a few more pairs of angles and examine whether
K
3. Observe the angles marked with one arc and two arc
in the given figure. Are they pairs of adjacent angles ?
Why ?
A R P X
O 1 W
to
B
D
O 1 1
E 2
2 C 2 X
t
O
No
Q Z
F
J P A D M
K Q
2 2 Q N
1 1 2 O
1
O L R S B C P
119
Complementary Angles :
Observe the figures given below in pairs on the same plane.
A A B Q A C
C R
65 0
P
Q
700 250
0
0
20
10
800
B P
d
R C R P B
plane (i) plane (ii) plane (iii)
he
Q
In the given figure; i), ii) and iii) Find the sum of the
measures of pairs of angles.
is
re S
If the sum of two angles in the same plane is equal to 900
B
bl
then they are called complementary angles.
be T
120
Example 2 :
If an angle is 5 times of its complementary angle. Find the
measure of pair of angles.
Let an angle be x0
Five times of an angle x0 = 5x0
x0 + 5 x0 = 900
d
6x0 = 900
he
900
x0 =
6
x 0
= 150
is
re S
5x0 = 5 × 15 = 750 The pair of angles is 750 and 150 .
B
bl
Therefore, the complementary angle for 150 is 750 .
be T
Think:
pu
K
Think :
Can two acute angles be complement to each other ?
Can two obtuse angles be complement to each other ?
Can two right angles be complement to each other ?
to
Activity :
Take a rectangular sheet o o o
t
d
respectively on a circle as shown in the figure, using a
protractor and a scale.
he
Cut the sectors of each angle separately, so that you
get 8 sectors.
is
re S
40
50 30
B
bl
Mark 900 on the sheet having circle B.
60
20
10
be T
80
pu
70
K
A
©
122
Exercise 5.2
d
is he
re S
(i) (ii) (iii) (iv)
B
bl
2) Find the complement of each of the following angles.
be T
Supplementary angles :
Look at the following pairs of angles on the same plane,
O M O P Q R
M O
800
1000
1300 1080
to
500 72
0
S P Q RS M
PQ R S
fig i fig iii
fig ii
t
No
In the given figure i), ii) and iii) find the sum of the pair of
angles SPO and RQM
If the sum of angles on the same plane is a straight angle,
then, they are called supplementary angles.
123
In the above figure; SPO + MQR = 1800
Hence SPO is supplement to MQR , and MQR , is
supplement to SPO .
d
he
Think : If one of the angle is x0 then what would be the
supplement of this angle ?
is
Example 1 : Find the supplementary angle for 130.50 .
re S B
Let the supplementary angle for 130.50 be x0
bl
We know that the sum of 2 angles in the above case is 1800
be T
pu
i.e. x0 + 130.50 = 1800
K
x0 = 1800  130.50
©
x0 = 49.50
Example 2 : One angle is supplementary to the other angle.
The measure of the bigger angle is 900 more than the smaller
angle. Find the measure of each angle.
Let the smaller angle be x0 and the bigger angle is x0 + 900
to
x = 90
0
0
2
x = 450
0
124
Think : Whether the following angles are supplementary?
Q
1450 450
O P
d
R
he
Think :
Can two acute angles be supplement to each other ?
is
Justify.
re S
Can two obtuse angles be supplement to each other ?
B
bl
Justify.
be T
Exercise 5.3
to
300
C
70 0
600
A 200
O B
125
2) Verify the following pair of angles; Are they
Supplementary ?
P M B
1350
70 0 1100 450 750 1050
d
R O Q N O P A O C
fig. i fig. ii fig. iii
he
P R
A D
is
re S
1600 1100 800
200
C Q
B
blBE
fig. iv
F OS T
be T
fig. v
pu
K
6) In the given figure; ABC = 350 and DBE = 900 then find
No
the measure of
D
i) Supplementary angle of CBD
d
O
he
900 900
A O B
is
fig. i fig. ii fig. iii
re S B
Find their sum. Then enter in the tabular form;
bl
be T
ii. 900  
iii. 600  
d
650
A B
he
135 0
130 0
O
600
C
is
C O
re S
2. Find which of the following pairs of angles form a linear
B
bl
pair, when both the angles are placed side by side.
be T
Q
pu
P A B 700 P
A R P
K
550 A
300
©
O 1500
1100
1250 Q O B
Q O B
R
R figiii
figi figii
Q
R
to
O 90 0 B QA 1400
P Q P O A
900 900
40 0
t
P
No
900
R O B
R
A B
figv
figiv
figvi
3) Find the type of another angle for the following types,
if they have to form a linear pair of angles.
A) An acute angle B) An obtuse angle C) A right angle
128
Game
Take two drawing sheets, cut each sheet to get 40 pieces
and draw the angles of the following measurement on each
piece as given below. Make two sets of the same. The angles
are 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90,100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150,
160, 170, 180 and 25, 35, 45, 55, 65, 75, 85, 95, 105 115, 125,
d
135, 145, 155, 165, 175 (you may choose any measurement,
but think of supplementary or complementary angles). Then
he
at the back of each card mark one of the following numbers
1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Place all the cards, so that you can see the
is
re S
numbers on them.
B
bl
Take a dice having 1 to 6 numbers or dots. (two or more
friends can play this game)
be T
pu
Rule : Each member has to throw the dice and take the
K
card of that number. After all the cards are over, that is cards
©
are with the players, exchange one to one card, so that you
can make a complementary or supplementary angle with that.
The person who holds maximum pairing cards is the
winner.
Vertically Opposite Angles :
to
D
If AB and CD are line segments A
No
129
Now, observe BOC and AOD
IIIrly, observe AOC and BOD
d
and BOD are also on either side of the vertex.
he
What do you call ? such pairs of angles ?
The angles opposite to each other at the point of intersection
is
re S
of two lines are called vertically opposite angles.
B
Note : bl
be T
pu
The vertically opposite angles have a common vertex.
K
O O
t
C B C B
No
↔ ↔
Draw two lines, say AB and CD on a sheet of paper
intersecting at a point O. Then mark the four angles by
COB , BOD , AOD and AOC as shown in the figure.
Now place a tracing paper or a transparent sheet over
it. Trace the lines AB and CD on this transparent sheet.
130
Now put the traced copy on the original in such away
↔
that the line AB drawn on the sheet coincide with the
↔
line AB on the tracing paper.
Now fix a pin at the point of intersection of the line.
↔
Rotate the traced paper in such a way that line AB on
↔ ↔
traced copy lies on BA opposite to the line AB drawn on
d
the original sheet of paper.
he
What do you observe from the above activity?
We observe that,
is
re S
1) COB drawn on original sheet covers completely the
B
bl
AOD drawn on the tracing sheet.
be T
pu
Which means COB coincides with AOD
K
131
Activity  2 :Take a sheet of white paper. Fold it length wise
thrice and crease. Unfold the paper. Then fold the paper
diagonally and crease, then unfold it, you get a number
of intersecting points mark them as A, B, C........Measure
the angles formed at each of the vertex calling them A1, A2,
A3.............. and so on. Write the measurements on a tabular
form in such a way that measure of vertically opposite
d
angles lie side by side.
he
Sl. 1st pair of vertically 2nd pair of vertically
is
Vertex
re S
No. opposite angles opposite angles
B
bl
be T
A1 = A2 =
pu
i. A
A3 = A4 =
K
©
ii.
Give some situations from real life where you can see
to
Exercise 5.5
t
D
No
132
E C
2) In the given figure, Identify
the pairs of vertically opposite 1400
angles, name them, If, A O
B
BOE = 1400 and OC⊥EO then,
calculate the measurement of
D
all the angles.
d
D
he
3) In the given figure if AOC = 300
A
find the measurement of the
is
300 O
re S
remaining angles. B
B
bl C
be T
pu
Think :
K
Exercise : 5.6
t
No
1) acute angle
2) obtuse angle
3) right angle
133
II. Find the value of 'x' and measure of each angle from
the following.
3x x+20 2x
x 750 x x+50
x+15 2x+15
x+10
fig. i fig. ii fig. iii
d
fig. iv
he
III. In the given figure AOC = 90 0 PQ is the bisector of the
angle BOD and RS is the bisector of the angle AOD
is
re S
Find the other angles.
B
bl R
be T
A
pu
D
K
©
P Q
900
O
C B
S
to
y 450
A B
O
x 3z
2z
C E
134
V. In the given figure OE ⊥ AB, (OE is perpendicular to AB) then
find the following pairs.
D
i) Linear pair.
ii) Supplementary angles.
A O
B
iii) Vertically opposite angles.
d
iv) Complementary angles.
he
C
VI. Fill in the blanks : E
i) If two angles are complementary, then the sum of their
is
re S
measure is ____________ .
B
bl
ii) If two angles are supplementary, then the sum of their
measure is ____________ .
be T
pu
iii) Two angles forming a linear pair are ____________ .
K
____________ .
v) If two lines intersect at a point, and one pair of vertically
opposite angles are acute then the other pair of vertically
opposite angles are ____________.
K
1) Equivalent supplementary angles.
S
t
L
135
CHAPTER 6
PAIR OF LINES
After studying this chapter you :
define the meaning of pair of lines,
define the meaning of intersecting lines,
d
he
understand the meaning of parallel lines and
transversal,
is
identify parallel lines and transversal lines in day to
re S
day situations,
B
bl
identify the angles made by a transversal; corresponding
be T
136
Any two lines on the same plane, irrespective of type or
position, are called pair of lines.
Note:
Any two or more lines or line segments on same plane are
called coplanar lines or coplanar line segments.
d
Intersecting Lines
he
i) Choose a point on a plane, and draw two rays. Name them.
is
re S B
bl
be T
pu
K
P R Q
T
Draw another line segment RT.
P R Q
to
Let RT stands on PQ .
t
P Q
No
R
Extend the TR to get TS .
S
137
Look at these figures formed by rays and lines.
d
fig. I fig. II
fig. III
he
In the fig (i) The rays BA and BC start from point B. In the
figure (ii) and (iii) lines AB and CD cross each other at a point O.
is
re S
AB and CD are called intersecting lines and 'O' is called the
B
bl
intersecting point.
be T
Activity 1 :
t
d
the figure. Measure the lengths
PK , PL , PM and PN using scale
he
and measure PMB , PMA , PNM and PKL by using a
protractor. Compare the lengths of PK , PL , PM and PN .
Which line appears to be the least in length ?
is
re S
Name the shortest length which stands on AB.
B
bl
The least distance between the given line segment from
an external point is PM . The angle at M is 900. Then, the
be T
Parallel Lines
Scale
t to
No
Post Card
139
Look at the boundaries of the scale and post card.
Draw lines along the length wise boundaries of the scale
them. Name as PQ and RS as shown below. Now extend the
lines PQ and RS on either side.
P Q
R S
d
Do the two lines meet each other ?
Measure the perpendicular distance between the lines at
he
different points.
What do you infer from them ?
is
re S
What name is given to such lines ?
B
bl
Here, PQ and RS are at same distance at all corresponding
points. So, we call such lines as ''parallel lines''.
be T
pu
A pair of straight lines are said to be parallel, if the
K
Note :
1) Two parallel lines can be represented by marking the
arrows on both the lines in the same direction. ⇒
2) If two parallel lines are extended in both directions, they
to
140
The distance between two lines does not change. Hence,
the parallel lines do not meet anywhere.
Activity 3 : Observe the lines drawn in your graph book
and identify;
i) Parallel lines.
ii) Perpendicular lines.
What difference do you observe between them ?
d
Activity 4 : List at least 5 examples from your surroundings
he
where you see ;
(i) Parallel lines.
is
re S
ii) Perpendicular lines.
B
Note : bl
be T
pu
1) If two lines AB and CD are parallel, we write AB  CD
K
Transversal Lines
Activity 5 :
Draw a line segment AB and another line segment PQ as
shown in the figure, Where do they meet each other ?
to
Q Q
C
L D
A B A B
K
A B
K
P P
141
Observe the following figures
d
P A C
he
C K D
P Q
L
is
K L
A
re S
M B
B
bl
Q B
fig  iv
D
be T
fig  iii
pu
In the above figures,
K
case ?
Mark the points of intersection as K, L as shown in the
figure (i).
In the above figures, PQ intersects at least two lines; such
an intersecting line is called transversal.
The line that intersects at least two lines on a same
to
Make two or three folds length wise and crease it, then
unfold the paper.
Now fold the paper other than length wise and crease,
then unfold the paper.
Mark the lines caused by folding using a pencil.
Name the lines and intersecting points. Make a list of
intersecting lines and transversal lines.
142
Activity 7 : In the figures given below, name the transversal
and justify.
P P A C
B A
K B
L
A P L Q
D K
C
d
K L
C D
he
Q B D
Q
is
re S
transversal all though it cuts the line 'AB'
B
and 'CD'?
bl
be T
143
Interior angles
P In the figure AB , CD and PQ are three straight
K lines.
A 1 2 B
C
3 4 Which is the transversal line ?
L D
Q Which are the angles formed by PQ at K
and L intersecting points.
d
Observe the following four angles AKQ , BKQ formed at
he
K, CLP and DLP formed at L.
What commonality do we observe among these four angles ?
is
re S
We observe that these angles which lie between the lines
B
bl
'AB' and 'CD' ,'KL' is the interior part of transversal 'PQ'.Since
these four angles are formed interior to the pair of lines. They
be T
A K
line?
C
L D Now, name the interior angles on the
t
Q
Observe the pair of angles outside the
pair of lines on the same side of the
transversal.
Here AKP at point K and CLQ at point L are pair of angles.
Similarly, PKB at K, and QLD at L are pair of angles.
What are the similarities between these pair of angles ?
144
Notice that these pair of angles lie outside the parallel lines
AB and CD on same side of the transversal .
What name do you suggest for such pair of angles ?
Certainly these angles are outside the lines other than the
transversal and hence, they are termed as External angles or
Exterior angles.
Therefore, the pair of angles which lie outside the pair
d
of lines, but on the same side of the transversal are called
he
Exterior angles or External angles.
A
is
Activity 8 : Identify the pair of interior angles
re S
and exterior angles from the following F
B
bl
figure and make a list of them.
D G
E
be T
pu
B C
Consecutive Interior Angles
K
P
angles AKL and KLC and another pair A
K
BKL and KLD with respect to a transversal
C B
PQ . L
Observe that, AKL and KLC are pair
D
to
145
Corresponding Angles
Observe the angles marked in each of the figures.
P
A
K B
d
C D
L
Q
he
fig i
fig ii
P
is
re S
A B
K
B
bl D
be T
pu
C L
K
Q
fig iii
fig iv
©
lies above CD .
In the given figure (ii) pair of angles AKL and CLQ are
on left side of the transversal PQ and are below the lines AB
t
No
and CD .
In the given figure (iii) pair of angles PKB and KLD are
at right side of the transversal PQ and lie above the lines AB
and CD .
In the given figure (iv) pair of angles BKL and DLQ are
at right side of the transversal PQ and lie below the lines AB
and CD .
146
What can we observe from the above ?
The pair of angles in each figure,
a) have different vertices,
b) are on the same side of the transversal,
c) are above the pair of parallel lines in fig (i) and(ii) in fig
(iii) and fig (iv) below the parallel lines. Such pair of angles
d
are termed as Corresponding Angles.
he
The pair of angles which
have different vertices,
lie on the same side of transversal, and
is
re S
are located in respective positions of the pair of lines
B
bl
are called corresponding angles.
be T
In the figures (i,ii,iii & iv) the pair of angles (i) ( AKP and CLK )
pu
(ii)( AKL and CLQ ) (iii)( PKB and KLD ) & (iv) ( BKL and DLQ
K
angles. How ?
Alternate Interior Angles :
t
No
d
Make a list of what conclusions do you draw from the above
he
information ? Yes, the pair of angles in each figure,
(a) have different vertices
is
re S
(b) are at opposite sides of the transversal
B
bl
(c) are in the interior side of the parallel lines
be T
pu
(d) are in different position of the parallel lines that is if one
K
angle is above the line, the another angle is below the line,
So, such pair of angles are termed as Alternate Interior
©
angles.
In the above figures, pair of Angles AKL , KLD and
BKL , KLC are Alternate Interior Angles.
148
Think :How are the letter N and Z useful to identify the
alternative angles ?
d
is he
re S B
fig i
bl fig ii fig iii
be T
of them looks like (a) parallel lines and (b) transversal line ?
©
Activity 11 :
Take a sheet of paper.
Draw two parallel lines AB and CD on it. Then draw a
transversal PQ to the lines.
to
Fig iv
Fig i Fig ii Fig iii
Place a tracing paper over the figure (i), trace figure (i)
correctly. Now slide the tracing paper on vertex L, in such a
way that the line segment AB coincides with the line CD and
the vertex K at vertex L.
149
What do you observe from the above diagrams ?
d
Now, mark PKB on a trace sheet in figure (iii) Place the
he
marked tracing sheet coincide with the figure(iii). Then slide
the tracing paper such that AB coincides with CD and K
is
coincides with L.
re S
Observe PKB and KLD . What is your inference ?
B
bl
Yes, PKB = KLD
be T
pu
LKB = QLD , AKL = CLQ Therefore we conclude that,.
K
d
paper and mark AKL . Now rotate the transparent sheet, in
he
such away that the line AB of the transparent sheet coincides
with the line CD drawn on the sheet of paper, but directed in
is
the opposite direction of CD . Observe the AKL that coincide
re S
exactly with KLD .
B
bl
be T
on the axis 'x'. Now can you justify with the pair of angles;
BKL = KLC .
151
Now, trace figure (i) on the tracing sheet; then place the
tracing sheet on the sheet of paper in such away that the
line AB of tracing paper coincide with the line CD such that
A coincides with D.
Note : The direction of arrow of line AB of tracing sheet
and direction of arrow of the line CD on the sheet is opposite.
Notice that AKL = KLD Now you measure the angles BKL
d
and KLD and find the sum of these two angles.
he
We know that AKL + BKL = 1800 , because they are adjacent
angles.
is
re S
Now substitute AKL for KLD then KLD + BKL = 1800
B
bl
Similarly, BKL = CLK , therefore AKL + CLK = 1800 .
be T
Let us observe the relation with pair of angles and line seg
ments with this activity.
©
a point L on it.
Step 4: Construct an angle of 1000 at
L. Draw an angular line and produce 1000
as you did it earlier C D
L
152
Step 5: Now you place a tracing paper P
below or above the line AB . Adjust
the position of AB and CD by sliding A B
K
up and down in such away that lines
C D
drawn from K and L coincide exactly L
with one another, so that the line is Q
a transversal.
d
he
Observe the pair of angles AKP and CLK . Which type of
angles are they?
They are corresponding angles and they are equal. Now
is
re S
measure the height between AB, CD at different positions. Are
B
they same? Then, What relation do you observe between the
bl
pair of lines AB and CD ?
be T
pu
When a transversal cuts two lines in such away that each
K
Think :
When a transversal cuts two lines in such away that
each pair of alternate angles is equal, then what would
be the nature of lines ?
When a transversal lines cuts two line segments, the
corresponding angles formed are equal, then what
to
153
Think :
1) Observe the shapes given below. How can you identify
the interior angles on the same side of the transversal
lines ?
2) If a transversal cuts two line segments, if the sum of
the interior angles are supplementary, then what do
d
you call those line segments ?
is he
re S B
bl
be T
pu
Activity 14: Draw two non  parallel lines AB and CD and
K
figi fig ii
154
A B A B
C C
D D
d
in such away that its edges cross both the lines 'AB' and 'CD'.
he
Mark lines along the edges of the scale.
Remove the scale and name the points P and Q where the
is
re S
lines marked by the scale which meet on the given line 'AB'.
B
bl
Also name the points as 'R' and 'S' where lines marked by the
be T
scale meet the line 'CD'. Measure the length of the segments
pu
PQ and RS in each case.
K
©
155
Example 1 : In the given figure A B
G 500 D
ABIICDIIEF. GF= EF and BGD = 500 C
Find the remaining angles E F
+ = 180
O
[ CD║EF] ABG and BGD are alternate
d
O O
= 180  90
angles.
he
O
= 90
= = 50
O
Here CGB and BGD form a
is
O
= 50
re S
linear pair,
∴ CGB + BGD = 180
O
B
blO
CGB = 180  50
O
be T
O
CGB = 130
pu
K
angle.
O
A E
CFE + EFG = 180 B
O O
CFE + 40 = 180
O O
CFE = 180 + 40 400
O C D
CFE = 140 F G
to
Since ABIICD
CFE = FEB
FEB = 1400
156
Example 3 : Find the marked A
d
Since DEIIBC Corresponding angles are equal
he
ADF = ABC
p = ABC
is
ABC = 600
re S
` p = 600
B
bl
ii) AFD and EFC are the vertically opposite angles
be T
pu
AFD = EFC
K
700 = q
q = 700
©
∴ CFD = 1100
d
he
d) e) f)
is
re S B
bl
be T
pu
2) Find the measure of the angles of each marked letter
K
in each figure.
©
a) b) c)
E G
A 700
I J B
C D
K L
F
to
H
3) In the given figure PQRS is T
a parallelogram then find P 130 0
t
S
No
158
5) Decide whether AB is parallel to CD in the given
figure
E C
A
B
G 126
0
750 F
A 750
C D E
H 440
d
D
F
he
B
6) In the given figure, the arms of the two angles are
parallel, if ABC = 700 then find, DGC and DEF .
is
re S B
bl
be T
pu
K
©
4) 5)
159
CHAPTER 7
TRIANGLES
After studying this chapter you :
find through activities the sum of the interior angles
of a triangle,
d
establish the sum of the interior angles of a triangle
he
is 1800 through paper folding (origamy),
prove the sum of interior angles of a triangle is 1800
is
using the properties of parallel lines,
re S B
bl
Identify the difference between logical proof and activity
based proof,
be T
pu
establish the relationship between exterior angle of a
K
d
B C
he
fig (i) C fig (ii) B
is
re S
A, B, C
B
bl
Measure the interior angles of the triangle using
protractor. (as shown in the fig ii)
be T
pu
Write the measures in the table given below. For example
K
angle 3 600
sum of the
1800
t
three angles
No
d
shown in fig (1).
he
Rearrange the cut pieces in such
away that the vertices coincide at a
point as shown in fig (2).
is
re S
What is your observation about the
fig (2)
sum of the three angles of triangle?
B
bl
∴ What do you observe about the sum of the interior
be T
angles of a triangle?
pu
Let us do another activity (without cutting the paper)
K
Activity 3:
©
P Q
No
d
A
2) Draw an obtuse angled triangle as
he
shown in the adjacent figure. Cut
this triangle without cutting the
is
three angles. Verify the sum property
re S
B C
of the triangle.
B
Think: bl
be T
pu
In all these activities we found that the sum of the
K
logically.
All the activities conducted indicate that the sum of the
t
d
Is it possible to have a construction to bring B C
he
all the three angles of the triangle ABC at any
point (say A, B or C) on a straight line? Yes, let us draw a
is
straight line RS passing through A.
re S
S
B
bl
In this figure, we have two pairs of alternate
angles. They are A
be T
∗
pu
i) ABC and BAR (represented by ∗) R
K
A
P Q
No
∗
164
Similarly PQ  BC and AC is the transversal.
Do you find any pairs of angles which are equal ?
QAC = ACB ........(ii) [alternate angles marked as ]
d
he
Substitute the RAB and SAC by ABC and ACB
respectively in equation (iii)
is
we get ABC + BAC + ACB = 1800
re S
These are the interior angles of a triangle.
B
bl
Hence, the sum of the interior angles in a triangle is 1800.
be T
pu
The logical proof discussed is true of all shapes and sizes of
K
d
are PAB , QAC and BAC ?
he
Are they supplementary angles ?
Then ∠PAB + ∠BAC + ∠QAC = 1800
is
re S
500 + ∠BAC + 700 = 1800
B
bl
∴ ∠BAC = 1800  500 700
be T
= 600
pu
K
Solved Problem 2 :
In the figure, the two angles P
©
to QR.
Mark the alternate angles
t
166
Example 1 : In the figure A = 600, B = 500 Find the measure
of C logically.
A + B + C = 1800
The sum of the three angles of triangle is 1800
600 + 500 + ∠C = 1800
1100 + ∠C = 1800
d
∠C = 1800  1100
he
∠C = 700
Example 2 :
is
Find the value of x in the adjacent figure.
re S
A + B + C = 1800 The sum of the three angles of triangle is 1800
B
bl
600 + x0 + 80 = 1800 [Substituted the measure of A and C ]
be T
pu
1400 + x 0 = 1800
K
x 0 = 1800  1400
x 0 = 400
©
Exercise 7.2
1. Find the value of x logically in the following figures:
t to
No
167
2. Two angles of the triangle ABC are given. Find the third
angle and fill up the blanks in the table:
∠A ∠B ∠C
1 600 700
2 1000 350
3 650 650
d
4 1100 360
he
3. Three angles are given in the table. Find the sum of
these three angles. Can these become the angles of a
is
re S
triangle?
B
bl Sum Can it form a triangle Yes/No
be T
A B C
pu
K
of C .
No
168
7) Construct an equilateral triangle having the side 4 cm and
find out the measure of each angle.
d
twice the other. Find the measure of the other angle which
is not a right angle.
he
Exterior angle of the angle
is
A triangle has three sides,
re S
if any one of the sides of the
B
bl
triangle is extended, an angle
adjacent interior
angle
exterior
be T
exterior angle
to
adjacent
interior
adjacent angle
t
ad
inte jacent
rior
ang
le adjacent
exterior angle exterior angle interior angle
169
If a side of any triangle is
extended, an exterior angle
and interior angles are formed. adjacent
exterior angle
what is the sum of an exterior interior angle
angle and an interior angle
adjacent to it ?
These two angles are supplementary angles or linear pair
angles.
d
Hence, the sum of an interior angle and an exterior angle
he
is 1800.
Interior Opposite angle
is
re S
The angle opposite to the adjacent interior angle of a
B
triangle is called interior opposite angle.
bl
be T
pu
interior opposite
K
angle 2
©
exterior angle
interior opposite angle1 adjacent opposite angle
170
As shown in the fig (2) cut the
angles (1) and (2) arrange these
two angles on the exterior angle
4 as shown in the fig.
What is your conclusion?
angle 1+ angle 2= exterior angle 4. fig(ii)
This activity establishes that
d
exterior angle of a triangle is
he
equal to the sum of opposite
interior angles.
Let us examine some examples related to the above
is
re S
properties. A
B
bl
Example 1 : In the figure
given below, the two
700
be T
pu
angles of the triangle
K
of exterior angle.
∠A + ∠B + ∠C = 1800 (Sum of the three angles of triangle
= 1800)
700 + 500 + ∠C = 1800 (Substitute the measure of
A and B ).
1200 + ∠C = 1800
to
∠C = 1800  1200
= 600
t
d
he
∠P + ∠Q + ∠R = 1800 (Sum of the three angles of the angles in 1800)
400 + 550 + ∠R = 1800 (Substituting the values of P and Q
950 + ∠R = 1800
is
re S
∠R = 1800  950 = 850
B
bl
∴ ∠PRQ = 850 Interior angle
be T
A
Example 3 : In the figure if ∠BAC = 500 and
500
∠ABC = 850 then find the measure of ACB
t
B C D
∠BAC+∠ABC +∠ACB=180 (Sum of the angles of
0
Exercise 7.3
d
600 550
he
a) c)
400 x Y x y 550
is
re S
1450 Y 700 X 650 Y
B
b) bl d)
be T
pu
X 500
K
©
500
No
Q R S
173
5) In triangle ABC, BC is produced to D. A and D are joined. If
BAC = 60 0, ABC = 45 0 find ACD .
d
and C in the courtyard. Join AB, BC and
he
CA with chalk powder. These three lines
represent three sides of the triangle
is
re S
ABC. Ask your friend to walk from A to B C
B
bl
C using any route.
be T
pu
There are two routes to reach from A to C. One is directly
K
In triangle ABC
AB + BC > AC → (1)
to
∴ BA + AC > BC → (3)
174
Activity 2 : Take sticks of length 3cm, 5cm, 7cm, 9cm, 11cm,
13cm, 15cm, 17cm, 19cm, 21cm. Select any three sticks to
form a triangle. Similarly take different length of sticks to form
a triangle. Is it possible to construct a triangle with the sides
as 3cm, 4cm and 6cm?
For example, take two sticks of length 5cm and 7cm. You
d
need a third stick to complete the triangle. What should be
the length of the third side?. That stick should be more than
he
75 = 2cm and less than 7 + 5 = 12cm.
is
re S
sticks should be greater than the third stick.
B
bl
From the above activity 1 and 2 we conclude that,
be T
pu
The sum of any two sides of a triangle should be greater
K
175
a) 3cm + 4cm = 7cm The sum of the two sides of a triangle
is not greater than the third side.
b) 3cm + 7cm > 4cm The sum of the two sides of a triangle
is greater than the third side.
c) 4cm + 7cm > 3cm The sum of the two sides of a triangle is
greater than the third side.
In one occasion (a), the sum of 2 sides is not greater than
d
the third side. Hence, it is not possible to construct a triangle
he
with the given sides.
Exercise 7.4
is
re S
I. Verify whether a triangle can be drawn with
B
bl
following measures.
be T
statements True/False A
1) MA + MB > AB?
2) MB + MC < BC?
M
3) MC + MA > CA? B C
to
176
Activity 1 : Take a white rectangular sheet of paper. As
per the measurements indicated in the figure, draw 4 right
angled triangles at the corners of the sheet. Triangles are
∆ABC, ∆KLM, ∆PQR and ∆XYZ. Fold along the hypotenuse of
these triangle such as AC, KH, PR and XZ.
B 3cm A X 12 cm Y
d
5cm
4cm
he
C Z
K R
is
re S
6cm
9cm
B
bl
L
8 cm M P 12 cm Q
be T
pu
K
∆ABC 5 25 3 9 4 16 9+16=25
t
∆KLM
No
∆PQR
∆XYZ
= 25
d
∴ AC2 = AB2 + BC2
he
5 2 = 32 + 42
25 = 9 + 16
is
re S
=
25
B
bl
From the above calculation we understand, in a right
be T
pu
angled triangle, the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the
K
Pythagoras theorem
"In a right angled triangle the square on the hypotenuse
is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides".
to
sq
ua
hy r
po e on
t
A te t
In triangle ABC if ∠B = 900 AC nu he
No
square on 2 se
then AB2 + BC2 = AC2 one side
AB2
B square on C
another BC
side
BC2
178
Know this
The "shulba sutra" composed during the period
800600 BC by "Bodhayana" states
d
he
which means "The diagonal of a rectangle produces both
areas in which length and breadth of the rectangle produce
is
re S
separately".
B
Example 1:bl
be T
pu
In the adjacent figure ∆ABC, AB = 6cm, BC = 8cm and
K
B = 900 calculate AC .
©
Solution
6cm
= 62 + 82
t
900
No
= 36 + 64
B C
8cm
= 100
= 102
AC = 10
179
Example 2: A 13 m length ladder is placed slantly on the
wall. If the top of the ladder reaches a height of 12m from the
floor on the wall, calculate the distance between foot of the
ladder and the wall.
A
Solution As per the pythagoras theorem
AB2 + BC2 = AC2
d
122 + BC2 = 132 12 m 13 m
he
wall ladder
144 + BC2 = 169
is
re S
BC2 = 25 ?
C
B
bl
BC =5
B floor
be T
pu
∴ The distance from foot of the ladder to the wall = 5m
K
©
Exercise 7.5
180
4) Given below are the sides of a triangle. In which of these
cases are the triangles right angled?
d
is he
re S B
bl
be T
pu
K
t ©
to
No
181
CHAPTER 8
SYMMETRY
After studying this chapter you :
identify the symmetry and reflection symmetry,
define rotational symmetry of 2D figures,
d
he
identify rotational symmetry in the case of 900, 1200,
1800 rotation,
is
manipulate rotation through 90 0 , 180 0 to show
re S
symmetry,
B
bl
operate the figures with both rotation and reflection
be T
symmetry,
pu
K
Symmetry
You have studied symmetrical figures and reflection
symmetry in your previous class
What are symmetrical figures ?
to
d
Wonderful!!!
is he
What speciality do you observe in the figure ?
re S
Do you see the same image on either side ?
B
bl
We have a special name for this, that is symmetry.
be T
pu
We can see many things in nature which seem to be
K
Open the sheet and look at the pattern formed. Mark the line
of symmetry. Think why and how symmetry is caused here.
183
Observe the following figures.
d
is he
The dotted line represents line of symmetry. It is called
re S
the axis of symmetry.
B
bl
Symmetry provides a balance and perfection to the
be T
objects.
pu
K
d
Try to answer seeing the picture (ii).
Yes, she observed that the figure is divided into two equal
he
parts in size and shape along the fold.
Recall the name of the folded line.
is
re S
The folded line is called the line of symmetry or axis of
B
symmetry.
bl
be T
pu
Activity 4: Take a sheet of paper which is in a triangular shape with
K
PQ = PR as in the figure.
©
P
When the half of a figure
is the mirror image of the
other, it is said to have
reflection symmetry.
Q R
to
with PQ, crease it and then unfold. We can see the mirror image
No
185
Activity 5: Now take a rectangular shaped sheet of paper
PQRS as shown in the figure.
Fold this sheet in such away that QR
coincides with PS. crease it and unfold the
S R
sheet.
Now fold the sheet in such away that PQ
P Q
coincides with SR. crease it and unfold it.
d
How many folded lines can you see?
he
Two lines can be seen.
The rectangle has two lines of symmetry.
is
re S
Activity 6: Let us draw an equilateral triangle on a sheet of
B
bl
paper. Mark the mid points of each side. Join each midpoint
of the side to each opposite vertex.
be T
pu
ABC is an equilateral triangle. ΔADC
K
A
is the mirror image of ΔADB. We can
notice that AD, BE and CF are the
©
F E
axes of symmetry. That is, there are
3 axes of symmetry in an equilateral
triangle.
B C
D Find the remaining mirror images.
186
Note : • An equilateral triangle has 3 lines of symmetry
• A square has 4 lines of symmetry
• A regular pentagon has 5 lines of symmetry
• A regular hexagon has 6 lines of symmetry.
The number of lines of symmetry of a regular polygon is
equal to its number of sides.
d
he
Can you find the number of lines of symmetry for a circle?
Observe the figures given below.
is
re S B
bl
be T
pu
Think!!!! A circle has unlimited lines of symmetry. Why?
K
a) b) c) d)
t
No
A H X
a) b) c)
187
III. Whether the dotted line on each shape is a line of
symmetry? Write yes or no and justify your answer.
a) b) c) d)
d
he
E
is
e) f) g) h)
re S B
bl
be T
c) A square d) A rhombus
e) A circle f) A parallelogram
g) A regular pentagon h) A regular hexagon
V. Match the following English Alphabet given below with
their mirror images.
to
B E
No
C
B
D
E
E
C
R
D
188
Rotation
In our daily life we see many objects which show rotational
movement.
Eg: i) Rotation of wings of a fan.
ii) Rotation of wheels of vehicles.
d
iii) Rotation of hands of a clock
he
You have seen the movement o f hands of a clock. This
type of movement is called clockwise movement. The move
ment opposite to the movement of hands of a clock is called
is
re S
anticlockwise movement.
B
bl
In rotational movements, there are two types:
be T
pu
i) Clockwise movement ii) Anticlockwise movement
K
on the wheel.
t
No
In both the figures the shape and the size of the wheel do
not change and the wheel turns around a fixed point. The dot
implies the rotation.
One more example of rotation.
189
John is a naughty boy. On Christmas vacation his mother
bought a star for him. He played with that star by turning it
as shown in the figure.
That is he rotated the star.
A D C B
d
B D C
D B C A A
he
C B A D
is
re S
Then he rotated it from left to right and right to left.
B
bl
He rotated the star, both ways clockwise and anti clockwise
direction.
be T
pu
The rotation is a process in which an object turns about
K
you observe?
190
What else do you understand from the above activity ?
We can observe that after a quarter turn, the strip covers
900, half turn, it covers 1800, after three quarter turns, it covers
2700 and after one complete rotation, it covers 3600 .
Observe the rotation of the following figures:
d
he
1)
is
re S
2)
B
bl
be T
pu
A B B C C D D A A B
K
3)
©
D C A D B A C B D C
4)
to
A D C B
D C B A D C
t
5)
No
C D A B
A B B C D A
191
Step 1: Draw a rectangle OABC and
B''' C''' let the point of rotation be O.
A B Step 2: Rotate the rectangle through
C''
A''' O A' C 900 . Let OA take the place of OA'.
B'' A''
Step 3: Clearly the image of OABC will
d
C' B' be OA'B'C' under rotation through 900.
he
Step 4: Rotate it further through 900 and the rectangle
is
re S
takes the position of OA''B''C''.
Step 5: Rotate it, further through 2700 from the
B
bl original position and the rectangle takes
be T
Rotational symmetry
Example 1: Can you rotate this ? If you rotate two times it
a s s h o w n i n t h e takes the original shape.
figure Isn’t it?
t to
No
192
Example 3:Generally flowers are liked by all. Is it not beautiful ?
Apeksha wanted to rotate a flower by 900 in clockwise direction.
d
2700 and 3600.
he
Example 4: Consider this triangular lamina. Let us rotate
this by 900 in anticlockwise direction.
is
re S B
bl
be T
pu
1800 3600
K
900 2700
When, we rotate this in the anticlockwise direction by 900,
©
1800, 2700 and 3600 the figure takes the above positions. After
one complete rotation, it takes the original position.
Example 5:
to
d
Make a paper windmill and turn it. Compare it with the
he
rotation of the figure shown below.
Rotate the following figure completely one turn.
is
R S P Q R
re S
S P Q R S
O O O O O
B
P
Q bl Q
R
R
S
P S
Q P
be T
pu
In a full turn ie, when we rotate it completely 3600 there
K
194
This figure matches itself 4 times as it is rotated through
a complete turn about the point O. Four times it looks like
the same, when it has been rotated through 900, 1800, 2700
and 3600. So, it is said to have rotational symmetry of order 4.
Consider a parallelogram PQRS. By rotating this 1800 each
d
time we get the following figures.
he
S R S P S R
is
re S B
bl
be T
Q Q
pu
P R Q P
K
Think!
What is the order of rotational symmetry of a circle?
D E A B C D
E C A D B E C A D B E C
A B B C C D D E E A A B
195
Activity 10: Take a piece of paper and fix it to a card board.
Draw an equilateral triangle of each side 6 cm
on the paper. Mark the midpoints of the sides
and join them to the opposite vertices and get
the point O. Now take a transparent piece of
paper and draw a triangle identical to the orig
d
inal triangle by placing a transparent paper over
he
the original triangle and also draw the lines joining the mid
points of the sides to its vertices and get the point O in new
is
triangle.
re S
Now place the new triangle on the first triangle so that
B
bl
O and O and all other sides coincides each other. Now fix a
be T
pin into the shape at the point where O and O1 coincide each
pu
other. Turn the transparent paper in clockwise direction
K
and observe how many times the shape coincides with the
©
Order of Rotation
t
No
Angle of rotation
= 3600
0
120
=3
196
Every rotating figure occupies the same position after a
rotation of 360°. Its order of rotation is one.
Do you know, what this is ?
This is a circular disc. Its centre is fixed on a
nail, so that, the disc can be easily rotated.
This is an example for rotational symmetry.
d
Can you find the order of this ?
he
Yes it is the number of black or white triangles on the
board. That is, the order of this disc is 10.
is
re S
A figure which looks exactly same as the original figure
B
bl
more than once during a complete rotation is said to have
different order of rotational symmetry.
be T
pu
• A figure has rotational symmetry when angle of rotation
is less than or equal to 1800.
K
original position.
• All figures have rotational symmetry of at least order 1.
to
• Place the sheets one upon the other, so that, the two
figures match exactly.
• Pierce a pin through the centre point to hold both the
sheets.
• Turn the top sheet only and note, how many times the
top figure matches with the bottom figure.
What is the angle of rotation and order of rotation? Would
it change, if you change the direction of rotation?
197
Example 1 : If we rotate the figure through 900, 1200, 1800
about O, then at which angle does the image look like the
original one?. Also find the order of rotational symmetry.
Solution: When we rotate above figure about O
through 900, we get shape. We get rotation through 1200,
we get (not symmetry)
d
he
Rotation through 1800 we get,
We can have the rotational symmetry if it rotates about
is
re S
1800.
B
bl
∴Order of rotational symmetry = 3600 = 2
180
0
be T
pu
Example 2 :
K
triangle ABC.
Solution: When an equilateral triangle is rotated about its
central point O, it attains its original form at 1200.
A
∴Order of rotational symmetry = 360c = 3
120c
to
Figure A Figure B
198
Rotation of this figure around the point of rotation through
the angle 900 are as shown in the following.
d
Now you identify the reflection of Figure 1 from the following
he
figures.
is
re S B
bl
be T
Fig (1) Fig (2) Fig (3) Fig (4) Fig (5)
d
of of rotational
he
Symmetry rotation symmetry
is
Equilateral
re S
3 3 1200 3
Triangle
B
bl
be T
pu
Rectangle 4 4 900 4
K
©
Rhombus 4 4 900 4
Regular
to
5 5 720 5
Pentagon
t
No
Regular
6 6 600 6
Hexagon
order 1.
No
ed
reflection and rotational symmetry.
ish
fan with (i) 3 blades (ii) 4 blades ?
re S
2) Write some numbers which have rotational symmetry.
B
bl
3) This star is made up of black and white
equilateral triangles:
be T
pu
What is the order of rotational symmetry of
K
the star ?
©
E E E E
No
202
10) Find the order of rotational symmetry in
i) rectangle ii) rhombus
11) Fill in the table given below.
d
he
I
is
re S B
O
bl
be T
pu
H
K
©
Z
to
S
t
No
203
Chapter 1 Integers
Exercise 1.2
1. x 3 6 11 5 2. 40
7 21 42 77 35
d
4 12 24 44 20 5 8 25
8 +24 48 88 +40 1 5
he
2 +6 12 22 +10 5
12 36 72 132 60 2 6
is
7
re S
9 +27 54 99 +45 10 +30
14 +42 84 154 +70
B
bl 35
be T
pu
Exercise 1.3 I. 1) 15, 2) 24, 3) 238, 4) 276, 5) 126, 6) 24,7) 60
K
II. 1) + 4 # + 7 = + 28
©
2)  3 # + 5 =  15
3) + 9 #  7 =  63
4)  6 #  8 = + 48
III. 1) b) A cm  2 × 6 cm 2) ` 62000  8 × 7500
to
204
Chapter 2 Fractions
d
II 1) 6 , 9 , 2) 8 , 12 , 3) 14 , 21 III 1) 2 , 2) 3 , 3) 1
12 18 10 15 20 30 3 5 2
he
IV 1) 1 7 , 2) 2 1 , 3) 24 1 , V 1) 15 , 2) 17 , 3) 29
8 12 4 4 2 6
is
re S
VI 1) 29 2) 93 3) 1 4) 1 23
12 20 5 30
B
Exercise
bl 2.2 : I 1) 1 # 5 , 2) 1 # 3 , 3) 3 # 2 , 4) 2 # 4
be T
pu
4 2 8 3
K
II A. 1) 4 , 2) 12 , 3) 10 , 4) 21 , 5) 9 , 6) 20 , 7) 9, 8) 13 ,
7 5 9 4 2 3 4
©
9 32 45 27 10 35 24
No
II 1) 1 13 , 2) 3 1 , 3) 4 1 , 4) 1 6 , 5) 11 1 , 6) 7 7 , 7) 17 7 8) 20
20 15 6 7 2 8 9
III 1) 2) 3) 4)
5) 11 6) 1 IV) 1) 15 2) 35 3) 5 4) 8 5) 2 1 6) 2 31
28 4 8 12 18 15 4 42
d
V 1) ` 1 34 2) 85 3) ` 91 4) 27
he
2
47
Exercise 2.5 : I 1) 3 2) 3 2 3) 1 4) 2 13
is
re S
4 10 80 20
B
II 1) 6 1 m
20 bl 2) 4 1 kg
4
3) 5m
be T
pu
Chapter 3 Rational Numbers
K
II 1) 7 2) 4 3)  3 4) 4 III 1)  4 ,  6 ,  8 ,  10 2) 6 , 9 , 12 , 15
5 5 8 7 18 27 36 45 20 30 40 50
3) 8 , 12 , 16 , 20 4) 160 , 240 , 320 , 400 V 7 ,  10 , 7 ,  11
 10  15  20  25 192 288 384 480 6 7 9 6
 4 , 5 ,  2 VI 1) 16 2) 20 3) 7 4) 3 5) 28 6) 30
to
5  3 15
II. 1) 3 2) 1 3)  1 4) 1
8 3 8
III.1) 8 5 kg 2) 1 11 kg 3) 53 m 4) 1 14 l
12 20 84 15
Exercise 3.3 : I 1) 83 2) 48
 5 3)  1 4) 1 5) 1 6) 1 II 1) 7 2) 3 3) 6
10 9 6 27 4 5
206
4) 8 III.1) 3 2)  9 3) 10 4)  7 5) 1 6) 0 IV 1) 10 2)  6 3)  18 4)  7
7 5 4 2 5 9 5 13 5
V.9 VI 121 m VII 8 4 sq.m VIII 104
5
Exercise 3.4 :I. 1) 0.8 2) 0.375 3) 0.3125 4) 0.2142857142...
Never ending numbers = 1 , 1
12 16
Ending numbers = 5 , 2
d
8 9
he
Exercise 3.5 :I. 1) 34.4 2) 7.5 3) 36.945 4) 3.328 5) 0.04368
6) 1.68 II) 1) 0.07 2) 0.012 3) 0.497 4) 27 5) 2.2 6) 430
is
re S
III) 1) ` 717.86 2) 120.06 km 3) 10.2l 4) ` 20.6m
B
Exercise
bl 3.6 :
be T
pu
1) a) 2510 g b) 0.0725 g
K
2) a) 0.625 kg b) 0.0108 kg
©
7)  (5 × 10)  45
Algebraic term :3) (7 × 6) 4m 4) 3p + 4q 6) 2y + 6  4z II 1) 3x, + 4y
2) 2pq  8qr 3) 3x2, 3x, +z 4) ab, + bc, ca 5) 9m, + 6n 6) 6, 3xy, +x, y
2)1) xy, 2, 5 2) x2, 1, xy, 4 3) p, 3, y2, 5 4) ab, 2, bc, 1, ca, 1
q
III 1) x + 8 2) y  7 3) p 12 = 12p 4) 5) 4x + 3y 6) 10  5y
xy 5
7) pq + 3x 8) 5m  3l 9) 10y + 15 10) IV 1) 3 2) 4 3) 3 4) 10.5
z 4
207
5) 168 6)  8 V) 1) m 2) xy 3) pqr 4) c 5) mn 6) x2y
q
VI 1) 27 2) z 3) xy 4) xyz
Exercise 4.3 I Monomial: 2xy, xyz, 3xp ÷ q Binomial: 2x + y,
3x2 + 5x, ab  bc
Trinomial: 5 + 6a + 4b, 2y  7 z + x , a2  3ab + c, x2 + 4  3x
3
II) x3 + x  2 + 1, m3 + 2m2 + 3m  4, x + 2yz
d
III Like terms (L) Unlike terms (U)
he
3x, 5x, 8x x3,  3x2, 8x
8p2, 6p2, 10p2 3a2b, 2ab2, 7a2b2
2ab, 6ba, 8ab a3, 2a2, 8a
is
re S
IV 1) y3, 7y3, 23y3, y3 2) 7ab, 8ba, 3ab, 4ab 3) 7p, 2p, 3p
B
3 bl
V 1) 3 2)  2 3) 0.3 4) 24 5) 18 6)  9 VI 1) 3a 2) 4a3) p 2y 4) 10
11
be T
ab 6
13p 9
y 10
xyz 7
0.59 20
Exercise 4.4 I 1) 41 a 2) 12 p2 3) 1y + 3x 4) 6a2  b2 + 12a
to
208
III1) 12xz + 14yz 2) 15p2 + 25pq 3) 36xz  2yz 4) 12a2b2c + 18ab2c2
IV 1) x2 + 12x + 32 2) 5n2  13n  6 3)6a2+abb2
4) 25x2  4p2 5) 2x2  13x + 21
Chapter  5 Pair of Angles
Exercise 5.1 Look at these figures and fill up the
table given below
d
Figure Angles Arms Common Common Angles are
he
Vertex Arm adjacent or
not
is
re S
i AOB , BOC OA, OB, O OB Yes
B
bl OC, AOB , BOC
be T
pu
ii PQR , RQS , QP,QR, Q QR No
K
SQJ QS,QJ QS
©
OC, OD
Common
Common
adjacent
Name of
Name of
Pairs of
Vertex
angles
vertex
(Yes/
arms
Arm
No)
the
the
AOB , 0 OA, OB, OD Yes Yes Yes
BOD OB
d
he
AOD , 0 OA, OD, OB, OC Yes No No
BOC
is
re S
AOC , 0 Yes Yes Yes
B
OA, OB, OC
BOC bl OC
be T
pu
K
210
Exercise 5.4 1) It is not a supplementary angle. 2) (ii), (iv),
(v) and (vi) Pair of angles 3) a) Obtuse angle b) Acute angle c)
Right angle
Exercise 5.5 1) AOD = 1200, 2)
AOE = 400,
3)
d
Exercise 5.6 I 1) Obtuse Angle 2) Acute Angle
he
3) Right Angle II i) 1050, ii) 400 iii) 32.50 iv) 350
is
re S
III IV x = 450, z = 27, y = 1350
V i) AOD & AOC
B
AOC = BOD = 900
bl
AOD = COB = 900 ii) a) AOE & BOE b) COA & AOD
be T
2. a) [Opposite angles]
to
EIJ = 700
EIJ = AIK = 70 [Corresponding angles]
0
b) [Opposite angles]
GIB = AIJ = 600
AIJ = CJK = 600 [Corresponding angles]
DJK = 180  60 = 120 [Opposite angles]
0 0 0
d
he
4. BAC = 800, ABC = 450, ACB = 550
5. a) AB # CD b) AB CD
is
re S
DGC = 700
6.
B
GEF = 700
bl
be T
pu
K
7. a b c d
©
212
Chapter 7 Properties of Triangles
d
3. 1) 500 + 600 + 700 = 1800 Yes 2) 600 + 700 + 800 = 2100 No
he
3) 650 + 750 + 550 = 1950 No 4) 560 + 640 + 600 = 1800 Yes
is
5) 570 + 640 + 790 = 2000 No
re S B
4. C = 700
bl 5. C = 700 6. x = 550 x =900
be T
pu
7. x = 600 8. C = 950
K
213
Chapter  8 Symmetry
Exercise 8.1
I. a c d
II. a) 1 b) 2 c) 2
III a) b) c) d) e) f) g)
No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
d
h) i) j) k) l)
he
No No Yes Yes Yes
IV a) 1 b) 3 c) 4 d) 4 e) Infinity
is
f) 4 g) 4 h) 5 i) 6
re S
V A  B Exercise 8.2
B
i) bl
C 
C
I. 1) S I (2,2)
be T
pu
ii) D 
D
K
iii) E  2) M W E C U
E
iv) R  R
©
3) O N Z
III 2) 0,8,1,6,9 3) 3
11)
English Reflection No of Rotational Order of
to
I Yes 1 Yes 4
No
B Yes 1 Yes 4
O Yes Many Yes Many
H Yes 2 Yes 2
E Yes 1 Yes 4
G No  Yes 4
Z Yes  Yes 2
S Yes  Yes 2
214
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