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# AXIOMATIC SYSTEMS

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IN MATHEMATICS…
▸ Learn the language ▸ Undefined terms
▸ Defined terms
IN MATHEMATICS…
▸ Learn the language
▸ Learn the rules ▸ Axioms
▸ Theorems
AXIOMATIC METHOD
▸ No mathematical claim is accepted
unless it can be proved from basic
axioms

## ▸ Originator: Greeks, 600 B.C.

AXIOMATIC METHOD
▸ Euclid, 300 B.C. , organized known
mathematics in The Elements

## ▸ He formalized the axiomatic method

Father of Geometry
▸ All theorems were proved from a
small collection of definitions and
axioms
AXIOMATIC SYSTEM

Defined terms

Undefined terms
Axioms
Theorems
IN AN AXIOMATIC SYSTEM
▸ There are some assumptions:
▸ For instance, we assume the following:
The real number system
Aristotelian logic
Some set theory
English language
COMPONENTS OF THE AXIOMATIC
SYSTEM
DEFINED TERMS
▸ A definition is the statement of a
single, unambiguous idea that the
word, phrase, or symbol defined
represents

## ▸ Example: An acute angle is an angle

whose measure is less than 90o
DEFINITION FORMS
▸ Characteristic ▸ Example:
Definition
An isosceles
Provides a single triangle is a triangle
unambiguous in which two sides
complete idea are equal
DEFINITION FORMS
▸ Circular ▸ Example:
Definition
An odd number is
Uses terms that are an integer that is
themselves not even, and an
defined by the even number is not
term being defined odd
GOOD VS BAD DEFINITIONS
▸ A tablet is a flat slab or plaque suited for or
bearing an inscription GOOD

## ▸ A circle is the set of points at equal distances from

a given point GOOD

## ▸ A dog is an animal that looks like a wolf BAD

WHICH ONE IS A CIRCLE?

Circular
Region
UNDEFINED TERMS
▸ Terms that can’t be ▸ Examples:
defined 🤔
Point
▸ Though undefined,
Line
yet meaningful

## ▸ Meaning derived Plane

from context Set
UNDEFINED TERMS: TWO TYPES
▸ Elements ▸ Example:
▸ Relations The point is on the
line
Elements: Point, line
Relation: on
AXIOMS
Statements that are accepted as true without
proof

## Also called Postulates

384BC-322BC
WHICH WOULD BE AXIOMS?
Nothing can both be and not be at the same time
and in the same respect

## Intelligence require existence

Love is blind
AXIOMS
Example:
Let a,b, and c be real numbers
Axiom 1: a=a Reflexivity Axiom

## Axiom 3: If a=b and b=c, then a=c Transitivity Axiom

5 POSTULATES OF EUCLID
1. A straight line segment can be
drawn joining any two points
5 POSTULATES OF EUCLID
2. Any straight line segment can be
extended indefinitely in a straight
line
5 POSTULATES OF EUCLID
3. Given any straight line segment, a
circle can be drawn having the
segment as radius and one endpoint
as center

C
5 POSTULATES OF EUCLID
4. All right angles are congruent

5 POSTULATES OF EUCLID
5. If two lines are drawn which
A
intersect a third in such a way
that the sum of the inner
angles on one side is less than
two right angles, then the two
lines inevitably must intersect
each other on that side if
extended far enough
5 POSTULATES OF EUCLID
1. A straight line segment can be drawn joining any two points
2. Any straight line segment can be extended indefinitely in a
straight line
3. Given any straight line segment, a circle can be drawn having the
segment as radius and one endpoint as center
4. All right angles are congruent
5. If two lines are drawn which intersect a third in such a way that the
sum of the inner angles on one side is less than two right angles,
then the two lines inevitably must intersect each other on that side if
extended far enough
5 POSTULATES OF EUCLID
1. A straight line segment can be drawn joining any two points
2. Any straight line segment can be extended indefinitely in a
straight line
3. Given any straight line segment, a circle can be drawn having the
segment as radius and one endpoint as center
4. All right angles are congruent
5. If two lines are drawn which intersect a third in such a way that the
sum of the inner angles on one side is less than two right angles,
then the two lines inevitably must intersect each other on that side if
extended far enough (not really a postulate?)
THEOREMS
Statements proved from A Proof is a logically
axioms and previously sound argument that
proved theorems progresses from ideas
you accept to the
statement you are
THEOREMS
Example: Proof:
Axiom. Every article in the
Every article in the Constitution is good AXIOM

## Constitution is good Martial law is an article in

the Constitution FACT

## Theorem. Hence, Martial law is good

Martial law is good MODUS PONENS

Q.E.D
THEOREMS
Example:
Theorem. If a is a real number, then a·0 = 0
Proof:
0+0 = 0 Additive Identity

## a·(0+0)=a·0 Mult. Prop. Of Equality

a·0+a·0=a·0 Distributivity

## a·0=0 Additive Identity ■

Example
Axiom 1. There exist
exactly three distinct
fingers
Axiom 2. Each two
distinct fingers are on
exactly one hand
Axiom 3. Each two
distinct hands share
at least one finger.
Example Theorem. Each two distinct hands
Axiom 1. There exist share exactly one finger
exactly three distinct
fingers Proof:
Axiom 2. Each two
By Axiom 3, two distinct hands
distinct fingers are on
share at least one finger
exactly one hand
Assume two hands share more
Axiom 3. Each two
than one finger
distinct hands share
at least one finger. If hands L and R share fingers P
and Q, then Axiom 2 is
contradicted, since P and Q would
IF THE NEGATION OF THE THEOREM IS
FALSE, THEN THE THEOREM IS TRUE be on two hands, L and R. ■
ON PROOFS
Experiments are no proofs Proving is a matter of
rigor
Pictures or diagrams are
no proofs In proving, theorems
Popular opinions are no through systematic
proofs reasoning
END-OF-PROOF
1. Q.E.D., abbreviation for the Latin quod erat
demonstrandum (which was to be demonstrated)

## 2. A small rectangle with its shorter side horizontal. They call

it a tombstone, meaning the death of suspicion of the validity
of the statement that was to be proved

## 3. A filled-in square ■, called a halmos for Paul Halmos who

introduced it
CONJECTURE
A conclusion or
proposition based on
incomplete information,
for which no rigorous
proof has been found
Conjecture.
The chicken has a reason
for crossing the road
CONJECTURE
A conclusion or Example:
proposition based on Twin Primes Conjecture.
incomplete information, There are an infinite
for which no rigorous number of pairs of primes
proof has been found whose difference is 2.

## (3,5) (5,7) (11,13) …

AN AXIOMATIC SYSTEM IS…
…Consistent if it has no statement such that the
statement and its negation are axioms or theorems
of the system

## I.e., the axioms must not contradict one another

CONSISTENT OR INCONSISTENT
Example:
Undefined terms: wife,
right, wrong
Axiom 1: My wife is not
always right
Negation of Axiom 1:
Axiom 2: My wife is never
wrong My wife is always right
Always right = Never Wrong

## Negation of Axiom 1 is Axiom 2 INCONSISTENT!

CONSISTENT OR INCONSISTENT
Example:
Negation of Axiom 1: Axiom 1: Justice is fair to
all
Justice is not fair to
some Axiom 2: The highest
bidder gets the favorable
By Axiom 2, justice
verdict
favors the highest bidder
This proves the negation of Axiom 1 INCONSISTENT!
EXAMPLE Negations
▸ Axiom 1: There are
exactly three monkeys ▸ Of Axiom 1: The number of
monkeys is either less than
▸ Axiom 2: Every monkey three or more than three
climbs at least two trees
▸ Of Axiom 2: There is a
▸ Axiom 3: No tree is monkey that climbs less
climbed by more than two than two trees
monkeys
▸ Of Axiom 3: There is a tree
that is climbed by at most
two monkeys

Consistent!
▸ Theorem: If every tree is
EXAMPLE climbed by only one monkey,
then there are at least six trees
▸ Axiom 1: There are
exactly three monkeys ▸ Proof:

## ▸ Axiom 2: Every monkey A tree is climbed by only one

climbs at least two trees monkey GIVEN

## Axiom 3: No tree is Each monkey climbs at least two

trees AXIOM 2
climbed by more than two
monkeys Three monkeys climb at least 6
trees ADDITION, AXIOM 2

## There are at least 6 trees Q.E.D

INTERPRETATION OF AN AXIOMATIC SYSTEM
▸ An interpretation is any assignment of specific meanings
to the undefined terms of that system

## ▸ If an axiom becomes a true statement when its undefined

terms are interpreted in a specific way, then we say that
the interpretation satisfies the axiom

## ▸ An interpretation that satisfies all the axioms of the

system is called a model of the axiomatic system
MODEL OF AXIOMATIC SYSTEM
Example: Find a model for the following axiomatic
system:

## Axiom 1: All cats catch mice

Axiom 2: Some mice do not catch cats

## Axiom 3: There are at least two cats

Axiom 1: All ▸ Let cats be 1,3 and let mice be 2,5
cats catch mice
Say “x catches y” if x+y is even
Axiom 2:
Some mice do Then cats 1 and 3 catch mouse 5 since
not catch cats 1+5 = 6, even, and 3+5 = 8, even

We Got a Model!
Axiom 3: There
are at least two
This validates Axiom 1

## Mouse 2 can catch neither cat1 nor 3

cats
since 2+1 = 3, odd, and 2+3 = 5, odd
This validates Axiom 2
Since we have two cats, 1 and 3, Axiom
3 is validated
Undefined
terms: cat,
mouse, catch
▸ The model can be constructed
Axiom 1: All as:
cats catch mice

## Axiom 2: Some Let cat mean “one of the numbers

mice do not 1, or 3”
catch cats
Let mice mean “one of the
Axiom 3: There
are at least two numbers 2, or 5”
cats
Define catch to mean “x catches y
provided x + y is even”.
Examle: Find a Model for the Axiomatic System
Undefined terms: ant, ▸ Let a dot represent an ant,
path, has and a segment be a path

## Axiom 1. Every ant has ▸ The following are

at least two paths concrete models:

## Axiom 2. Every path

has at least two ants.

## Axiom 3. There exists

at least one ant.
SOME TERMINOLOGIES
▸ An axiomatic system is complete if it is
possible to prove or disprove any
statement about the objects in the
system from the axioms alone

## ▸ A complete system can be interpreted

by a unique model
SOME TERMINOLOGIES
▸ An Axiom P in a consistent system is independent if
the axiomatic system formed by replacing P with its
negation is also consistent.

## ▸ An axiom is dependent if it is not independent

▸ An axiomatic system is independent if each of its
axioms is independent.

## ▸ To show that an axiom in a consistent system is

independent, find a model for which the axiom is
false while all the other axioms are true
▸ Model: Let A,B,C be the
EXAMPLE monkeys, {A,B},{A,C},{A,B,C}
▸ Axiom 1: There are be the trees, and “to climb”
exactly three monkeys means “an element of”

## ▸ Axiom 2: There is at ▸ Axiomatic system is

least one tree consistent!

## ▸ Axiom 3: Every monkey ▸ Suppose there are two

climbs at least two trees monkeys only, A and B,
violating Axiom 1☞Axioms
2 and 3 stay true

▸ Axiom 1 is independent!
DAVID HILBERT’S 2ND PROBLEM
▸ Prove: mathematics
itself could be reduced
to a consistent set of
axioms that is
complete

## ▸ In other words, find

axioms from which all
1862-1943
mathematical truths
could be proven
KURT GÖDEL’S INCOMPLETENESS THEOREM

▸ In any “sufficiently
complex” consistent
axiomatic system, there
must exist true statements
that cannot be proven

▸ Mathematics necessarily
contains true statements
for which a proof can never 1906-1978

be found
GOD EXISTS SINCE MATHEMATICS IS
CONSISTENT, AND THE DEVIL EXISTS
SINCE WE CANNOT PROVE THE
CONSISTENCY
Morris Kline (1908-1992)
▸ The following site provides an e-copy of
Spinoza’s “Ethics” published in 1677 which
gives an example of an axiomatic system in a
nonmathematical setting

https://www.gutenberg.org/files/3800/3800-h/
3800-h.htm.

## ▸ Study how the thirty-six propositions are

proved using the definitions and axioms.
JOURNAL ENTRY: ABOUT AXIOM SYSTEMS…

## (1)  Write two or three axioms that govern your life

(2)  Is your axiomatic system consistent? Are all
the axioms independent? Explain why

(3)  State at least one theorem and prove it from