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- A Study in Industrial Robot Programming
- Introduction to MATLAB and Simulink Third Edition
- Laboratory Manual
- Interfacing Matlab and v-Rep
- Lab2
- Pendulum Hand Out
- Linear Control Systems Lab Manual
- Wessel 2017
- Guide for MATLAB
- testjjsj
- Matlab image
- User Guide
- Receiver Side Components Description Using MATLAB
- Inline Functions and Plotting in Matlab
- Matlab Installation for Students
- Math Works
- 1 an Overview of MATLAB 1
- Angle Modulated Systems
- IPU M.tech Desrt
- Control Tutorials for MATLAB and Simulink - Extras_ MATLAB Tips & Tricks

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LABORATORY MANUAL

B.TECH

(IV YEAR – I SEM)

(2016-17)

Prepared by:

Mr. J. Sandeep, Assistant Professor

Mrs. D. Smitha, Associate Professor

OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY

(Autonomous Institution – UGC, Govt. of India)

Recognized under 2(f) and 12 (B) of UGC ACT 1956

Affiliated to JNTUH, Hyderabad, Approved by AICTE - Accredited by NBA & NAAC – A Grade - ISO 9001:2015 Certified)

Maisammaguda, Dhulapally (Post Via. Hakimpet), Secunderabad – 500100, Telangana State, India.

CA LAB MANUAL

Dept of ANE, MRCET

VISION

Department of Aeronautical Engineering aims to be indispensable source in Aeronautical

Engineering which has a zeal to provide the value driven platform for the students to acquire

knowledge and empower themselves to shoulder higher responsibility in building a strong nation.

MISSION

a) The primary mission of the department is to promote engineering education and research.

(b) To strive consistently to provide quality education, keeping in pace with time and technology.

(c) Department passions to integrate the intellectual, spiritual, ethical and social development of the

students for shaping them into dynamic engineers.

CA LAB MANUAL

Dept of ANE, MRCET

To create and sustain a community of learning in which students acquire knowledge and learn to

apply it professionally with due consideration for ethical, ecological and economic issues.

PEO2: TECHNICAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS

To provide knowledge based services to satisfy the needs of society and the industry by

providing hands on experience in various technologies in core field.

PEO3: INVENTION, INNOVATION AND CREATIVITY

To make the students to design, experiment, analyze, interpret in the core field with the help of

other multi disciplinary concepts wherever applicable.

PEO4: PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

To educate the students to disseminate research findings with good soft skills and become a

successful entrepreneur.

PEO5: HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

To graduate the students in building national capabilities in technology, education and research.

CA LAB MANUAL

Dept of ANE, MRCET

1. To mould students to become a professional with all necessary skills, personality and sound

knowledge in basic and advance technological areas.

2. To promote understanding of concepts and develop ability in design manufacture and

maintenance of aircraft, aerospace vehicles and associated equipment and develop application

capability of the concepts sciences to engineering design and processes.

3. Understanding the current scenario in the field of aeronautics and acquire ability to apply

knowledge of engineering, science and mathematics to design and conduct experiments in the

field of Aeronautical Engineering.

4. To develop leadership skills in our students necessary to shape the social, intellectual, business

and technical worlds.

CA LAB MANUAL

Dept of ANE, MRCET

1. Engineering knowledge: Apply the knowledge of mathematics, science, engineering

fundamentals, and an engineering specialization to the solution of complex engineering

problems.

2. Problem analysis: Identify, formulate, review research literature, and analyze complex

engineering problems reaching substantiated conclusions using first principles of

mathematics, natural sciences, and engineering sciences.

3. Design / development of solutions: Design solutions for complex engineering problems

and design system components or processes that meet the specified needs with

appropriate consideration for the public health and safety, and the cultural, societal, and

environmental considerations.

4. Conduct investigations of complex problems: Use research-based knowledge and

research methods including design of experiments, analysis and interpretation of data,

and synthesis of the information to provide valid conclusions.

5. Modern tool usage: Create, select, and apply appropriate techniques, resources, and

modern engineering and IT tools including prediction and modeling to complex

engineering activities with an understanding of the limitations.

6. The engineer and society: Apply reasoning informed by the contextual knowledge to

assess societal, health, safety, legal and cultural issues and the consequent responsibilities

relevant to the professional engineering practice.

7. Environment and sustainability: Understand the impact of the professional engineering

solutions in societal and environmental contexts, and demonstrate the knowledge of, and

need for sustainable development.

8. Ethics: Apply ethical principles and commit to professional ethics and responsibilities

and norms of the engineering practice.

9. Individual and team work: Function effectively as an individual, and as a member or

leader in diverse teams, and in multidisciplinary settings.

10. Communication: Communicate effectively on complex engineering activities with the

engineering community and with society at large, such as, being able to comprehend and

write effective reports and design documentation, make effective presentations, and give

and receive clear instructions.

11. Project management and finance: Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the

engineering and management principles and apply these to one’s own work, as a member

and leader in a team, to manage projects and in multi disciplinary environments.

12. Life- long learning: Recognize the need for, and have the preparation and ability to

engage in independent and life-long learning in the broadest context of technological

change.

CA LAB MANUAL

Dept of ANE, MRCET

L T/P/D C

- -/3/- 2

LIST OF EXPERIMENT:

1. Introduction to any one of the suitable software employed in modeling and simulation of

aerodynamic problems.

2,3. Solution for the following equations using finite difference method(code development).

i) One dimensional wave equations using explicit method of lax

ii) One dimensional heat conduction equation using explicit method

4,5. Generation of the following grids(code development).

i) Algebraic Grid

iii) Elliptic Grids.

6,7,8,9,10. Numerical simulation of the following flow problems using commercial software

packages:

i) Flow over an airfoil.

ii) Supersonic flow over a wedge.

iii) Flat plate boundary layer.

iv) Laminar flow through pipe.

v) Flow past a cylinder.

Suggested software:

1. ANSYS FLUENT and CFX

2. MATLAB

CA LAB MANUAL

Dept of ANE, MRCET

CONTENTS

S.No Experiment Name Pg.No

2 Solution for the one dimensional wave equations using explicit method of lax 13

using finite difference method (code development)

3 Solution for the one dimensional heat conduction equation using explicit 16

method using finite difference method (code development)

Numerical simulation of Flow over an airfoil using commercial software

Packages

7 Numerical simulation of Supersonic flow over a wedge using commercial 39

software packages

software packages

9 Numerical simulation of Laminar flow through pipe using commercial 46

software packages

10 Numerical simulation of Flow past cylinder using commercial software 51

packages

11 Viva Questions 55

CA LAB MANUAL

Dept of ANE, MRCET

All students must observe the Dress Code while in the laboratory.

All students are liable for any damage to the accessories due to their own negligence.

All interfacing kits connecting cables must be RETURNED if you taken from the lab supervisor.

Students are strictly PROHIBITED from taking out any items from the laboratory.

Students are NOT allowed to work alone in the laboratory without the Lab Supervisor

USB Ports have been disabled if you want to use USB drive consult lab supervisor.

Report immediately to the Lab Supervisor if any malfunction of the accessories, is there.

Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

SOFTWARE TO AERODYNAMIC PROBLEMS

A model is a mathematical object that has the ability to predict the behavior of a real system

under a set of defined operating conditions and simplifying assumptions

The term modeling refers to the development of a mathematical representation of a physical

situation

WHAT IS MODELING?

• Modeling is the process of producing a model.

• A model is a representation of the construction and working of some system of

interest.

• A model is similar to but simpler than the system it represents.

• One purpose of a model is to enable the analyst to predict the effect of changes to the

system. Generally, a model intended for a simulation study is a mathematical model

developed with the help of simulation software.

• Mathematical model classifications include

• Deterministic (input and output variables are fixed values) or Stochastic (at least one of the

input or output variables is probabilistic);

• Static (time is not taken into account) or

• Dynamic (time-varying interactions among variables are taken into account).

• Typically, simulation models are stochastic and dynamic.

Simulation is the process of exercising a model for a particular instantiation of the system

and specific set of inputs in order to predict the system response.

simulation refers to the procedure of solving the equations that resulted from model

development

WHAT IS SIMULATION?

• A simulation of a system is the operation of a model of the system.

• The operation of the model can be studied, and hence, properties concerning the

behavior of the actual system or its subsystem can be inferred.

• In its broadest sense, simulation is a tool to evaluate the performance of a system,

existing or proposed, under different configurations of interest and over long periods

of real time.

• Simulation is used

• before an existing system is altered or a new system built,

• to reduce the chances of failure to meet specifications,

• to eliminate unforeseen bottlenecks,

• to prevent under or over-utilization of resources,

• to optimize system performance.

Metrics for evaluation include

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

• Modeling flexibility

• Ease of use

• Modeling structure (hierarchical v/s flat; object-oriented v/s nested)

• Code reusability

• Graphic user interface

• Animation, dynamic business graphics, hardware and software requirements

• Statistical capabilities

• Output reports and graphical plots

• Customer support and documentation

• Mathematical modeling - Aerospace Applications

• Using basic equations from dynamics, mathematical equations are written that

describe how the vehicle will move in response to forces that are applied to the

vehicle. For example, it is pretty easy to describe how a rocket will accelerate when a

constant thrust is provided by the rocket's engine.

• Another type of modeling problem would be to understand and predict, in a

mathematical equation, how an aircraft will respond to hitting an updraft in the

atmosphere, or how the aircraft will respond to the deflection of various control

surfaces at different airspeeds.

• An aerodynamic subsystem model describes how the vehicle will respond to forces

caused by motion of the vehicle through the atmosphere, and predicts the effects of

each different control surface (such as the flaps, rudders, ailerons, etc.) upon the

motion of the vehicle.

• A propulsion subsystem model describes how any motors or engines will behave and

what forces will act on the vehicle to which they are attached.

• A landing gear subsystem model is required when the vehicle is in contact with the

ground in order to model how the ground reaction forces are created and how they

affect the motion of the vehicle.

• An inertial properties subsystem model provides details about how the mass and

inertia of the vehicle might change with time.

• any electrical, mechanical, or electronic system that assists the pilot in moving the

control surfaces has to be described mathematically

The steps involved in developing a simulation model, designing a simulation experiment, and

performing simulation analysis are:

Step 1. Identify the problem.

Step 2. Formulate the problem.

Step 3. Collect and process real system data.

Step 4. Formulate and develop a model.

Step 5. Validate the model.

Step 6. Document model for future use.

Step 7. Select appropriate experimental design.

Step 8. Establish experimental conditions for runs.

Step 9. Perform simulation runs.

Step 10. Interpret and present results.

Step 11. Recommend further course of action.

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

generation programming language. Developed by MathWorks, MATLAB Allows matrix manipulations,

plotting of functions and data, implementation of algorithms, creation of user interfaces, and interfacing

with programs written in other languages, including C, C++, Java, Fortran and Python.

Although MATLAB is intended primarily for numerical computing, an optional toolbox uses

the MuPAD symbolic engine, allowing access to symbolic computing capabilities. An additional

package, Simulink, adds graphical multi-domain simulation and model-based design for

dynamic and embedded systems.

Syntax

The MATLAB application is built around the MATLAB scripting language. Common usage of the

MATLAB application involves using the Command Window as an interactive mathematical shell or

executing text files containing MATLAB code.

Variables

Variables are defined using the assignment operator, = . MATLAB is a weakly typed programming

language because types are implicitly converted. It is an inferred typed language because variables can be

assigned without declaring their type, except if they are to be treated as symbolic objects,[9] and that their

type can change. Values can come from constants, from computation involving values of other variables,

or from the output of a function. For example:

>> x = 17

x =

17

>> x = 'hat'

x =

hat

>> y = x + 0

y =

104 97 116

x =

12.0000 1.5708

>> y = 3*sin(x)

y =

-1.6097 3.0000

A simple array is defined using the colon syntax: init :increment :terminator. For instance:

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

array =

1 3 5 7 9

defines a variable named array (or assigns a new value to an existing variable with the name array)

which is an array consisting of the values 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9. That is, the array starts at 1 (the init value),

increments with each step from the previous value by 2 (the increment value), and stops once it reaches

(or to avoid exceeding) 9 (the terminator value).

array =

1 4 7

the increment value can actually be left out of this syntax (along with one of the colons), to use a default

value of 1.

ari =

1 2 3 4 5

assigns to the variable named ari an array with the values 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, since the default value of 1 is

used as the incrementer.

Indexing is one-based,[10] which is the usual convention for matrices in mathematics, although not for

some programming languages such as C, C++, and Java.

Matrices can be defined by separating the elements of a row with blank space or comma and using a

semicolon to terminate each row. The list of elements should be surrounded by square brackets: [].

Parentheses: () are used to access elements and sub arrays (they are also used to denote a function

argument list).

A =

16 3 2 13

5 10 11 8

9 6 7 12

4 15 14 1

>> A(2,3)

ans =

11

Sets of indices can be specified by expressions such as "2:4", which evaluates to [2, 3, 4].

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MRCET CA LAB MANUAL

Dept CA Lab Manual

A square identity matrix of size n can be generated using the function eye, and matrices of any size with

zeros or ones can be generated with the functions zeros and ones, respectively.

>> eye(3,3)

ans =

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

>> zeros(2,3)

ans =

0 0 0

0 0 0

>> ones(2,3)

ans =

1 1 1

1 1 1

Most MATLAB functions can accept matrices and will apply themselves to each element. For

example, mod(2*J,n) will multiply every element in "J" by 2, and then reduce each element modulo

"n". MATLAB does include standard "for" and "while" loops, but (as in other similar applications such

as R), using the vectorized notation often produces code that is faster to execute. This code, excerpted

from the function magic.m, creates a magic square M for odd values of n (MATLAB

function meshgrid is used here to generate square matrices I and J containing 1:n).

[J,I] = meshgrid(1:n);

A = mod(I + J - (n + 3) / 2, n);

B = mod(I + 2 * J - 2, n);

M = n * A + B + 1;

Structures

MATLAB has structure data types.[11] Since all variables in MATLAB are arrays, a more adequate name

is "structure array", where each element of the array has the same field names. In addition, MATLAB

supports dynamic field names (field look-ups by name, field manipulations, etc.). Unfortunately,

MATLAB JIT does not support MATLAB structures, therefore just a simple bundling of various

variables into a structure will come at a cost.

Functions

When creating a MATLAB function, the name of the file should match the name of the first function in

the file. Valid function names begin with an alphabetic character, and can contain letters, numbers, or

underscores.

Function handles

MATLAB supports elements of lambda calculus by introducing function handles, or function references,

which are implemented either in .m files or anonymous/nested functions.

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MRCET CA LAB MANUAL

Dept CA Lab Manual

MATLAB's support for object-oriented programming includes classes, inheritance, virtual dispatch,

packages, pass-by-value semantics, and pass-by-reference semantics. However, the syntax and calling

conventions are significantly different from other languages. MATLAB has value classes and reference

classes, depending on whether the class has handle as a super-class (for reference classes) or not (for

value classes).

Method call behavior is different between value and reference classes. For example, a call to a method

object.method();

can alter any member of object only if object is an instance of a reference class.

An example of a simple class is provided below.

classdef hello

methods

function greet(this)

disp('Hello!')

end

end

end

When put into a file named hello.m, this can be executed with the following commands:

>> x = hello;

>> x.greet();

Hello!

MATLAB supports developing applications with graphical user interface features. MATLAB includes

GUIDE (GUI development environment) for graphically designing GUIs. It also has tightly integrated

graph-plotting features. For example the function plot can be used to produce a graph from two

vectors x and y. The code:

x = 0:pi/100:2*pi;

y = sin(x);

plot(x,y)

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MRCET CA LAB MANUAL

Dept CA Lab Manual

A MATLAB program can produce three-dimensional graphics using the functions surf, plot3 or mesh.

[X,Y] = meshgrid(-10:0.25:10,-10:0.25:10);

f = sinc(sqrt((X/pi).^2+(Y/pi).^2));

mesh(X,Y,f);

axis([-10 10 -10 10 -0.3 1])

xlabel('{\bfx}')

ylabel('{\bfy}')

zlabel('{\bfsinc} ({\bfR})')

hidden off

[X,Y] = meshgrid(-10:0.25:10,-10:0.25:10);

f = sinc(sqrt((X/pi).^2+(Y/pi).^2));

surf(X,Y,f);

axis([-10 10 -10 10 -0.3 1])

xlabel('{\bfx}')

ylabel('{\bfy}')

zlabel('{\bfsinc} ({\bfR})')

This code produces a surface 3D plot of the two-dimensional unnormalized sinc function:

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

‘if’ statements

Purpose: Tests an expression and only executes the code if the expression is true.

Format:

if expression

statement(s) to be executed (know as the body of the loop)

end

Rules:

The variables in the expression to be tested must have values assigned prior to entering the IF statement.

The block of code will only execute if the expression is true. If the expression is false, then the code is

ignored.

Values assigned to the variables used in the expression may be changed in the block of code inside the IF

statement.

Examples:

x = 100;

y = -10;

z = x – y^2;

A = x + 12.5*y + z^3;

end

% won’t run because x is not less than 50

x = input(‘Enter x’) % prompt to enter a value for x

if x < 4

disp (‘x is less than 4’)

end

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

Enter several values of x, both greater than and less than 4 to see what happens. What do you expect if

you entered 3? What about 10?

'for' loops

Purpose: To repeat a statement or a group of statements for a fixed number of times.

Format:

for variable = expression

statement(s) to be executed (know as the body of the loop)

end

Rules:

FOR loops must end with the END statement (lower case).

The values for the loop variable are controlled by the expression

The first time through the loop, the variable is assigned the first value in the expression. For the second

time through, MATLAB automatically assigns to the variable the second value in the expression. This

continues for each value in the expression. The loop terminates after the body of the loop has been

executed with the loop variable assigned to each value in the expression.

The body of the loop is executed many times, but the loop is only executed once for each value in the

expression.

The expression in a FOR loop is an array of values. The number of times a loop executes equals the

number of values in the expression array.

After the loop is finished executing, the loop variable still exists in memory and its value is the last value

used inside the loop.

Any name can be used for a loop variable.

o If the name of the loop variable was already used in the program prior to execution of the loop, old values

of the variable are erased and the values of the variable are controlled by the loop.

o i, j, and k are common loop variables; they should not be used if working with complex numbers.

Loops can be nested.

x=i^2

end

x=

1

x=

4

x=

9

Non-sequential numbers

for i=5:10:35 %executes four times

i

end

i=

5

i=

15

i=

25

i=

9

Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

35

for i=1:3 %executes three times

i

for j = 10:10:30

j

end

end

i=

1

j=

10

j=

20

j=

30

i=

2

j=

10

j=

20

j=

30

i=

3

j=

10

j=

20

j=

30

Variables: X, Y and loop variable i

Initialize X = 5 outside the loop

Loop variable, i, start = 0, end = 150, increment = 10

In the loop:

o Calculate Y = X*i

o Display i, X and Y to the screen using the command:

Lessons learned:

o The FOR loop stops after executing with i=150

o The last values of i, X, Y inside the loop are the same as the values after completion of the FOR loop

'while' loops

Purpose:To execute a statement, or a group of statements, for an indefinite number of times until the

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

condition specified by while is no longer satisfied.

Format:

while expression is true

statement(s) to be executed (known as the body of the loop)

end

Rules:

Must have a variable defined BEFORE the ‘while’ loop, so you can use it to enter the loop.

The variable in the while statement must change INSIDE the while loop, or you will never exit the loop.

After the loop is finished executing, the loop variable(s) still exist in memory and its value is the last value

the variable had in the while loop.

x = 0;

while x <= 100

x = x+30

end

% The values are:

x = 30

x = 60

x = 90

x = 120

% When x = 120, the test (x<=100) failed, so the loop was exited.

As a counter

x = 10;

y = 20;

i = 1; %initialize the counter

while(i<= 50)

x=x+(y^2) %calculate x

i=i+1 %increment the counter

end

-OR-

x = 10;

y = 20;

i = 0; %initialize the counter; starting with %i=0

x=x+(y^2) %calculate x

i=i+1 %increment the counter

end

• Variables: X, Y and loop variable j

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

• Initialize X = 5 outside the loop

• Loop variable, j, start = 0, exit loop when j = 10

• In the loop:

o Calculate X = X*j

o Display j, and X to the screen using the command:

• After the loop, write j and x to the screen with the command:

Lessons learned:

o The 'while' loop stops after j = 10

o The last values of j and X inside the loop are the same as the values after completion of the ‘while' loop

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

USING EXPLICIT METHOD OF LAX (CODE DEVELOPMENT).

This equation represents a linear advection process with wave speed c = constant, which is

the speed of the travelling wave or the speed of propagation. u(x,t) is the signal or wave

information. The wave propagates at constant speed to the right if c > 0 and to the left if c <

1. The spatial domain can vary from -∞ to ∞. Suppose the initial conditions are

where is any function. The exact solution to the wave equation then is

is called the wave shape of wave form. Travelling or propagation here means that the

shape of the signal function with respect to x stays constant, however the function is

translated left or right with time at the speed c.

Numerical Solution

Method of discretization – finite difference form

Replace the spatial partial derivative with a central difference expression

Replace the time derivative with a forward difference formula

We then have

Now let us replace by an average value between grid points j+1 and j-1 as

Substituting this in equation (1) we get the explicit method of Lax for the 1D scalar wave

equations as,

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

Test Case for the numerical solution

Solve the one dimensional wave equation in the spatial domain of [0, 2*pi] with an initial

step function condition given by

U0(x,0) = 1 for x pi-1

= 0 otherwise

Choose 100 grid points with and find the wave form at t = 0.2 s.

% Solves the one dimensional scalar wave equation du/dt + du/dx = 0 [0,2*pi]

% Using LAX METHOD

clc; clear;

t0 = 0; tf = 1;

M = 100; % number of points in x direction

N = 100; % number of points in y direction

dx = 2*pi/M;

x = 0:dx:2*pi;

dt = (tf-t0)/N;

t = t0:dt:tf;

c = 1;

lambda = c*dt/dx

display('lambda should be less than 1 for stability:')

% choose the wave number of the initial data and give its decay rate

u0 = x<=(pi-1);

u = zeros(M+1,N+1);

u(:,1) = u0;

for n=1:N

for i=2:M

u(i,n+1) = (u(i+1,n)+u(i-1,n))/2-(lambda/2)*(u(i+1,n)-u(i-1,n));

end

% Introduce exact values at the endpoints.

u(1,n+1)=1;

u(M+1,n+1)=0;

end

for j=0:20

plot(x,u(:,1+5*j),'LineWidth',2);

axis([0,2*pi,-0.5,1.5]);

title('1D wave equation using explicit Lax Method','FontSize',12) xlabel('x');

ylabel('u'); pause(1)

end

%plot(x,u(:,101));

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

Results:

1D wave equation using explicit Lax Method

1.5

0.5

u

-0.5

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

x

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

CONDUCTION EQUATION USING EXPLICIT METHOD (CODE

DEVELOPMENT)

The one dimensional transient (unsteady) heat conduction equation is given as

This equation represents the conduction of heat energy in time and space. Transient nature of

this equation is represented in the dependence of temperature with time as opposed to a

steady state condition.

Numerical Solution

Method of discretization – finite difference form

Replace the time derivative with a forward difference expression

Replace the second order spatial derivative on the RHS with a central difference formula

We then have

i.e. (2)

∆�

where � = �

∆� 2

Equation (2) is the final explicit update equation for the one dimensional transient heat

conduction equation.

A country rock has a temperature of 300oC and the dike a width of 5m, with a magma

temperature of 1200oC. Total length of the rock formation is 100m. Initial conditions are

temperatures of 300oC and 1200oC for the rock and dike respectively. Boundary conditions at

x = -L/2 and x = L/2 are at 300oC (see figure). Find the temperature distribution after 100

days. Use 200 grid points in the x direction with a 1 day time interval.

ROCK DIKE ROCK

300oC 1200oC 300oC

L

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

Matlab code for the one dimensional transient heat conduction equation

clear all

clc

%Physical parameters

L = 100; % Length of modeled domain [m]

Td = 1200; % Temperature of magma [C]

Tr = 300; % Temperature of country rock [C]

kappa = 1e-6; % Thermal diffusivity of rock [m2/s]

W = 5; % Width of dike [m]

day = 3600*24; % # seconds per day

dt = 1*day; % Timestep [s]

% Numerical parameters

nx = 200; % Number of gridpoints in x-direction

nt = 100; % Number of timesteps to compute

dx = L/(nx-1); % Spacing of grid

x = -L/2:dx:L/2;% Grid

T = ones(size(x))*Tr;

T(abs(x)<=W/2) = Td;

time = 0;

for n=1:nt % Timestep loop

% Compute new temperature

Tnew = zeros(1,nx);

for i=2:nx-1

Tnew(i) = T(i) + (kappa*dt/(dx)^2)*(T(i+1)-(2*T(i))+T(i-1));

end

% Set boundary conditions

Tnew(1) = T(1);

Tnew(nx) = T(nx);

% Update temperature and time T =

Tnew;

time = time+dt;

end

% Plot solution plot(x,Tnew); xlabel('x [m]')

ylabel('Temperature [ˆoC]')

title(['Temperature evolution after ',num2str(time/day),' days'])

x1 = -2.5;

x2 = 2.5;

y = linspace(300,800);

% Plot the dike boundaries

hold on

plot(x1,y, x2, y);

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

Results:

800

750

700

650

Temperature [ˆoC]

600

550

500

450

400

350

300

-50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50

x [m]

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

Problem

Generate an algebraic grid about the upper surface of the airfoil. Points are clustered in j

direction near the lower surface (using β=1.05 in algebraic grid). Make sure the number of

points in i and j are flexible.

A key component of grid generation is the conversion from the physical domain to the

computational domain, in order to allow for equidistant grid lines in rectangular form. In

considering a simple two dimensional case, physical coordinates x and y must be converted

to computational coordinates ξ and η. These computational coordinates are furthermore

known via the rectangular grid relations. As a result, they must be converted back into

physical coordinates in order to be of use. For the particular case concerning an airfoil placed

on the x axis, the following relationships exist:

As can be seen, Eq. (1) simply states that the x coordinate is the ξ coordinate, as there exists

no irregularities to alter that axis. The precise relationship in Eq. (2) is due to a required

clustering near the bottom surface. Here, β represents the clustering parameter, which is

given, and H represents the total height along the y axis. However, this does not account for

the geometry of the airfoil, wherein its top surface coordinate is a function of the distance

along the x axis. The exact equation is:

Here, y represents the max height of the airfoil, which would thus be the correspond to y=0 in

Eq.(2). Height is determined by subtracting this value from maximum height. This allows a

total expression for the grid y coordinative can be obtained. Note that the x used in Eq. (3)

assumes 0 at the nose of the airfoil and 1 at the tail. The previous equations effectively define

all that is needed to generate an algebraic grid. However, this grid will simply be used as a

starting point for the generation of an elliptic grid. Thus, once x and y are obtained

algebraically, they will be set as initial conditions for the x and y values used in order to

perform iterations of the developed finite difference equations.

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

clear;

clc;

%Assign values for t and beta t=0.15;

beta=1.05;

%Prompt user for number of grid points

n=input('Enter the number of grid points in the i direction: '); m=input('Enter the

number of grid points in the j direction: ');

%Create zeroes matrix for surface plots

z=zeros(n,m);

%Assign lengths and values for eta and xi L=3;

eta=linspace(0,1,m);

xi=linspace(0,L,n);

%x is equal to xi X=xi;

%Find height ytop=2;

for i=1:n if

X(i) < 1

ybottom(i)=0;

elseif X(i) > 2

ybottom(i)=0;

else

x2(i)=X(i)-1;

ybottom(i)=(t/.2)*(0.2969*x2(i)^.5-0.126*x2(i)-

0.3516*x2(i)^2+0.2843*x2(i)^3-0.1015*x2(i)^4);

end

H(i)=ytop-ybottom(i);

end

%Loop to calculate coordinates zeta=beta+1;

gamma=beta-1;

alpha=zeta/gamma; for

i=1:n

for j=1:m chi=1-

eta(j);

y(i,j)=H(i)*(zeta-gamma*alpha^chi)/(alpha^chi+1)+ybottom(i); x(i,j)=X(i);

end

end

surface(x,y,z);

xlabel ('x');

ylabel ('y');

title ('Algerbraic Grid');

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

Discussion of Results

Enter the number of grid points in the j direction: 50

Algerbraic Grid

2

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1

y

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

x

Figure shows the algebraic grid generation with the growth rate β=1.05 the grids are very fine

at y=0 and it gets coarser as the y increases.

The value of growth rate β can be varied and you can see the difference in the growth rate of

the grid.

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

Problem

Starting with an algebraic grid, generate an elliptic grid about the upper surface of the airfoil.

Points are clustered in j direction near the lower surface (using β=1.05 in algebraic grid).

Make sure the number of points in i and j are flexible.

Using a predetermined algebraic grid, an elliptic grid can be generated in order to fine tune

the results for airfoil flow. Coding an algebraic grid necessitates an accounting for the

geometry of the airfoil, as well as clustering via appropriate equations. Once these issues are

addressed, partial differential equations can be utilized in order to generate an elliptic grid.

A key component of grid generation is the conversion from the physical domain to the

computational domain, in order to allow for equidistant grid lines in rectangular form. In

considering a simple two dimensional case, physical coordinates x and y must be converted

to computational coordinates ξ and η. These computational coordinates are furthermore

known via the rectangular grid relations. As a result, they must be converted back into

physical coordinates in order to be of use. For the particular case concerning an airfoil placed

on the x axis, the following relationships exist:

As can be seen, Eq. (1) simply states that the x coordinate is the ξ coordinate, as there exists

no irregularities to alter that axis. The precise relationship in Eq. (2) is due to a required

clustering near the bottom surface. Here, β represents the clustering parameter, which is

given, and H represents the total height along the y axis. However, this does not account for

the geometry of the airfoil, wherein its top surface coordinate is a function of the distance

along the x axis. The exact equation is:

Here, y represents the max height of the airfoil, which would thus be the correspond to y=0 in

Eq.(2). Height is determined by subtracting this value from maximum height. This allows a

total expression for the grid y coordinative can be obtained. Note that the x used in Eq. (3)

assumes 0 at the nose of the airfoil and 1 at the tail. The previous equations effectively define

all that is needed to generate an algebraic grid. However, this grid will simply be used as a

starting point for the generation of an elliptic grid. Thus, once x and y are obtained

algebraically, they will be set as initial conditions for the x and y values used in order to

perform iterations of the developed finite difference equations.

Two elliptic partial differential equations must be solved in order to fully define the desired

grid. In doing this, boundary conditions are required. For this case, x and y values along the

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

edges of the defined physical domain will be left in place. These being predefined allows all

interior coordinates to be developed. The following system of elliptic partial differential

equations can be used to define the domain:

Here, the subscripts denote second order derivative of that variable. Notice that these

equations do not express x and y as dependent variables. Rather, they are treated as the

independent variables, requiring a transformation. When such a mathematical transformation

is preformed Eqs. (4) And (5) become, respectively:

Where,

The previously stated equations must all be expressed in terms of finite differences. Once this

is done, x and y at each grid point can be found through iterations. Expanding Equation (8)

through (10) explicitly in central space yields:

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

Here, the superscript, n, indexes the iteration, where n is the current iteration and n+1 is the

following iteration. These equations are written this way due to the fact that points above and

to the right of the point being evaluated are unknown, and, thus, old values must be used. The

same procedure of finite differencing can be applied to Eqs. (6) and (7). However, results

from these will be of the same form; that is, only the terms x and y will be different.

Considering the expansion of Eq. (6) yields:

Considering,

This equation can then be explicitly solved for the value which is the coordinate of

interest.

Doing so yields:

Similarly,

Considering the expansion of Eq.(7) and solving it for value of :

This formula can then be implemented through coding in order to find all values of x. The

formulation is exactly the same for the y value. Through code, multiple iterations will occur

until convergence is reached; that is, the desired x values will be found once the difference

between and is below tolerance and the desired y values will be found once

the difference between and falls below said tolerance. These values, when

plotted, should produce an elliptic grid that can be utilized to determine flow within the

domain containing the airfoil.

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clc;

%Assign values for t and beta t=0.15;

beta=1.05;

%Prompt user for number of grid points

n=input('Enter the number of grid points in the i direction: '); m=input('Enter the

number of grid points in the j direction: ');

%Create zeroes matrix for surface plots

z=zeros(n,m);

%Assign lengths and values for eta and xi L=3;

eta=linspace(0,1,m);

xi=linspace(0,L,n);

%x is equal to xi X=xi;

%Find height ytop=2;

for i=1:n if

X(i) < 1

ybottom(i)=0;

elseif X(i) > 2

ybottom(i)=0;

else

x2(i)=X(i)-1;

ybottom(i)=(t/.2)*(0.2969*x2(i)^.5-0.126*x2(i)-

0.3516*x2(i)^2+0.2843*x2(i)^3-0.1015*x2(i)^4);

end

H(i)=ytop-ybottom(i);

end

%Loop to calculate coordinates zeta=beta+1;

gamma=beta-1;

alpha=zeta/gamma; for

i=1:n

for j=1:m chi=1-

eta(j);

y(i,j)=H(i)*(zeta-gamma*alpha^chi)/(alpha^chi+1)+ybottom(i); x(i,j)=X(i);

end

end

yold=y;

%Calculate computational step sizes

delta_eta=1/(m-1);

delta_xi=L/(n-1);

dx=1; %Conditions to start loop dy=1;

%Conditions to start loop

%Assign tolerance value

tol=.0001;

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

ydiff=0;

count=0;

while dy > tol || dx > tol for

i=2:n-1

for j=2:m-1

a1=(xold(i,j+1)-x(i,j-1))/(2*delta_eta);

a2=(yold(i,j+1)-y(i,j-1))/(2*delta_eta);

a=a1^2+a2^2;

c1=(xold(i+1,j)-x(i-1,j))/(2*delta_xi);

c2=(yold(i+1,j)-y(i-1,j))/(2*delta_xi);

c=c1^2+c2^2;

b=a1*c1+a2*c2;

alpha=a/delta_xi^2;

beta=-2*b/(4*delta_xi*delta_eta);

gamma=c/delta_eta^2;

theta=1/(2*alpha+2*gamma);

phi_1=beta*(xold(i+1,j+1)-xold(i+1,j-1)-xold(i-1,j+1)+x(i-1,j-1));

x(i,j)=theta*(alpha*(xold(i+1,j)+x(i-1,j))+gamma*(xold(i,j+1)+x(i,j-

1))+phi_1);

xdiff=x(i,j)-xold(i,j)+xdiff;

phi_2=beta*(yold(i+1,j+1)-yold(i+1,j-1)-yold(i-1,j+1)+y(i-1,j-1));

y(i,j)=theta*(alpha*(yold(i+1,j)+y(i-1,j))+gamma*(yold(i,j+1)+y(i,j-

1))+phi_2);

ydiff=y(i,j)-yold(i,j)+ydiff; end

end

dx=xdiff;

dy=ydiff;

xdiff=0; ydiff=0;

xold=x; yold=y;

count=count+1;

end

fprintf('The solution took %i iterations to converge. \n \n', count); surface(x,y,z);

xlabel ('x');

ylabel ('y');

title ('Elliptic grid over an Airfoil');

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

In the plot of an Elliptical, the Grid lines have been smoothed out due to the elliptic

equations, eliminating extreme jaggedness resulting from the algebraic grid. This would

ensure a more accurate flow model.

Enter the number of grid points in the j direction: 50

The solution took 2434 iterations to converge.

Elliptic grid over an Airfoil

2

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1

y

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

x

Overall, an elliptic grid was shown to provide desired results for discretization. It succeeded

in smoothing out otherwise rough edges created through algebraic grid generation. At the

same time, the algebraic grid provided a suitable starting point for the generation of the

elliptic grid.

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS

ANSYS ICEM CFD meshing software starts with advanced CAD/geometry readers and repair tools to

allow the user to quickly progress to a variety of geometry-tolerant meshers and produce high-quality

volume or surface meshes with minimal effort. Advanced mesh diagnostics, interactive and automated

mesh editing, output to a wide variety of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and finite element analysis

(FEA) solvers and multiphysics post-processing tools make ANSYS ICEM CFD a complete meshing

solution. ANSYS endeavors to provide a variety of flexible tools that can take the model from any

geometry to any solver in one modern and fully scriptable environment.

Efficiently mesh large, complex models

Hexa mesh (structured or unstructured) with advanced control

Extended mesh diagnostics and advanced interactive mesh editing

Output to a wide variety of CFD and FEA solvers as well as neutral formats

ANSYS ICEM CFD is a popular proprietary software package used for CAD and mesh generation. Some

open source software includes OpenFOAM, FeatFlow, Open FVM etc. Present discussion is applicable

to ANSYS ICEM CFD software.

It can create structured, unstructured, multi-block, and hybrid grids with different cell geometries.

GEOMETRY MODELLING

ANSYS ICEM CFD is meant to mesh a geometry already created using other dedicated CAD packages.

Therefore, the geometry modelling features are primarily meant to 'clean-up' an imported CAD model.

Nevertheless, there are some very powerful geometry creation, editing and repair (manual and

automated) tools available in ANSYS ICEM CFD which assist in arriving at the meshing stage quickly.

Unlike the concept of volume in tools like GAMBIT, ICEM CFD rather treats a collection of surfaces

which encompass a closed region as BODY. Therefore, the typical topological issues encountered in

GAMBIT (e.g. face cannot be deleted since it is referenced by higher topology) don't show up here. The

emphasis in ICEM CFD to create a mesh is to have a 'water-tight' geometry. It means if there is a source

of water inside a region, the water should be contained and not leak out of the BODY.

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

Apart from the regular points, curves, surface creation and editing tools, ANSYS ICEM CFD especially

has the capability to do BUILD TOPOLOGY which removes unwanted surfaces and then you can view

if there are any 'holes' in the region of interest for meshing. Existence of holes would mean that the

algorithm which generates the mesh would cause the mesh to 'leak out' of the domain. Holes are typically

identified through the colour of the curves. The following is the colour coding in ANSYS ICEM CFD,

after the BUILD TOPOLOGY option has been implemented:

YELLOW: curve attached to a single surface - possibly a hole exists. In some cases this might be

desirable for e.g., thin internal walls require at least one curve with single surface attached to it.

RED: curve shared by two surface - the usual case.

BLUE: curve shared by more than two surface.

Green: Unattached Curves - not attached to any surface

There are often some misunderstandings regarding structured/unstructured mesh, meshing algorithm and

solver. A mesh may look like a structured mesh but may/may not have been created using a structured

algorithm based tool. For e.g., GAMBIT is an unstructured meshing tool. Therefore, even if it creates a

mesh that looks like a structured (single or multi-block) mesh through pain-staking efforts in geometry

decomposition, the algorithm employed was still an unstructured one. On top of it, most of the popular

CFD tools like, ANSYS FLUENT, ANSYS CFX, Star CCM+, OpenFOAM, etc. are unstructured solvers

which can only work on an unstructured mesh even if we provide it with a structured looking mesh

created using structured/unstructured algorithm based meshing tools. ANSYS ICEM CFD can generate

both structured and unstructured meshes using structured or unstructured algorithms which can be given

as inputs to structured as well as unstructured solvers, respectively.

While simple ducts can be modelled using a single block, majority of the geometries encountered in real

life have to be modelled using multi-block strategies if at all it is possible.

The following are the different multi-block strategies available which can be implemented using ANSYS

ICEM CFD.

O-grid

C-grid

Quarter O-grid

H-grid

Unlike the structured approach for meshing, the unstructured meshing algorithm is more or less an

optimization problem, wherein, it is required to fill-in a given space (with curvilinear boundaries) with

standard shapes (e.g., triangle, quadrilaterals - 2D; tetrahedrals, hexahedrals, polyhedrals, prisms,

pyramids - 3D) which have constraints on their size. The basic algorithms employed for doing

unstructured meshing are:

Octree (easiest from the user's perspective; robust but least control over the final cell count which is

usually the highest)

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

Delaunay (better control over the final cell count but may have sudden jumps in the size of the elements)

Advancing front (performs very smooth transition of the element sizes and may result in quite accurate

but high cell count)

Best practices

If using Octree -

Improve the quality of the volume mesh using Edit Mesh options

Create prism layers for boundary layer near the walls

Improve the total mesh quality using Edit Mesh options

If using Delaunay or Advancing Front -

Improve the quality of the surface mesh using Edit Mesh options

Perform volume meshing

Improve the quality of the volume mesh using Edit Mesh options

Create prism layers for boundary layer near the walls

Improve the total mesh quality using Edit Mesh options

use the left mouse button and drag to rotate the view

use the middle mouse button to pan the view

importing data

The first thing to do when creating a structured grid is to create the geometry or a .tin file in ICEM. You

can do this by manually creating it in ICEM or importing data into ICEM, for example 3-dimensional

point data from a .txt file.

The tools available are specified under the geometry tab. There are quite a number of tools and they can

be quite useful. However, it is suggested that some planning is done before beginning to make a

geometry. There are tools specifically for curves.

Points can be created at cross-sections of curves.

Surfaces can be created from curves.

All of this gives extra flexibility in the methods of designing a grid.

Tip Also, different parts of the grid can be saved under a part

A tip that is quite useful is the use of name which can be switched off or on if you want certain things

the F9 key to "pause" the tool being to be invisible like points or curves or certain surfaces. You can

used so the grid can be moved or also copy an entire set of geometry by selecting the parts you

zoomed in to. want and translating it to a specified point using the

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

'translation' tool. This is useful, especially when creating a symmetrical object such as a wing, where

the aerofoil can be copied to another location and then joined up to the original aerofoil with curves.

Once the geometry is created, the next step is to create the actual grid. Note that the tolerances of the

geometry plays an important role in the accuracy of the grid. So make sure that depending on what you

want, the tolerances are high enough. Using the blocking tab, a block can be created around the entire

geometry and then split up into sections. The mesh is created by specifying the distribution of points

along the edges of the blocks. Therefore the more blocks you have, the more flexibility you have in

changing the distribution of points along the edges. The edges and vertices of the blocks must be

assosciated with the geomery curves and points.

Once the blocks have been created and all the required points and curves assosciated, the number of

points and the distribution can be set along each edge. In somecases, you want the density of cells to be

high, for example at the boundary layer of an object, whereas to save time, you may want the cells

further away to be large. There are various types of distribution such as linear, geometrical and

exponential variation that can be used. The premesh tool can then be used to view the meshing. There is

also a quality check tool, where one can specify how you want to check the quality of the blocking. For

example, one can check the variation in volume size to see if it varies smoothly, or if there are any

negative volumes, which would suggest that the grid crosses into solid surfaces.

The blocking is saved as a .blk file. When all is done, the mesh can be made readable by a solver by

specifying what type of solver is to be used in the "output tab".

Once the curves and surfaces have been created, click the mesh tab -> surface mesh and define the mesh

density on the surfaces.

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

The surface menu is shown on the right, and to select surfaces, click the button next to it and start

selecting surfaces, using middle-click when done. Then select a mesh density (0.05 in this case, but will

vary with each case) and checkremesh selected surfaces if needed, and click ok.

Then, click volume mesh, and select the method (tetra for tetragonal unstructured meshes) to generate the

unstructured grid, press 'ok' and wait for the grid to be generated and review the result.

ANSYS computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation software allows you to predict, with

confidence, the impact of fluid flows on products — throughout design and manufacturing as

well as during end use. The software's unparalleled fluid flow analysis capabilities can be used

to design and optimize new equipment and to troubleshoot already existing installations.

Whatever phenomena you are studying — single- or multi-phase, isothermal or reacting,

compressible or not — ANSYS fluid dynamics solutions give you valuable insight into your

product's. ANSYS CFD analysis tools include the widely used and well-validated ANSYS

Fluent and ANSYS CFX, available separately or together in the ANSYS CFD bundle. Because

of solver robustness and speed, development team knowledge and experience, and advanced

modeling capabilities, ANSYS fluid dynamics solutions provide results you can trust. The

technology is highly scalable, providing efficient parallel calculations from a few to thousands

of processing cores. Combining Fluent or CFX with the full-featured ANSYS CFD-Post post-

processing tool allows you to perform advanced quantitative analysis or create high-quality

Visualizations and animations.

As a result of these tight connections, ANSYS CFX delivers benefits that include the ability TO:

Quickly prepare product/process geometry for flow analysis without tedious rework.

Avoid duplication through a common data model that is persistently shared across physics —

beyond basic fluid flow.

Easily define a series of parametric variations in geometry, mesh, physics and post-processing,

enabling automatic new CFD results for that series with a single mouse click

Improve product/process quality by increasing the understanding of variability and design

sensitivity.

Easily set up and perform multiphysics simulations

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

software packages:

Problem description:

Consider air flowing over NACA 0012 airfoil. The free stream Mach number is 1.2.

Assume standard sea-level values for the free stream properties:

Pressure = 101,325 Pa

Density = 1.2250 kg/m3

Temperature = 288.16 K

Kinematic viscosity v = 1.4607e-5 m2/s

Steps Involved In ICEM

CFD: Creation of Geometry in ICEM CFD:

File→Import Geometry→Formatted point data→Select the file of aerofoil

coordinates which is in DAT format→ok. Now the coordinates will be

displayed.

Geometry→Create/modify curve→From points→Select above points and

leave last 2 points→middle click

Similarly on bottom side

Join the end points of the curves

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

1) Creation of parts:

Parts in the tree→Right click→Create part→

Select Upper curve: Suction

Select Lower curve: Pressure

3rd Line: TE

2) Creation of Domain:

Create points (-1,1),(-1,-1),(2,1),(2,-1)

Join these points

Create parts as Inlet, Outlet, Top & Bottom

Geometry→Create/Modify surface→Simple surface→Select all the lines of

domain→ok

3) Saving the Geometry:

File→Change working directory→Choose the folder

File→Geometry→Save Geometry as→Give the name.

4) Creation of Blocking and Association:

Blocking→Create block→Initialize blocks→Type as:2D Planar→ok

Associate→Associate vertex to point→Select a vertex and a point→Apply→

Similarly associate remaining 3 vertices to points

Associate→Associate edge to curve→Select a edge and a curve →Apply→

Similarly associate remaining 3 edges to curves

Split block→Select the edges→Create the blocks as shown in figure

row→ok→Select blocks→Select last 2 blocks in the middle row→ok

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

Associate

Associate vertex to pointSelect the vertex of the O grid and the

2nd point on the upper curve(suction)ok

Similarly associate remaining 3 vertices of the O grid to the points on the

aerofoil as shown in the below fig.

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

inside of the aerofoil and select the suction & pressure curves→ok

Similarly associate the TE edge to TE curve.

Delete block→Select the block inside the aerofoil→ok

5) Generation of Mesh:

Pre-mesh parameters→Edge parameters→Switch ON the Copy Parameters→

Select the edges and give desired no. of nodes→ok

Switch ON Pre-mesh in the tree→click yes to compute the meshing

Pre-mesh→Right click→Convert to unstructured mesh

Now the required mesh has been generated as shown in below fig.

File→Save Project as→Give the name.

7) Writing output file:

Output→Select solver→Output solver as: Fluent_V6→Common Structural

solver as: ANSYS→ok

Write input→Click NO→Open the file→Click 2D→ok

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

Steps Involved in Fluent:

8) Importing the mesh file:

File→Read→mesh→Choose the output file written in ICEM CFD

Now the mesh has imported into the fluent solver.

9) Problem setup:

General→Type as: Pressure based

Models→Energy ON→Viscous-laminar

Materials→Air

Cell zone conditions→Type as: fluid→ok

Boundary conditions→Select inlet→Edit→Give velocity magnitude as:

400m/s.

Boundary conditions→Select outlet→Edit→Give gauge pressure as: 0 Pa

10) Solution:

Select the required monitors

Solution initialization→Compute from: inlet→Initialize

Run calculations→Enter the no. of iterations as: 1000→Calculate

11) Results:

Graphics and animations→select the required flow parameters in the

contours and vectors.

The results are shown below as:

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

38

Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

Problem description:

Consider air flowing over wedge. The free stream Mach number is 3 and the angle of

attack is 5°. Assume standard sea-level values for the free stream properties:

Pressure =101,325Pa

Density =1.2250kg/m3

Temperature =288.16K

Kinematic viscosity v = 1.4607e-5 m2/s

given in table shown:

Z 0 0 0 0 0 0

points→ok→Similarly create the curves to all points

Geometry→Create/Modify surface→Simple surface→Select all the lines of

domain→ok

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

Parts in the tree→Right click→Create part→

Select Left curve: Inlet

Select Right curve: Outlet

Select Top curve: Top

Select inclined curve: Wedge

Select bottom curve: Front_wedge

14) Saving the Geometry:

File→Change working directory→Choose the folder

File→Geometry→Save Geometry as→Give the name.

15) Creation of Blocking and Association:

Blocking→Create block→Initialize blocks→Type as:2D Planar→ok

Associate→Associate vertex to point→Select a vertex and a point→Apply→

Similarly associate remaining 3 vertices to points

Associate→Associate edge to curve→Select a edge and a curve →Apply→

Similarly associate remaining 3 edges to 5 curves

Pre-mesh parameters→Edge parameters→Switch ON the Copy Parameters→

Select the Horizontal edge and give no. of nodes as: 100→ok

Pre-mesh parameters→Edge parameters→Switch ON the Copy Parameters→

Select the Vertical edge and give no. of nodes as: 100→Spacing as:

0.001→Ratio as: 1.1→ok

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

Pre-mesh→Right click→Convert to unstructured mesh

Now the required mesh has been generated as shown in below fig:

File→Save Project as→Give the name.

18) Writing output file:

Output→Select solver→Output solver as: Fluent_V6→Common Structural

solver as: ANSYS→ok

Write input→Click NO→Open the file→Click 2D→ok

File→Read→mesh→Choose the output file written in ICEM CFD

Now the mesh has imported into the fluent solver.

20) Problem setup:

General→Type as: Density based

Models→Energy ON→ Select Viscous-laminar→Edit→Set model as: k-

omega(2 equ)

Materials→Air→Create/Edit→Set density as: Ideal-gas→Set viscosity as:

Sutherland→Change

Cell zone conditions→ Type as: fluid→Set operating conditions→Set

operating pressure as: 0Pa

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field→Edit→Give Gauge pressure as: 101325Pa→Set Mach as: 3→ok

Boundary conditions→Select outlet→Edit→Give gauge pressure as: 0Pa

21) Solution:

Select Solution Controls→Set Courant number as: 1

Select the required monitors

Solution initialization→Compute from: inlet→Initialize

Run calculations→Enter the no. of iterations as: 1000→Calculate

22) Results:

Graphics and animations→Select the required flow parameters in the contours

and vectors.

The results are shown below as:

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

Aim: To study the characteristics of flow over a flat plate

Description: Consider a plate of 1m and the flow of air is 0.00133 m/s. The plate is an

stationary solid wall having no slip as its boundary condition.

Procedure:

4(0,1,0) → ok

Create/modify curve→ select 2 points→ middle click

Select all points to make a rectangle

Create part→ name inlet→ select the left edge→ middle click

similarly create outlet, top and bottom

Switch off points and curves→ create part→ name surf→ click on surface→ ok

Blocking→ create block→ select entities→ click spectacles→ middle click→ switch

on points and curves

Go to association→ associate vertex→ select the point→ double click on the point

Associate→ edge to curve→ select the edge→ ok→ again select the edge→ ok

Similarly for the remaining edges

Premesh parameters→ edge parameters→ select any edge→ click on copy

parameters→ nodes-60, spacing-0.01, ratio-1.1→ ok

Blocking tree→ premesh→ right click→ convert structured to unstructured mesh

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output→ output solver→ fluent V6→ common-ansys→ ok

FLUENT:

Click on check→ done

Models→ viscous laminar→ materials→ air

Cell zone conditions→ solid→ ok

Boundary conditions→ bottom→ edit→ stationary wall→ ok, inlet→ velocity-

0.00133→ ok, outlet→ guage pressure-0→ ok, top→ edit→ moving wall→ ok

Dynamic mesh→ solution→ solution method-simple, solution controls-

0.3,1,0.3→ ok

Monitor initializer→ compute from inlet→ x=0.00133→ initialize

Calculation activities→ no of iterations-200→ run calculations→ click on

calculate→ ok

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filled→ display

Contour→ velocity→ display

vector→ velocity→ display

For residue→ contour→ residue→ display

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AIM: To study characteristics of laminar flow through a pipe.

DESCRIPTION: Consider a pipe of radius 0.05 and 1 m length. The freestream velocity

considered is 40m/s.

STEPS INVOLVED:

1) Create A Geometry:

a) Create a point: Geometry →create point →explicit coordinates→(X, Y, Z) =

(0, 0, 0) →apply→(X, Y, Z) = (1, 0, 0) →ok.

cylinder→radius1=radius2 = 0.05→select the 2 points →ok

2) Generation of parts:

Part →create part →pipe →select pipe without inlet and outlet →ok.

3) Generation of blocking:

Blocking →create block →solid →select pipe element with inlet and outlet→

apply→ok.

inlet →apply →select the inlet curve→ok.

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

outlet →apply→select the outlet curve→ok.

inlet→accept →ok.

→accept →ok.

accept →ok.

Blocking →split block →O grid block →select the 2 faces (inlet & outlet)

→apply →ok.

4) Generation of Meshing:

parameters →select 1 edge →give no. of nodes =20→ok.

Repeat the above steps to the remaining edges also and then apply.

Output→select solver→ansys.cfx→ANSYS→ok.

Output →write input →done →check the file is saved folder →ok.

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Change the working directory (where ICEM CFD mesh file was

saved)→Click on CFX-PRE.

7) CFX-PRE:

File→new case→general→ok.

inlet→boundary conditions as: velocity=40m/s→ok.

outlet→boundary conditions as: static pressure=0→ok.

pipe→boundary conditions as: no slip condition, smooth wall→ok.

domain→material as: air→ok.

0.000000001→ok.

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8) CFX-Solver Manager:

9) CFX-POST:

FileLoad resultsOk.

localSet boundary data as: conservativeApply.

The results are shown below as:

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pressure contour

velocity vector

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AIM : To study the characteristics of flow over a cylinder.

DESCRIPTION: Consider a cyclinder of 3m radius and 6m height. The free stream velocity

considered 20m/s. the properties of air is ρ=1.18kg/m3.

PROCEDURE:

CREATION OF GEOMETRY:

Geometry → create surface → standard shapes → box → (36 18 18) → apply →

solid simple display

Geometry → create point → based on 2 locations → select 2 diagonal points of face

Geometry → transform geometry → copy → select point → Z-offset =6 → apply →

z-offset=12→ ok.

Geometry → surfaces → standard shapes → cylinder r1=3.r2=3 → select 2 points of

cylinder → apply

parts→ create parts → ( part name) → select entities → middle click (create

parts according to the problem i.e. inlet, outlet, cylinder & free slip wall)

geometry → solid → part(mp) → select two points lying outside the cylinder

→ apply.

Mesh → mesh parameters → cylinder -1.5, inlet-2.5, outlet-2.5, slipfree-0.7

Mesh → global mesh setup → global mesh size → max element size (3) →

apply.

Mesh → compute mesh → compute.

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APPLY

WRITE INPUT → OK

CFX → change the working directory → cfx-pre File

→ new case → general → apply.

Mesh → import mesh → ICEM CFD → OK

domain → fluid domain → air at 25c

Boundary → inlet → domain: inlet → velocity=40m/s.

Boundary → outlet → domain outlet → static pressure=0 Pa → apply

Boundary → freeslip → domain free slip → free slip → ok.

Solver settings → 1000 iterations → apply. Define

solver → solver input file → ok

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Solve:

CFD solver → open cfx file → define run → ok

Post processing:

Location → plane → Z=9 apply

Contours → domain: plane1 → velocity → local → conservative →

apply.

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apply

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VIVA QUESTIONS:

1. Define CFD?

2. What are the three major steps of CFD?

3. What are the governing equations of CFD?

4. What is meant by Discretization?

5. Which type of Discretization is used in CFD?

6. Difference between forward and backward differencing scheme?

7. What is Explicit method and Implicit method?

8. What is LAX method?

9. What is a stability criterion?

10. What is thermal diffusivity?

11. Define Grid?

12. Difference between Structured and Unstructured grid?

13. What is meant by Grid Independence study?

14. What is linspace command in MATLAB?

15. How to give titles to X and Y axis of a graph?

16. How to create Hybrid mesh in ICEM?

17. How to create structured grid in ICEM?

18. What is the importance of Body point in ICEM?

19. How to define material properties in CFX or FLUENT?

20. What is meant by convergence criteria?

21. How to define supersonic inlet conditions in CFX?

22. What is Grid adaption technique?

23. What is meant by parallel and serial processing?

24. In how many ways CFD results can be presented?

25. How to define formulas in CFD Post?

26. What are the causes for reverse flow or diverged flow during CFD iterations?

27. What are the relaxations factors in FLUENT?

28. What is courant number and how does it affects the solution?

29. What are the different types of turbulence models in CFD?

30. Difference between free slip and no-slip conditions?

55

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES

LABORATORY MANUAL

B.TECH

(IV YEAR – I SEM)

(2016-17)

Prepared by:

Ms. A.UDAYA DEEPIKA, Assistant Professor

Mrs. L.SUSHMA, Assistant Professor

OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY

(Autonomous Institution – UGC, Govt. of India)

Recognized under 2(f) and 12 (B) of UGC ACT 1956

Affiliated to JNTUH, Hyderabad, Approved by AICTE - Accredited by NBA & NAAC – A Grade - ISO 9001:2015 Certified)

Maisammaguda, Dhulapally (Post Via. Hakimpet), Secunderabad – 500100, Telangana State, India.

DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING

VISION

Engineering which has a zeal to provide the value driven platform for the students to acquire

knowledge and empower themselves to shoulder higher responsibility in building a strong

nation.

MISSION

a) The primary mission of the department is to promote engineering education and research.

(b) To strive consistently to provide quality education, keeping in pace with time and

technology.

(c) Department passions to integrate the intellectual, spiritual, ethical and social development

of the students for shaping them into dynamic engineers.

PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEO’S)

To create and sustain a community of learning in which students acquire knowledge and learn

to apply it professionally with due consideration for ethical, ecological and economic issues.

PEO2: TECHNICAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS

To provide knowledge based services to satisfy the needs of society and the industry by

providing hands on experience in various technologies in core field.

PEO3: INVENTION, INNOVATION AND CREATIVITY

To make the students to design, experiment, analyze, interpret in the core field with the help

of other multi disciplinary concepts wherever applicable.

PEO4: PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT

To educate the students to disseminate research findings with good soft skills and become a

successful entrepreneur.

PEO5: HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

To graduate the students in building national capabilities in technology, education and

research.

PROGRAM SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES (PSO’s)

1. To mould students to become a professional with all necessary skills, personality and

sound knowledge in basic and advance technological areas.

2. To promote understanding of concepts and develop ability in design manufacture and

maintenance of aircraft, aerospace vehicles and associated equipment and develop

application capability of the concepts sciences to engineering design and processes.

3. Understanding the current scenario in the field of aeronautics and acquire ability to apply

knowledge of engineering, science and mathematics to design and conduct experiments in

the field of Aeronautical Engineering.

4. To develop leadership skills in our students necessary to shape the social, intellectual,

business and technical worlds.

PROGRAM OBJECTIVES (PO’S)

1. Engineering knowledge: Apply the knowledge of mathematics, science,

engineering fundamentals, and an engineering specialization to the solution of

complex engineering problems.

2. Problem analysis: Identify, formulate, review research literature, and analyze

complex engineering problems reaching substantiated conclusions using first

principles of mathematics, natural sciences, and engineering sciences.

3. Design / development of solutions: Design solutions for complex engineering

problems and design system components or processes that meet the specified needs

with appropriate consideration for the public health and safety, and the cultural,

societal, and environmental considerations.

4. Conduct investigations of complex problems: Use research-based knowledge and

research methods including design of experiments, analysis and interpretation of

data, and synthesis of the information to provide valid conclusions.

5. Modern tool usage: Create, select, and apply appropriate techniques, resources,

and modern engineering and IT tools including prediction and modeling to

complex engineering activities with an understanding of the limitations.

6. The engineer and society: Apply reasoning informed by the contextual knowledge

to assess societal, health, safety, legal and cultural issues and the consequent

responsibilities relevant to the professional engineering practice.

7. Environment and sustainability: Understand the impact of the professional

engineering solutions in societal and environmental contexts, and demonstrate the

knowledge of, and need for sustainable development.

8. Ethics: Apply ethical principles and commit to professional ethics and

responsibilities and norms of the engineering practice.

9. Individual and team work: Function effectively as an individual, and as a

member or leader in diverse teams, and in multidisciplinary settings.

10. Communication: Communicate effectively on complex engineering activities with

the engineering community and with society at large, such as, being able to

comprehend and write effective reports and design documentation, make effective

presentations, and give and receive clear instructions.

11. Project management and finance: Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of

the engineering and management principles and apply these to one’s own work, as

a member and leader in a team, to manage projects and in multi disciplinary

environments.

12. Life- long learning: Recognize the need for, and have the preparation and ability

to engage in independent and life-long learning in the broadest context of

technological change.

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB

1.2. Introduction to the features and application of any one of the professional

software employed in modeling and analysis of aircraft structures.

CODE DEVELPOMENT, OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS UNDER

ARBITRARY STATIC LOADING-VALIDATION OF SOLUTIONS

WITH PROFESSIONAL SOFTWARE

4. Compressive strength of rectangular stiffened plane panels of uniform cross-

section.

5. Shear and torsion of stiffened thin walled open and closed sections.

6. Statically indeterminate trusses.

7. Free vibration of uniform cantilever beams-determination of natural

frequencies and mode shapes.

USING PROFESSIONAL SOFTWARE

9. Tapered wing box beams.

10. Fuselage bulkheads.

ANSYS

NASTRAN

PATRAN

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

NO

1 INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS 8

2 EXPERIMENT -1 TWO DIMENSIONAL STATIC 14

LINEAR ANALYSIS OF A

CANTILEVER BEAM

RECTANGULAR STIFFENED 20

PLANE PANEL OF UNIFORM

CROSS-SECTION

3 EXPERIMENT -3(A) 27

SHEAR OF STIFFENED THIN

WALLED OPEN SECTION BEAM

4 EXPERIMENT -3(B) TORSIONAL STRENGTH OF A 34

THIN WALLED OPEN SECTION

BEAM

THIN WALLED CLOSED

SECTION BEAM

THIN WALLED CLOSED

SECTION BEAM

OF A TRUSS STRUCTURE

UNIFORM CANTILEVER BEAM

GEAR

TAPERED WING BOX

INTRODUCTION

ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modelling package for numerically

solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. These problems include: static/dynamic

structural analysis (both linear and non-linear), heat transfer and fluid problems, as well as

acoustic and electro-magnetic problems.

In general, a finite element solution may be broken into the following three stages. This is a

general guideline that can be used for setting up any finite element analysis.

1. Pre-processing: defining the problem; the major steps in pre-processing are given

below:

Define keypoints/lines/areas/volumes

Define element type and material/geometric properties

Mesh lines/areas/volumes as required.

The amount of detail required will depend on the dimensionality of the analysis (i.e.

1D, 2D, axi-symmetric, 3D).

2. Solution: assigning loads, constraints and solving; here we specify the loads (point

or pressure), constraints (translational and rotational) and finally solve the resulting

set of equations.

3. Postprocessing: further processing and viewing of the results; in this stage one

may wish to see:

o Lists of nodal displacements

o Element forces and displacements

o Deflection plots

o Stress contour diagrams

1. ANSYS 13.0 Environment

The ANSYS Environment for ANSYS 13.0 contains 2 windows: the Main Window and an

Output Window. Note that this is somewhat different from the previous version of ANSYS

which made use of 6 different windows.

1. Main Window

a. Utility Menu

The Utility Menu contains functions that are available throughout the ANSYS

session, such as file controls, selections, graphic controls and parameters.

b. Input Window

The Input Line shows program prompt messages and allows you to type in

commands directly.

c. Toolbar

The Toolbar contains push buttons that execute commonly used ANSYS

commands. More push buttons can be added if desired.

d. Main Menu

The Main Menu contains the primary ANSYS functions, organized by

preprocessor, solution, general postprocessor, design optimizer. It is from this

menu that the vast majority of modelling commands are issued. This is where

you will note the greatest change between previous versions of ANSYS and

version 7.0. However, while the versions appear different, the menu structure

has not changed.

e. Graphics Window

The Graphic Window is where graphics are shown and graphical picking can

be made. It is here where you will graphically view the model in its various

stages of construction and the ensuing results from the analysis.

2. Output Window

The Output Window shows text output from the program, such as listing of data etc. It

is usually positioned behind the main window and can de put to the front if necessary.

2. ANSYS Files

Introduction

A large number of files are created when you run ANSYS. If you started ANSYS without

specifying a jobname, the name of all the files created will be FILE.* where the * represents

various extensions described below. If you specified a jobname, say Frame, then the created

files will all have the file prefix, Frame again with various extensions:

frame.db

Database file (binary). This file stores the geometry, boundary conditions and any

solutions.

frame.dbb

Backup of the database file (binary).

frame.err

Error file (text). Listing of all error and warning messages.

frame.out

Output of all ANSYS operations (text). This is what normally scrolls in the output

window during an ANSYS session.

frame.log

Logfile or listing of ANSYS commands (text). Listing of all equivalent ANSYS

command line commands used during the current session.

etc...

Depending on the operations carried out, other files may have been written. These files may

contain results, etc.

3. Plotting ANSYS Results to a File

Plotting of Figures

There are two major routes to get hardcopies from ANSYS. The first is a quick a raster-based

screen dump, while the second is a scalable vector plot.

When you want to quickly save an image of the entire screen or the current 'Graphics

window', select:

'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Hard Copy ...'.

In the window that appears, you will normally want to select 'Graphics window',

'Monochrome', 'Reverse Video', 'Landscape' and 'Save to:'.

Then enter the file name of your choice.

Press 'OK'

This raster image file may now be printed on a PostScript printer or included in a document.

The plot file that has been saved is stored in a proprietary file format that must be

converted into a more common graphic file format like PostScript, or HPGL for example.

This is performed by running a separate program called display. To do this, you have a

couple of options:

1. Select display from the ANSYS launcher menu (if you started ANSYS that way)

2. Shut down ANSYS or open up a new terminal window and then type display at the

Unix prompt.

Either way, a large graphics window will appear. Decrease the size of this window, because it

most likely covers the window in which you will enter the display plotting commands. Load

your plot file with the following command:

file,frame,pic

if your plot file is 'plots.pic'. Note that although the file is 'plots.pic' (with a period), Display

wants 'plots,pic'(with a comma). You can display your plots to the graphics window by

issuing the command like

plot,n

where n is plot number. If you plotted 5 images to this file in ANSYS, then n could be any

number from 1 to 5.

Now that the plots have been read in, they may be saved to printer files of various formats:

1. Colour PostScript: To save the images to a colour postscript file, enter the following

commands in display:

2. pscr,color,2

3. /show,pscr

4. plot,n

Where n is the plot number, as above. You can plot as many images as you want to

postscript files in this manner. For subsequent plots, you only require the plot,n

command as the other options have now been set. Each image is plotted to a postscript

file such as pscrxx.grph, where xx is a number, starting at 00

.

Note: when you import a postscript file into a word processor, the postscript image

will appear as blank box. The printer information is still present, but it can only be

viewed when it's printed out to a postscript printer.

Printing it out: Now that you've got your color postscript file, what are you going to

do with it? Take a look here for instructions on colour postscript printing at a couple

of sites on campus where you can have your beautiful stress plot plotted to paper,

overheads or even posters!

5. Black & White PostScript: The above mentioned colour postscript files can get very

large in size and may not even print out on the postscript printer in the lab because it

takes so long to transfer the files to the printer and process them. A way around this is

to print them out in a black and white postscript format instead of colour; besides the

colour specifications don't do any good for the black and white lab printer anyways.

To do this, you set the postscript color option to '3', i.e. and then issue the other

commands as before

6. pscr,color,3

7. /show,pscr

8. plot,n

The manuals listed below form the ANSYS product documentation set. They include

descriptions of the procedures, commands, elements, and theoretical details needed to use

ANSYS. A brief description of each manual follows.

Advanced Analysis Techniques Guide: Discusses techniques commonly used for complex

analyses or by experienced ANSYS users, including design optimization, manual rezoning,

cyclic symmetry, rotating structures, submodeling, substructuring, component mode

synthesis, and cross sections.

ANSYS Connection User's Guide: Gives instructions for using the ANSYS Connection

products, which help you import parts and models into ANSYS.

ANSYS Parametric Design Language Guide: Describes features of the ANSYS Parametric

Design Language (APDL), including parameters, array parameters, macros, and ways to

interface with the ANSYS GUI. Explains how to automate common tasks or to build your

model in terms of parameters. Includes a command reference for all APDL-related

commands.

Basic Analysis Guide: Describes general tasks that apply to any type of analysis, including

applying loads to a model, obtaining a solution, and using the ANSYS program's graphics

capabilities to review results.

definitive reference for correct command usage, providing associated menu paths, product

applicability, and usage notes.

Contact Technology Guide: Describes how to perform contact analyses (surface-to-surface,

node-to-surface, node-to-node) and describes other contact-related features such as multipoint

constraints and spot welds.

Coupled-Field Analysis Guide: Explains how to perform analyses that involve an interaction

between two or more fields of engineering.

and proceed with a distributed analysis.

Element Reference: Describes all ANSYS element, in numerical order. It is the primary

reference for correct element type input and output, providing comprehensive descriptions for

every option of every element. Includes a pictorial catalog of the characteristics of each

ANSYS element.

Modeling and Meshing Guide: Explains how to build a finite element model and mesh it.

Multibody Analysis Guide: Describes how to perform a multibody simulation to analyze the

dynamic behavior of a system of interconnected bodies comprised of flexible and/or rigid

components.

Operations Guide: Describes basic ANSYS operations such as starting, stopping, interactive

or batch operation, using help, and use of the graphical user interface (GUI).

Performance Guide: Describes factors that impact the performance of ANSYS on current

hardware systems and provides information on how to optimize performance for different

ANSYS analysis types and equation solvers.

axially symmetric rotating structures, such as gas turbine engines, motors, and disk drives.

Structural Analysis Guide: Describes how to perform the following structural analyses: static,

modal, harmonic, transient, spectrum, buckling, nonlinear, material curve fitting, gasket joint

simulation, fracture, composite, fatigue, p-method, beam, and shell.

Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications: Provides the

theoretical basis for calculations in the ANSYS program, such as elements, solvers and

results formulations, material models, and analysis methods. By understanding the underlying

theory, you can make better use of ANSYS capabilities while being aware of assumptions

and limitations.

EXPERIMENT: 1

TWO DIMENSIONAL STATIC LINEAR ANALYSIS OF A

CANTILEVER BEAM

Experiment as given in the JNTUH curriculum.

AIM: To determine the stresses acting on a cantilever beam with a point load of -10000 N

acting at one of its ends and perpendicular to the axis of the beam.

Young’s modulus = 2e5

Poisson’s ratio = 0.3

Length of the beam = 2m = 2000mm

Breadth of the beam = 10 cm = 100mm

Height of the beam = 50mm

PROCEDURE:

PRE PROCESSING

STEP 1: From the Main menu select preferences

Select structural and press OK

STEP 2: From the main menu select Pre-processor

Element type Add / edit/Delete Add BEAM – 2D Elastic 3 Apply

Close

Material properties material models Structural Linear Elastic Isotropic

EX = 2e5; PRXY = 0.3

STEP 3: From the main menu select Pre-processor

Sections Beam Common Sections Select subtype as Rectangular section

Enter B = 100, H = 50 Apply Preview

Real constants Add Add Ok Geometric Properties Area = 5000, Izz =

4170000, Height = 50 Ok Close

STEP 4: From the main menu select Pre-processor Modelling

Create the key points in the Workspace

Create Key points in active CS

X 0 2000

Y 0 0

Click APPLY to all the points and for the last point click OK

Create LINES using the Key points

Create Lines Lines Straight Line Click on Key points to generate lines

Select Plot controls from menu bar Capture image file save as and save your file

Figure: Model

From the main menu select Meshing

Meshing Size controls Manual size Lines All lines – Number of element

divisions = 20 Click OK

Meshing Mesh Lines – pick all

SOLUTION PHASE: ASSIGNING LOADS AND SOLVING

Solution Analysis type new analysis – Static

STEP 6: Defining loads at the Key points

Solution Define Loads Apply Structural Displacement On key points

Left end – ALL DOF arrested

Solution Define loads Apply Structural Force/moment On key Points

Right end – Apply a load of FY = -1000N

Select Plot controls from menu bar Capture image file save as and save your file

Figure: Model with boundary conditions

STEP 7: Solving the system

Solution Solve Current LS

POSTPROCESSING: VIEWING THE RESULTS

1. Deformation

From the main menu select General post processing

Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the

undeformed object

Nodal solution

PLOT Results Contour plot Nodal solution – DOF solution – Y component of

displacement – OK

Figure: Y-Component displacement of the Model

RESULT:

Case: 1:- To determine the stresses acting on a cantilever beam with a point load of -

10000 N acting at one of its ends and perpendicular to the axis of the beam.

1. DMX = 31.974

SMN = -31.974

PROBLEM DEFINITIONS DIFFERENT FROM JNTU TOPICS

Case: 2:- To determine the stresses acting on a cantilever beam with a point load of -

9000 N acting at one of its ends and perpendicular to the axis of the beam.

1. DMX = 28.777

SMN = -28.777

Case: 3:- To determine the stresses acting on a cantilever beam with a point load of -

8000 N acting at one of its ends and perpendicular to the axis of the beam.

1. DMX = 25.58

SMN = -25.58

Case: 4:- To determine the stresses acting on a cantilever beam with a point load of -

7000 N acting at one of its ends and perpendicular to the axis of the beam.

1. DMX = 22.382

SMN = -22.382

Case: 5:- To determine the stresses acting on a cantilever beam with a point load of -

6000 N acting at one of its ends and perpendicular to the axis of the beam.

1. DMX = 19.185

SMN = -19.185

Case: 6:- To determine the stresses acting on a cantilever beam with a point load of -

5000 N acting at one of its ends and perpendicular to the axis of the beam.

1. DMX = 15.988

SMN = -15.988

VIVA QUESTIONS

1. If a cantilever beam has a uniformly distributed load, will the bending moment diagram

be quadratic or cubic?

2. Name the element type used for beams?

3. Define Analysis and its Purpose?

4. What are the modules in Ansys Programming?

5. What are the Real Constants & Material Properties in Ansys? Explain?

EXPERIMENT: 2

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF RECTANGULAR STIFFENED

PLANE PANEL OF UNIFORM CROSS-SECTION

Experiment as given in the JNTUH curriculum.

Compressive strength of rectangular stiffened plane panel.

AIM: To analyze the compressive strength of rectangular stiffened plane panel of uniform

cross-section which is subjected to a pressure of 12000 Pa.

GIVEN DATA:

Young’s modulus = 2e11

Thickness I=1.2, J=1.2

Poisson’s ratio = 0.27

Density = 7850kg/m3

PROCEDURE:

PRE PROCESSING

STEP 1: From the Main menu select preferences

Select structural→ h-method and press OK

STEP 2: From the main menu select Pre-processor

Element type Add / edit/Delete Add select shellelastic 4 node 63ok

Real constants Add Addselect type1 shellok

ThicknessI=1.2, J=1.2ok

Material properties material models Structural Linear Elastic Isotropic

EX = 2e11; PRXY = 0.27; Density = 7850

STEP 3: From the main menu select Pre-processor Modeling

Create the key points in the Workspace

Create Key points In active CS

X Y Z

0 0 0

6 0 0

6 4 0

0 4 0

Click APPLY to all the points and for the last point click OK

Create LINES using the Key points

Create Lines Straight Line select 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, 4-1 Key points to generate

lines

STEP 4: Modeling create Areas arbitrary by lines select all four lines ok

STEP 5: Meshing the Geometry

From the main menu select Meshing

Meshing mesh attributes all areas select the area shell ok

Meshing Size controls Manual size by areas all areas Number of

element edge length = 1 Click ok

Meshing Mesh areas mapped 3 or 4 sided select area ok

Solution Analysis type new analysis Static

STEP 6: Defining loads

Loads define loads Apply Structural Displacement On lines select

line 1-2 & 1-4 ok

Select ALL DOF arrested

Define loads Apply Structural Pressure select on lines 2-3 & 3-4 ok

Enter pressure = 12000 ok

STEP 7: Solving the system

Solution Solve Current LS

POSTPROCESSING: VIEWING THE RESULTS

2. Deformation

From the main menu select General post processing

Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the

undeformed object

Nodal solution

RESULT:

Case: 1:- To determine the stresses acting on a rectangular plane with a pressure load of

12000 N acting on the lines 2 & 3.

DMX = 0.187e-07

SMX = 939.279

Case: 2:- To determine the stresses acting on a rectangular plane with a pressure load of

11000 N acting on the lines 2 & 3

DMX = .224e-07

SMX = 1127

Case: 3:- To determine the stresses acting on a rectangular plane with a pressure load of

10000 N acting on the lines 2 & 3

DMX = 0.224e-06

SMX = 4747

Case: 4:- To determine the stresses acting on a rectangular plane with a pressure load of

13000 N acting on the lines 2 & 3

DMX = 0.224e-06

SMX = 1127

Case: 5:- To determine the stresses acting on a rectangular plane with a pressure load of

14000 N acting on the lines 2 & 3

DMX = 0.224e-06

SMX = 1127

Case: 6:- To determine the stresses acting on a rectangular plane with a pressure load of

15000 N acting on the lines 2 & 3

DMX = 0.224e-06

SMX = 1127

VIVA QUESTIONS

2. Define key points, lines, nodes, elements?

3. Can meshing is done after elements are created?

4. Types of co-ordinate systems?

5. What is symmetry and types of symmetry?

EXPERIMENT: 3

a) SHEAR OF STIFFENED THIN WALLED OPEN SECTION BEAM

Experiment as given in the JNTUH curriculum.

AIM: To analyze shear of stiffened thin walled open section beam which is subjected to a

pressure of 50 MPa.

GIVEN DATA:

Young’s modulus = 0.7e11

Thickness I = 1.3, J = 1.3

Poisson’s ratio = 0.3

Density = 2700 kg/m3

PROCEDURE:

PRE PROCESSING

STEP 1: From the Main menu select preferences

Select structural→ h-method and press OK

STEP 2: From the main menu select Pre-processor

Element type Add / edit/Delete Add select shellelastic 4 node

63applysolidquad 4 node 182ok

Real constants Add Addselect type1 shellok enter

ThicknessI =1.3, J=1.3 ok close

Material properties material models Structural Linear Elastic Isotropic

EX = 0.7e11; PRXY = 0.3 & Density = 2700 ok close

STEP 3: From the main menu select Pre-processor Modeling

Create the key points in the Workspace

Create Key points In active CS

X Y Z

0 0 0

2 0 0

2 0.2 0

0.2 0.2 0

0.2 1.8 0

0.5 1.8 0

0.5 2 0

0 2 0

Click APPLY to all the points and for the last point click OK

Create LINES using the Key points

Create Lines Straight Line Select 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, 4-5, 5-6, 6-7, 7-8, 8-1 Key

points to generate lines

STEP 4: Modeling create Areas arbitrary by lines select all four lines ok

Modeling operate extrude areas along normal select the area ok

enter the extrude length as 0.5

Select Plot controls from menu bar Capture image file save as and save your file

From the main menu select Meshing

Meshing mesh attributes all areas select the element type no shell ok

Select All volumes select the element type number plane ok

Meshing Size controls Manual size by areas all areas Number of

element edge length = 0.025 Click ok

Meshing Mesh areas free select box type instead of single select the

total volume ok

Select Plot controls from menu bar Capture image file save as and save your file

SOLUTION PHASE: ASSIGNING LOADS AND SOLVING

Loads define loads Apply Structural Displacement On areas select

the bottom edge ok all DOF ok

Select ALL DOF arrested

Define loads Apply Structural Pressure on areas select box

type (instead of single) select the top flange ok

Enter pressure = 12000 ok

STEP 6: Solving the system

Solution Solve Current LS

POSTPROCESSING: VIEWING THE RESULTS

1. Deformation

From the main menu select General post processing

Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the

undeformed object

Nodal solution

From the Utility menu select PLOT

PLOT Results Contour plot Nodal solution

2. Select DOF solution X component of displacement OK

Figure: Von mises stress model

RESULT:

Case: 1:- To analyze shear of stiffened thin walled open section beam which is subjected

to a pressure of 50 MPa.

1. DMX = 0.917E-03

2. DMX = 0.917E-03

SMN = 0.598E-06

SMX = 0.902E-03

3. DMX = 0.917E-03

SMN = 0.468E+07

SMX = 0.120E+08

4. DMX = 0.917E-03

SMX = 0.563E+08

PROBLEM DEFINITIONS DIFFERENT FROM JNTU TOPICS

Case: 2:- To analyze shear of stiffened thin walled open section beam which is subjected

to a pressure of 51 MPa.

1. DMX = 0.935E-03

SMX = 0.574E+08

Case: 3:- To analyze shear of stiffened thin walled open section beam which is subjected

to a pressure of 52 MPa.

1. DMX = 0.954E-03

SMX = 0.586E+08

Case: 4:- To analyze shear of stiffened thin walled open section beam which is subjected

to a pressure of 53 MPa.

1. DMX = 0.972E-03

SMX = 0.597E+08

Case: 5:- To analyze shear of stiffened thin walled open section beam which is subjected

to a pressure of 54 MPa.

1. DMX = 0.990E-03

SMX = 0.608E+08

Case: 6:- To analyze shear of stiffened thin walled open section beam which is subjected

to a pressure of 55 MPa.

1. DMX = 1.08E-03

SMX = 0.620E+08

EXPERIMENT: 3 B

TORSIONAL STRENGTH OF A THIN WALLED OPEN SECTION

BEAM

Experiment as given in the JNTUH curriculum.

AIM: To analyze Torsion of stiffened thin walled open section beam which is subjected to a

pressure of 20 MPa.

GIVEN DATA:

Young’s modulus = 0.7e11

Thickness I = 1.3, J = 1.3

Poisson’s ratio = 0.3

Density = 2700 kg/m3

PROCEDURE:

PRE PROCESSING

STEP 1: From the Main menu select preferences

Select structural→ h-method and press OK

STEP 2: From the main menu select Pre-processor

Element type Add / edit/Delete Add select shellelastic 4 node

63applysolidquad 4 node 182ok

Real constants Add Addselect type1 shellok enter

ThicknessI =1.3, J=1.3 ok close

Material properties material models Structural Linear Elastic Isotropic

EX = 0.7e11; PRXY = 0.3 & Density = 2700 ok close

STEP 3: From the main menu select Pre-processor Modeling

Create the key points in the Workspace

Create Key points In active CS

X Y Z

0 0 0

2 0 0

2 0.2 0

0.2 0.2 0

0.2 1.8 0

0.5 1.8 0

0.5 2 0

0 2 0

Click APPLY to all the points and for the last point click OK

Create LINES using the Key points

Create Lines Straight Line Select 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, 4-5, 5-6, 6-7, 7-8, 8-1 Key

points to generate lines

STEP 4: Modeling create Areas arbitrary by lines select all four lines ok

Modeling operate extrude areas along normal select the area ok

enter the extrude length as 0.5

Select Plot controls from menu bar Capture image file save as and save your file

From the main menu select Meshing

Meshing mesh attributes all areas select the element type no shell ok

Select all volumes select the element type number plane ok

Meshing Size controls Manual size by areas all areas Number of

element edge length = 0.025 Click ok

Meshing Mesh areas free select box type instead of single select the

total volume ok

SOLUTION PHASE: ASSIGNING LOADS AND SOLVING

Loads define loads Apply Structural Displacement On areas select

the front C/S area and select the bottom flange free end area ok all DOF ok

Select ALL DOF arrested

Define loads Apply Structural Pressure on areas select the frontal area

of web and free end area of top flange (20Mpa) ok

Define loads Apply Structural Pressure on areas select the back end

area of web (-20 MPa) ok

STEP 6: Solving the system

Solution Solve Current LS

POSTPROCESSING: VIEWING THE RESULTS

1. Deformation

From the main menu select General post processing

Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the

undeformed object

Nodal solution

From the Utility menu select PLOT

PLOT Results Contour plot Nodal solution

2.Select DOF solution Y component of rotation OK

Figure: Y- component of rotation model

3.Select DOF solution X component of displacement OK

5. Select stress Von mises stress

RESULT:

Case: 1:- To analyze Torsion of stiffened thin walled open section beam which is

subjected to a pressure of 20 MPa.

1. DMX = 0.108E-04

2. DMX = 0.108E-04

SMN = -0.261E-04

SMX = 0.242E-05

3. DMX = 0.108E-04

SMX = 0.100E-04

4. DMX = 0.108E-04

SMN = 0.187E+07

SMX = 0.199E+07

5. DMX = 0.108E-04

SMX = 0.258E+08

PROBLEM DEFINITIONS DIFFERENT FROM JNTU TOPICS

Case: 2:- To analyze Torsion of stiffened thin walled open section beam which is

subjected to a pressure of 21 MPa.

1. DMX = 0.113E-04

SMX = 0.270E+08

Case: 3:- To analyze Torsion of stiffened thin walled open section beam which is

subjected to a pressure of 22 MPa.

1. DMX = 0.119E-04

SMX = 0.283E+08

Case: 4:- To analyze Torsion of stiffened thin walled open section beam which is

subjected to a pressure of 23 MPa.

1. DMX = 0.124E-04

SMX = 0.295E+08

Case: 5:- To analyze Torsion of stiffened thin walled open section beam which is

subjected to a pressure of 24 MPa.

1. DMX = 0.130E-04

SMX = 0.308E+08

Case: 6:- To analyze Torsion of stiffened thin walled open section beam which is

subjected to a pressure of 25 MPa.

1. DMX = 0.135E-04

SMX = 0.321E+08

VIVA QUESTIONS

1. Define shear flow.

2. Define Torsion.

3. Write down the torsion equation.

4. Define von mises stress.

5. Define elastic constants.

EXPERIMENT: 3 C

SHEAR FORCE OF STIFFENED THIN WALLED CLOSED SECTION

BEAM

Experiment as given in the JNTUH curriculum.

AIM: To analyze shear of stiffened thin walled closed section beam which is subjected to a

pressure of 50 MPa.

GIVEN DATA:

Young’s modulus = 0.7e11

Thickness I = 1.3, J = 1.3

Poisson’s ratio = 0.3

Density = 2700 kg/m3

PROCEDURE:

PRE PROCESSING

STEP 1: From the Main menu select preferences

Select structural→ h-method and press OK

STEP 2: From the main menu select Pre-processor

Element type Add / edit/Delete Add select shellelastic 4 node

63applysolidquad 4 node 182ok

Real constants Add Addselect type1 shellok enter

ThicknessI =1.3, J=1.3 ok close

Material properties material models Structural Linear Elastic Isotropic

EX = 0.7e11; PRXY = 0.3 & Density = 2700 ok close

STEP 3: From the main menu select Pre-processor Modeling

Create the key points in the Workspace

Create Key points In active CS

X Y Z

0 0 0

1 0 0

0.2 0.2 0

0.8 0.2 0

0.2 1.8 0

0.8 1.8 0

0 2 0

1 2 0

Click APPLY to all the points and for the last point click OK

Create LINES using the Key points

Create Lines Straight Line Select 1-2, 2-8, 8-7, 7-1, 3-4, 4-6, 6-5, 5-3 Key

points to generate lines

Modeling operate extrude areas along normal select the area ok

enter the extrude length as 0.75

Select Plot controls from menu bar Capture image file save as and save your file

From the main menu select Meshing

Meshing mesh attributes all areas select the element type no shell ok

Select all volumes select the element type number plane ok

Meshing Size controls Manual size by areas all areas Number of

element edge length = 0.025 Click ok

Meshing Mesh areas free select box type instead of single select the

total volume ok

Select Plot controls from menu bar Capture image file save as and save your file

SOLUTION PHASE: ASSIGNING LOADS AND SOLVING

Loads define loads Apply Structural Displacement On areas select

the bottom edge ok all DOF ok

Select ALL DOF arrested

Define loads Apply Structural Pressure on areas select surface

of web ok

Enter pressure = 50 MPa ok

STEP 6: Solving the system

Solution Solve Current LS

POSTPROCESSING: VIEWING THE RESULTS

1. Deformation

From the main menu select General post processing

Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the

undeformed object

Nodal solution

From the Utility menu select PLOT

PLOT Results Contour plot Nodal solution

2. Select DOF solution Y component of displacement OK

Figure: Von mises stress model

RESULT:

Case: 1:- To analyze shear of stiffened thin walled closed section beam which is

subjected to a pressure of 50 MPa.

1. DMX = 0.001421

2. DMX = 0.001421

SMN = -0.108E-06

SMX = 0.517E-03

3. DMX = 0.001421

SMN = -0.820E+07

SMX = 0.820E+07

4. DMX = 0.001421

SMX = 0.135E+09

PROBLEM DEFINITIONS DIFFERENT FROM JNTU TOPICS

Case: 2:- To analyze shear of stiffened thin walled closed section beam which is

subjected to a pressure of 51 MPa.

DMX = 0.001383

SMX = 0.138E+09

Case: 3:- To analyze shear of stiffened thin walled closed section beam which is

subjected to a pressure of 52 MPa.

DMX = 0.00141

SMX = 0.140E+09

Case: 4:- To analyze shear of stiffened thin walled closed section beam which is

subjected to a pressure of 53 MPa.

DMX = 0.001437

SMX = 0.143E+09

Case: 5:- To analyze shear of stiffened thin walled closed section beam which is

subjected to a pressure of 54 MPa.

DMX = 0.001464

SMX = 0.145E+09

Case: 6:- To analyze shear of stiffened thin walled closed section beam which is

subjected to a pressure of 55 MPa.

DMX = 0.001491

SMX = 0.147E+09

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 49

EXPERIMENT: 3 D

TORSIONAL STRENGTH OF A THIN WALLED CLOSED SECTION

BEAM

Experiment as given in the JNTUH curriculum.

Shear of stiffened thin walled closed section

AIM: To analyze shear of stiffened thin walled closed section beam which is subjected to a

pressure of 20 MPa.

GIVEN DATA:

Young’s modulus = 0.7e11

Thickness I = 1.3, J = 1.3

Poisson’s ratio = 0.3

Density = 2700 kg/m3

PROCEDURE:

PRE PROCESSING

STEP 1: From the Main menu select preferences

Select structural→ h-method and press OK

STEP 2: From the main menu select Pre-processor

Element type Add / edit/Delete Add select shellelastic 4 node

63applysolidquad 4 node 182ok

Real constants Add Addselect type1 shellok enter

ThicknessI =1.3, J=1.3 ok close

Material properties material models Structural Linear Elastic Isotropic

EX = 0.7e11; PRXY = 0.3 & Density = 2700 ok close

STEP 3: From the main menu select Pre-processor Modeling

Create the key points in the Workspace

Create Key points In active CS

X Y Z

0 0 0

1 0 0

0.2 0.2 0

0.8 0.2 0

0.2 1.8 0

0.8 1.8 0

0 2 0

1 2 0

Click APPLY to all the points and for the last point click OK

Create LINES using the Key points

Create Lines Straight Line Select 1-2, 2-8, 8-7, 7-1, 3-4, 4-6, 6-5, 5-3 Key

points to generate lines

Modeling operate extrude areas along normal select the area ok

enter the extrude length as 0.75

Select Plot controls from menu bar Capture image file save as and save your file

STEP 5: Meshing the Geometry

From the main menu select Meshing

Meshing mesh attributes all areas select the element type no shell ok

Select all volumes select the element type number plane ok

Meshing Size controls Manual size by areas all areas Number of

element edge length = 0.025 Click ok

Meshing Mesh areas free select box type instead of single select the

total volume ok

SOLUTION PHASE: ASSIGNING LOADS AND SOLVING

Loads define loads Apply Structural Displacement On areas select

the bottom edge and end C/S area of beam ok all DOF ok

Select ALL DOF arrested

Define loads Apply Structural Pressure on areas select the extreme

right of web (20Mpa) ok

Define loads Apply Structural Pressure on areas select the extreme

left of web (-20 MPa) ok

Solution Solve Current LS

POSTPROCESSING: VIEWING THE RESULTS

1. Deformation

From the main menu select General post processing

Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the

undeformed object

Nodal solution

From the Utility menu select PLOT

PLOT Results Contour plot Nodal solution

2. Select DOF solution Y component of rotation OK

3. Select DOF solution X component of displacement OK

Figure: YZ shear stress model

RESULT:

Case: 1:- To analyze Torsion of stiffened thin walled closed section beam which is

subjected to a pressure of 20 MPa.

1. DMX = 0.255E-04

2. DMX = 0.255E-04

SMN = -0.261E-04

SMX = 0.242E-05

3. DMX = 0.255E-04

SMX = 0.238E-04

4. DMX = 0.255E-04

SMN = -0.344E+07

SMX = 0.309E+07

5. DMX = 0.255E-04

SMX = 0.285E+08

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 54

PROBLEM DEFINITIONS DIFFERENT FROM JNTU TOPICS

Case: 2:- To analyze Torsion of stiffened thin walled closed section beam which is

subjected to a pressure of 21 MPa.

DMX = 0.268E-04

SMX = 0.299E+08

Case: 3:- To analyze Torsion of stiffened thin walled closed section beam which is

subjected to a pressure of 22 MPa.

DMX = 0.280E-04

SMX = 0.313E+08

Case: 4:- To analyze Torsion of stiffened thin walled closed section beam which is

subjected to a pressure of 23 MPa.

DMX = 0.293E-04

SMX = 0.327E+08

Case: 5:- To analyze Torsion of stiffened thin walled closed section beam which is

subjected to a pressure of 24 MPa.

DMX = 0.305E-04

SMX = 0.341E+08

Case: 6:- To analyze Torsion of stiffened thin walled closed section beam which is

subjected to a pressure of 25 MPa.

DMX = 0.318E-04

SMX = 0.355E+08

VIVA QUESTIONS

1. Define stiffness.

2. What are Boolean operations?

3. Define truss?

4. Name all the types of elements used in Ansys with example?

5. What is Poisson’s ratio and give the steps for obtaining Poisson’s ratio value.

EXPERIMENT: 4

2-D STATIC LINEAR ANALYSIS OF A TRUSS STRUCTURE

Experiment as given in the JNTUH curriculum.

Statically indeterminate truss.

AIM: To determine the nodal deflections, reaction forces, and stress of the indeterminate

truss system when it is subjected to a load of 8000 N. (E = 200GPa, A = 3250mm2)

PROCEDURE:

PREPROCESSING

STEP 1: From the Main menu select preferences

Select structural and press OK

STEP 2: From the main menu select Preprocessor

Element type Add / edit/Delete Add Link – 2D spar 8 ok close

Real constants Add Geometric Properties Area = 3250

Material properties material models Structural Linear Elastic Isotropic

EX = 2e5; PRXY = 0.3

STEP 3: From the main menu select Pre-processor Modeling

Create the key points in the Workspace

X Y Z

0 0 0

5 0 0

10 0 0

15 0 0

2.5 2.5 0

7.5 2.5 0

12.5 2.5 0

Click APPLY to all the points and for the last point click OK

nodes select node 1&2 apply 2&3 apply3&4 apply1&5

apply5&2 apply 2&6 apply6&3 apply 3&7 apply 7&4

apply 5&6 apply 6&7 ok close

Figure: Model

SOLUTION PHASE: ASSIGNING LOADS AND SOLVING

STEP 5: From the ANSYS main menu open Solution

Solution Analysis type new analysis – Static

STEP 6: Defining loads at the Key points

Solution Define Loads Apply Structural Displacement On nodes

select node 1&4 ok select All DOF ok

Left end – ALL DOF arrested

Solution Define loads Apply Structural Force/moment On nodes

Select node 2&3 ok FY direction Give force value as -8000N ok close

STEP 7: Solving the system

Solution Solve Current LS

POSTPROCESSING: VIEWING THE RESULTS

1. Deformation

From the main menu select General post processing

Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the undeformed

object.

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 59

Figure: Deformed and undeformed Model

Nodal solution

of displacement OK

RESULT:

Case: 1:- To Determine the nodal deflections, reaction forces, and stress for the truss

system shown below (E = 200GPa, A = 3250mm2). At load -8000N

1. DMX = .461E-03

SMN = -.461E-03

Case: 2:- To Determine the nodal deflections, reaction forces, and stress for the truss

system shown below (E = 200GPa, A = 3250mm2). At load -7000N

2. DMX = .404E-03

SMN = -.404E-03

Case: 3:- To Determine the nodal deflections, reaction forces, and stress for the truss

system shown below (E = 200GPa, A = 3250mm2). At load -6000N

3. DMX = .346E-03

SMN = -.346E-03

Case: 4:- To Determine the nodal deflections, reaction forces, and stress for the truss

system shown below (E = 200GPa, A = 3250mm2). At load -5000N

4. DMX = .288E-03

SMN = -.288E-03

Case: 5:- To Determine the nodal deflections, reaction forces, and stress for the truss

system shown below (E = 200GPa, A = 3250mm2). At load -9000N

5. DMX = .519E-03

SMN = -.519E-03

Case: 6:- To Determine the nodal deflections, reaction forces, and stress for the truss

system shown below (E = 200GPa, A = 3250mm2). At load -10000N

6. DMX = .577E-03

SMN = -.577E-03

VIVA QUESTIONS

1. Ansys needs the final element model(FEM) for its final solution.(T/F)

2. Element attributes must be set before meshing the solid model. (T/F)

3. In a plane strain, the strain in the direction of thickness is assumed to be zero.(T/F)

4. The ______ elements are used for in-plane bending problems.

5. Which one of the following elements is required to define the thickness as a real

constant?

a. Beam

b. Shell

c. Solid

d. None

EXPERIMENT: 5

MODAL ANALYSIS OF UNIFORM CANTILEVER BEAM

Experiment as given in the JNTUH curriculum.

Free vibration of uniform cantilever beam.

Aim: Analyze the given uniform cantilever beam using Ansys and find out the variation in

the frequencies for 5 mode shapes.

Apparatus: ANSYS Software 13.0

Given Data:

Young’s Modulus: 2e5

Poisson’s Ratio: 0.27

Length of the beam: 1000

Steps of Modeling:

Preferences ► Structural ► H- method ► OK

Preprocessor ► Element Type ► Add ► Add ►

Beam ► 2D elastic 3 ► Apply► OK

Real constants ► add ► beam 3 ► Area = 1025

► Izz = 450

► thickness = 6 & width 25 mm

Material Properties ► Material Models ► Structural ► Linear ► Elastic ► Isotropic ►

EXX: 2e5

PRXY: .27

Density: 2870

Modeling ► Create ► Key points ► In Active CS

X Y Z

1. 0 0 0

2. 1000 0 0

generate lines

Meshing Size controls Manual size Lines All lines – Number of element

divisions = 1 Click OK

Meshing Mesh Lines – pick all

Defining loads

1 ► Select All DOF ► OK

Solution

Loads ► Analysis Type ► New Analysis ► Select Modal ► OK

Loads ► Analysis Option ► No.of Mode Shapes = 5 ► OK

Enter the Start Freq = 0

End Frequency = 0 ► OK

Solution ► Solve ► Current LS ► Warnings can be ignored ► Solution is Done

RESULTS:

General Post Processor ► Read Results ► by Pick

RESULT:

Case: 1:- To determine the 1st mode frequency acting on cantilever beam.

DMX: 0.369e-04

Frequency: 0.310e-05

Case: 2:- To determine the 2nd mode frequency acting on cantilever beam.

DMX: 0.369e-04

Frequency: 0.194e-04

Case: 3:- To determine the 3rd mode frequency acting on cantilever beam.

DMX: 0.369e-04

Frequency: 0.543e-04

Case: 4:- To determine the 3rd mode frequency acting on cantilever beam.

DMX: 0.369e-04

Frequency: 0.106e-04

Case: 4:- To determine the 3rd mode frequency acting on cantilever beam.

DMX: 0.369e-04

Frequency: 0.176e-04

VIVA QUESTIONS

1. Name the types of meshing.

2. Explain the Main Steps involved in Ansys Programming.

3. What is Modal Analysis? Write the Steps involved in Modal Analysis.

4. How do you see the Animations of the Deformed Shapes in Ansys?

5. Write the Procedure for finding the SFD & BMD of a Link.

EXPERIMENT: 6

ANALYSIS OF A LANDING GEAR

Experiment as given in the JNTUH curriculum.

3 dimensional landing gear trusses.

Aim: Analyze the given landing gear structure with applied load of 10000N.

Apparatus: Ansys Software 13.0 Version

Given Data:

Angle (Strut):30 degrees

Poisson’s Ratio=0.3

Steps of Modeling:

Preferences ► Structural ► H-Method ► OK

Preprocessor ► Element Type ► Add ► Add ► Select Link ► Spar 8 ► Apply

Preprocessor ► Element Type ► Add ► Add ► Select Beam ► 2 Node 188 ► OK ►

Close

Real Constants ► Add ► Add ► Select Type Link 8 ► Click OK

Enter the cross sectional area =1 ► OK ► Close

Material Properties ► Material Models ► Structural ► Linear ► Elastic ► Isotropic

Enter the Young’s Modulus (EXY) = 2e5

Poisson’s Ratio (PRXY) = 0.3

Sections ►Beam ►Common Sections ►Subtype ► Select Solid Circle

R=1

N=24

T=0, Click Ok

Preprocessor ► Modeling ► Create ► Key points ► In Active CS ►

Create the keypoints according to the table

KP no X Y Z

1. 0 0 0

2. 8 0 0

3. 0 26 0

4. 0 50 0

5. -6 50 0

6. 14 50 0

7. 16 50 0

8. 14 48 0

9. 3 26 0

10. 0 26 -3

11. 0 50 -24

Join the keypoints according to table

Line no Join

1. 1&2

2. 1&3

3. 3&4

4. 4&5

5. 4&6

6. 6&7

7. 6&8

8. 3&9

9. 3 & 10

10. 8&9

11. 10 & 11

Click in the box against Line Numbers, Apply then Ok

Plots ► Lines

Preprocessor ► Meshing ► Mesh Attributes ► All lines ►

Select element type Beam 188, Ok

Meshing ► Mesh Attributes ► Picked Lines ►

Pick lines 11 & 10, Ok

Select element type link 8, Ok

Meshing ► Size Cntrls ► Manual Size ► Lines ► All Lines ►

Edge length = 1

No of divisions should be left blank (not zero or anything else)

Meshing ► Size Cntrls ► Manual size ► lines ► Picked lines ►

Pick lines 11 & 10, Ok

Edge length should be left blank (not zero or anything else)

No of divisions = 1

Meshing ► Mesh ► Lines

Pick all Lines, Ok

Main menu► plot Cntrls ► Style ► Size and Shape

Click in the box against Display Element Type,

Change the Real Constants Multiplier to 1, Apply then Ok

Click in the box against Keypoint Numbers

Click n the box against Line Numbers (off), Apply then Ok

Plots ► Key points ► Key points

Solution ► Define Loads ► Apply ► Structural ► Displacement ► On key Points ►

Select keypoints 5 & 7, Ok

Select UY & UZ, Apply

Select keypoint 11, Ok

Select UX, UY & UZ, Ok

Solution ► Define Loads ► Apply ► Structural ► Force/Moment ► On keypoints

Select keypoint 2, Ok

Select FY and Give the value below as 14672, Apply

Select keypoint 2, Ok

Select FZ and give the value below as 3119, Ok

Solution ► Solve ► current LS ► Ok

General postproc ► Plot Results ► Contour Plots ► Element Solu ► Stress ► Von Mises

Stress, Click Ok

Element Table ► Define Table ►Click Add,

From the list to the lefts select By Sequence Number,

From the list to the right select SMISC, type 1 beside SMISC, Apply

From the list to the lefts select By Sequence Number,

From the list to the right select LS, type 1 beside LS, Ok then Close

(NOTE: LS1-Axial stress, SMISC1-Axial force)

Element Table ► List Elem Table ►

Select LS1 from the list, Apply

Select SMISC1 from the list and unselect LS1, Ok

Result:

Y Component Displacement

RESULT:

Y Component Displacement Von Misses Stress

2. DMX = 3.156 DMX = 3.156

SMN = -0.170816 SMX = 186772

SMX = 2.123

Y Component Displacement Von Misses Stress

1. DMX = 3.02 DMX = 3.02

SMN = -0.110897 SMX = 178631

SMX = 1.1304

Case: 3 (Load direction 13500 N and FZ direction 2500 N)

Y Component Displacement Von Misses Stress

1. DMX = 2.777 DMX = 2.777

SMN = -0.10781 SMX = 165449

SMX = 1.249

Y Component Displacement Von Misses Stress

1. DMX = 2.647 DMX = 2.647

SMN = -0.107276 SMX = 158014

SMX = 1.221

Case: 5 (Load direction 13000 N and FZ direction 2000 N)

Y Component Displacement Von Misses Stress

1. DMX = 2.552 DMX = 2.552

SMN = -0.106165 SMX = 152311

SMX = 1.194

1. DMX = 2.428 DMX = 2.428

SMN = -0.102159 SMX = 144856

SMX = 1.143

VIVA QUESTIONS

1. If a cantilever beam has a uniformly distributed load, will the bending moment diagram

be quadratic or cubic?

2. Name the element type used for beams?

3. Define Analysis and its Purpose?

4. What are the modules in Ansys Programming?

5. What are the Real Constants & Material Properties in Ansys? Explain?

EXPERIMENT: 7

STATIC ANALYSIS OF TAPERED WING BOX

Experiment as given in the JNTUH curriculum.

Tapered wing box beam.

Aim: Analyze the given wing structure using Ansys and find out the variation in the

Structure of the Wing.

Apparatus: ANSYS Software 13.0

Given Data:

Young’s Modulus: 7e10

Poisson’s Ratio: 0.3

Length of the Wing: 30

Steps of Modeling:

Preferences ► Structural ► H- method ► OK

Preprocessor ► Element Type ► Add ► Add ►

Solid ► Brick 8 Node 45 ► Apply

Beam ► 2 node 188 ► Apply ►

Shell ► elastic 4 node 63 ► Click OK

Real constants ► Add ► shell 63 ► I = 1.2, j = 1.7, k = 2.2

Material Properties ► Material Models ► Structural ► Linear ► Elastic ► Isotropic ►

EXX: 7e10

PRXY: 0.3

Density: 2700

Modeling ► Create ► Key points ► In Active CS

X Y Z

1. 0 0 0

2. 8 4 0

3. 8 -4 0

4. -6 3 0

5. -6 -3 0

6. 6 3 30

7. 6 -3 30

8. -4 -2 30

9. -4 2 30

Lines ►6, 8 - 6, 7 - 7, 9 - 8, 9 ► Apply

Lines ► 8, 4 & 9, 5

Lines ► 2, 6 & 7, 3 ► OK

Modeling ► Create ► Areas ► Arbitrary ► by lines ► Select Upper Lines of Both sides ►

Left Line, Right Lines ► Click Apply ► Select Lower Lines of both the sides ► Left Line

and Right Line Click Apply ► Click OK

Modeling ► Create ► Volumes ► Arbitrary ► by Areas ► Box Selection ► Select all the

Areas ► Click OK ► Hence a Solid Volume is created

Meshing ► Mesh Attributes ► all lines ► Select beam 188 ► OK

Meshing ► Mesh Attributes ► All Areas ► Select shell 63 ► OK

Meshing ► Mesh Attributes ► All Volumes ► Select solid 45 ► OK

Meshing ► Size control ► manual size ► pick all lines ► Enter the Element Edge Length

as 1 ► OK

Meshing ►size control ► areas ► Box Selection ► Enter the Element Edge Length as 1 ►

OK

Meshing ► Mesh ► Volumes ► free ► Select the box ► select full body ► OK

Loads ► Define Loads ► Apply ► Structural ► Displacement ► On Areas ► Select the

Large Airfoil Area ► Click Apply ► Select All DOF ► OK

Loads ► Define Loads ► Apply ► Structural ► Pressure ► On Areas ► Select the upper

and lower surface ► Click Apply ► Enter the Load Value =10000N & -10000N

Loads ► Analysis Type ► New Analysis ► Select Static ► OK

Solution ► Solve ► Current LS ► Warnings can be ignored ► Solution is done

RESULTS:

General Post Processor ► Plot Results ► Deformed Shape ► Deformed + Undeformed ►

OK

General Post Processor ► Plot Results ► Contour Plot ► Nodal Solution ► DOF Solution

Case: 1:- To determine the stresses acting on a tapered wing with a pressure load of

10000 & -10000 N acting on the lines upper and lower surfaces.

Von Mises Stress = 338872

Case: 2:- To determine the stresses acting on a tapered wing with a pressure load of

12000 & -12000 N acting on the lines upper and lower surfaces.

Von Mises Stress = 406647

Case: 3:- To determine the stresses acting on a tapered wing with a pressure load of

14000 & -14000 N acting on the lines upper and lower surfaces.

Von Mises Stress = 474421

Case:4:- To determine the stresses acting on a tapered wing with a pressure load of

16000 & -16000 N acting on the lines upper and lower surfaces.

Von Mises Stress = 542196

Case: 5:- To determine the stresses acting on a tapered wing with a pressure load of

10000 & -10000 N acting on the lines upper and lower surfaces.

Von Mises Stress = 609970

Case: 6:- To determine the stresses acting on a tapered wing with a pressure load of

10000 & -10000 N acting on the lines upper and lower surfaces.

Von Mises Stress = 677744

VIVA QUESTIONS

2. The SI unit of frequency is _________.

3. Ansys report is saved with the _______ file extension.

4. The images captured using the Ansys report generator are saved with a_______ file

extension.

5. The maximum stress value should be less than the applied stress bound value. (T/F)

EXPERIMENT: 8

ANALYSIS OF A FUSELAGE

Experiment as given in the JNTUH curriculum.

Fuselage bulkhead.

AIM: - To Calculate the deformation of the aluminum fuselage section under the application

of internal load of 100000 Pa.

PREPROCESSING

STEP 1: From the Main menu select preferences

Select structural and press OK

STEP 2: From the main menu select Pre-processor

Element type Add / edit/Delete Add Solid – 10 node 92 Apply

Add Beam 2 Node 188 Apply Add Shell Elastic 4 node 63

Material properties material models Structural Linear Elastic Isotropic

EX = 0.7e11; PRXY = 0.3; Density = 2700

STEP 3: From the main menu select Pre-processor

Pre-processor modelling Create Areas Circle Annulus

WP x = 0 ; WP y = 0; Rad – 1 = 2.5; Rad -2 = 2.3 OK

Pre-processor Modelling Create Circle Solid –

WP x = 0; X = 2.25; Y = 0 Radius = 0.15 Apply

WP x = 0; X = -2.25; Y = 0 Radius = 0.15 Apply

WP x = 0; X =0; Y = 2.25; Radius = 0.15 Apply

WP x = 0; X = 0; Y = -2.25 Radius = 0.15 OK

X= 0; Y=0; Z = 5

STEP 4: Meshing the Geometry

Pre-processor Meshing Size controls Manual Size All Areas give

element edge length as 0.15 ok

Meshing Size controls Manual Size All lines give element edge length as

0.15 ok

Meshing Mesh areas free select box type instead of single select the total

volume ok

SOLUTION PHASE:

STEP 5: From the ANSYS main menu open Solution

STEP 6: Loads define loads Apply Structural Displacement On areas

select box type select box (4 points at centre) all DOF ok Select ALL

DOF arrested

Define loads Apply Structural Pressure on areas select the internal

surface of the fuselage and give value (100000) ok

STEP 7: Solving the system

Solution Solve Current LS

POSTPROCESSING: VIEWING THE RESULTS

RESULT:

Case: 1:- To Calculate the deformation of the aluminum fuselage section under the

application of internal load at 1e5.

Y COMPONENT OF DISPLACEMENT

DMX = .194E-04

SMN = -.194E-04

SMX = .194E-04

VON MISSES STRESS

DMX = .194E-04

SMX = .124E+07

Case: 2:- To Calculate the deformation of the aluminum fuselage section under the

application of internal load at 1.1e5.

Y COMPONENT OF DISPLACEMENT

DMX = .819E-05

SMN = -.819E-05

SMX = .819E-05

DMX = .819E-05

SMX = 559474

Case: 3:- To Calculate the deformation of the aluminum fuselage section under the

application of internal load at 1.2e5.

Y COMPONENT OF DISPLACEMENT

DMX = .893E-05

SMN = -.893E-05

SMX = .893E-05

DMX = .893E-05

SMX = 610335

Case: 4:- To Calculate the deformation of the aluminum fuselage section under the

application of internal load 0.9e5.

Y COMPONENT OF DISPLACEMENT

DMX = .670E-05

SMN = -.670E-05

SMX = .670E-05

VON MISSES STRESS

DMX = .670E-05

SMX = 457751

Case: 5:- To Calculate the deformation of the aluminum fuselage section under the

application of internal load at 0.8e5.

Y COMPONENT OF DISPLACEMENT

DMX = .595E-05

SMN = -.595E-05

SMX = .595E-05

DMX = .595E-05

SMX = 406890

Case: 6:- To Calculate the deformation of the aluminum fuselage section under the

application of internal load at 0.7e5.

Y COMPONENT OF DISPLACEMENT

DMX = .521E-05

SMN = -.521E-05

SMX = .521E-05

DMX = .521E-05

SMX = 356029

VIVA QUESTIONS

1. Difference between interactive mode and batch mode.

2. What are different types of structural analysis used in ansys?

3. What are the different types of thin walled beams?

4. Define Harmonic analysis.

5. Define Spectrum Analysis.

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