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COMPUTATIONAL AERODYNAMICS

LABORATORY MANUAL

B.TECH
(IV YEAR – I SEM)
(2016-17)

Prepared by:
Mr. J. Sandeep, Assistant Professor
Mrs. D. Smitha, Associate Professor

Department of Aeronautical Engineering

MALLA REDDY COLLEGE


OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
(Autonomous Institution – UGC, Govt. of India)
Recognized under 2(f) and 12 (B) of UGC ACT 1956
Affiliated to JNTUH, Hyderabad, Approved by AICTE - Accredited by NBA & NAAC – A Grade - ISO 9001:2015 Certified)
Maisammaguda, Dhulapally (Post Via. Hakimpet), Secunderabad – 500100, Telangana State, India.
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DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING

VISION
Department of Aeronautical Engineering aims to be indispensable source in Aeronautical
Engineering which has a zeal to provide the value driven platform for the students to acquire
knowledge and empower themselves to shoulder higher responsibility in building a strong nation.
MISSION
a) The primary mission of the department is to promote engineering education and research.
(b) To strive consistently to provide quality education, keeping in pace with time and technology.
(c) Department passions to integrate the intellectual, spiritual, ethical and social development of the
students for shaping them into dynamic engineers.
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PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEO’S)

PEO1: PROFESSIONALISM & CITIZENSHIP


To create and sustain a community of learning in which students acquire knowledge and learn to
apply it professionally with due consideration for ethical, ecological and economic issues.
PEO2: TECHNICAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS
To provide knowledge based services to satisfy the needs of society and the industry by
providing hands on experience in various technologies in core field.
PEO3: INVENTION, INNOVATION AND CREATIVITY
To make the students to design, experiment, analyze, interpret in the core field with the help of
other multi disciplinary concepts wherever applicable.
PEO4: PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
To educate the students to disseminate research findings with good soft skills and become a
successful entrepreneur.
PEO5: HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT
To graduate the students in building national capabilities in technology, education and research.
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PROGRAM SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES (PSO’s)

1. To mould students to become a professional with all necessary skills, personality and sound
knowledge in basic and advance technological areas.
2. To promote understanding of concepts and develop ability in design manufacture and
maintenance of aircraft, aerospace vehicles and associated equipment and develop application
capability of the concepts sciences to engineering design and processes.
3. Understanding the current scenario in the field of aeronautics and acquire ability to apply
knowledge of engineering, science and mathematics to design and conduct experiments in the
field of Aeronautical Engineering.
4. To develop leadership skills in our students necessary to shape the social, intellectual, business
and technical worlds.
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PROGRAM OBJECTIVES (PO’S)

Engineering Graduates will be able to:


1. Engineering knowledge: Apply the knowledge of mathematics, science, engineering
fundamentals, and an engineering specialization to the solution of complex engineering
problems.
2. Problem analysis: Identify, formulate, review research literature, and analyze complex
engineering problems reaching substantiated conclusions using first principles of
mathematics, natural sciences, and engineering sciences.
3. Design / development of solutions: Design solutions for complex engineering problems
and design system components or processes that meet the specified needs with
appropriate consideration for the public health and safety, and the cultural, societal, and
environmental considerations.
4. Conduct investigations of complex problems: Use research-based knowledge and
research methods including design of experiments, analysis and interpretation of data,
and synthesis of the information to provide valid conclusions.
5. Modern tool usage: Create, select, and apply appropriate techniques, resources, and
modern engineering and IT tools including prediction and modeling to complex
engineering activities with an understanding of the limitations.
6. The engineer and society: Apply reasoning informed by the contextual knowledge to
assess societal, health, safety, legal and cultural issues and the consequent responsibilities
relevant to the professional engineering practice.
7. Environment and sustainability: Understand the impact of the professional engineering
solutions in societal and environmental contexts, and demonstrate the knowledge of, and
need for sustainable development.
8. Ethics: Apply ethical principles and commit to professional ethics and responsibilities
and norms of the engineering practice.
9. Individual and team work: Function effectively as an individual, and as a member or
leader in diverse teams, and in multidisciplinary settings.
10. Communication: Communicate effectively on complex engineering activities with the
engineering community and with society at large, such as, being able to comprehend and
write effective reports and design documentation, make effective presentations, and give
and receive clear instructions.
11. Project management and finance: Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the
engineering and management principles and apply these to one’s own work, as a member
and leader in a team, to manage projects and in multi disciplinary environments.
12. Life- long learning: Recognize the need for, and have the preparation and ability to
engage in independent and life-long learning in the broadest context of technological
change.
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JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY HYDERABAD

IV Year B. Tech. A. E – I Sem


L T/P/D C
- -/3/- 2

(A72186)COMPUTATIONAL AERODYNAMICS LAB


LIST OF EXPERIMENT:

1. Introduction to any one of the suitable software employed in modeling and simulation of
aerodynamic problems.
2,3. Solution for the following equations using finite difference method(code development).
i) One dimensional wave equations using explicit method of lax
ii) One dimensional heat conduction equation using explicit method
4,5. Generation of the following grids(code development).
i) Algebraic Grid
iii) Elliptic Grids.
6,7,8,9,10. Numerical simulation of the following flow problems using commercial software
packages:
i) Flow over an airfoil.
ii) Supersonic flow over a wedge.
iii) Flat plate boundary layer.
iv) Laminar flow through pipe.
v) Flow past a cylinder.

Suggested software:
1. ANSYS FLUENT and CFX
2. MATLAB
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CONTENTS
S.No Experiment Name Pg.No

1 Introduction to Modeling and simulation software to aerodynamicproblems 1

2 Solution for the one dimensional wave equations using explicit method of lax 13
using finite difference method (code development)
3 Solution for the one dimensional heat conduction equation using explicit 16
method using finite difference method (code development)

4 Generation of the Algebraic Grid (code development) 19

5 Generation of the Elliptic Grids (code development) 22

6 Introduction to ANSYS Modeling and simulation software to aerodynamicproblems 28


Numerical simulation of Flow over an airfoil using commercial software
Packages
7 Numerical simulation of Supersonic flow over a wedge using commercial 39
software packages

8 Numerical simulation of Flat plate boundary layer using commercial 43


software packages
9 Numerical simulation of Laminar flow through pipe using commercial 46
software packages
10 Numerical simulation of Flow past cylinder using commercial software 51
packages

11 Viva Questions 55
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CODE OF CONDUCT FOR THE LABORATORIES

 All students must observe the Dress Code while in the laboratory.

 Sandals or open-toed shoes are NOT allowed.

 Foods, drinks and smoking are NOT allowed.

 All bags must be left at the indicated place.

 The lab timetable must be strictly followed.

 Be PUNCTUAL for your laboratory session.

 Program must be executed within the given time.

 Noise must be kept to a minimum.

 Workspace must be kept clean and tidy at all time.

 Handle the systems and interfacing kits with care.

 All students are liable for any damage to the accessories due to their own negligence.

 All interfacing kits connecting cables must be RETURNED if you taken from the lab supervisor.

 Students are strictly PROHIBITED from taking out any items from the laboratory.

 Students are NOT allowed to work alone in the laboratory without the Lab Supervisor

 USB Ports have been disabled if you want to use USB drive consult lab supervisor.

 Report immediately to the Lab Supervisor if any malfunction of the accessories, is there.

Before leaving the lab

 Place the chairs properly.

 Turn off the system properly

 Turn off the monitor.

 Please check the laboratory notice board regularly for updates.


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1. INTRODUCTION TO MODELING AND SIMULATION


SOFTWARE TO AERODYNAMIC PROBLEMS

A model is a mathematical object that has the ability to predict the behavior of a real system
under a set of defined operating conditions and simplifying assumptions
The term modeling refers to the development of a mathematical representation of a physical
situation

WHAT IS MODELING?
• Modeling is the process of producing a model.
• A model is a representation of the construction and working of some system of
interest.
• A model is similar to but simpler than the system it represents.
• One purpose of a model is to enable the analyst to predict the effect of changes to the
system. Generally, a model intended for a simulation study is a mathematical model
developed with the help of simulation software.
• Mathematical model classifications include
• Deterministic (input and output variables are fixed values) or Stochastic (at least one of the
input or output variables is probabilistic);
• Static (time is not taken into account) or
• Dynamic (time-varying interactions among variables are taken into account).
• Typically, simulation models are stochastic and dynamic.

Simulation is the process of exercising a model for a particular instantiation of the system
and specific set of inputs in order to predict the system response.
simulation refers to the procedure of solving the equations that resulted from model
development

WHAT IS SIMULATION?
• A simulation of a system is the operation of a model of the system.
• The operation of the model can be studied, and hence, properties concerning the
behavior of the actual system or its subsystem can be inferred.
• In its broadest sense, simulation is a tool to evaluate the performance of a system,
existing or proposed, under different configurations of interest and over long periods
of real time.
• Simulation is used
• before an existing system is altered or a new system built,
• to reduce the chances of failure to meet specifications,
• to eliminate unforeseen bottlenecks,
• to prevent under or over-utilization of resources,
• to optimize system performance.

How to select the best simulation software for an application arises?


Metrics for evaluation include

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• Modeling flexibility
• Ease of use
• Modeling structure (hierarchical v/s flat; object-oriented v/s nested)
• Code reusability
• Graphic user interface
• Animation, dynamic business graphics, hardware and software requirements
• Statistical capabilities
• Output reports and graphical plots
• Customer support and documentation
• Mathematical modeling - Aerospace Applications
• Using basic equations from dynamics, mathematical equations are written that
describe how the vehicle will move in response to forces that are applied to the
vehicle. For example, it is pretty easy to describe how a rocket will accelerate when a
constant thrust is provided by the rocket's engine.
• Another type of modeling problem would be to understand and predict, in a
mathematical equation, how an aircraft will respond to hitting an updraft in the
atmosphere, or how the aircraft will respond to the deflection of various control
surfaces at different airspeeds.
• An aerodynamic subsystem model describes how the vehicle will respond to forces
caused by motion of the vehicle through the atmosphere, and predicts the effects of
each different control surface (such as the flaps, rudders, ailerons, etc.) upon the
motion of the vehicle.
• A propulsion subsystem model describes how any motors or engines will behave and
what forces will act on the vehicle to which they are attached.
• A landing gear subsystem model is required when the vehicle is in contact with the
ground in order to model how the ground reaction forces are created and how they
affect the motion of the vehicle.
• An inertial properties subsystem model provides details about how the mass and
inertia of the vehicle might change with time.
• any electrical, mechanical, or electronic system that assists the pilot in moving the
control surfaces has to be described mathematically

The steps involved in developing a simulation model, designing a simulation experiment, and
performing simulation analysis are:
Step 1. Identify the problem.
Step 2. Formulate the problem.
Step 3. Collect and process real system data.
Step 4. Formulate and develop a model.
Step 5. Validate the model.
Step 6. Document model for future use.
Step 7. Select appropriate experimental design.
Step 8. Establish experimental conditions for runs.
Step 9. Perform simulation runs.
Step 10. Interpret and present results.
Step 11. Recommend further course of action.

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MATLAB (matrix laboratory) is a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment and fourth-


generation programming language. Developed by MathWorks, MATLAB Allows matrix manipulations,
plotting of functions and data, implementation of algorithms, creation of user interfaces, and interfacing
with programs written in other languages, including C, C++, Java, Fortran and Python.
Although MATLAB is intended primarily for numerical computing, an optional toolbox uses
the MuPAD symbolic engine, allowing access to symbolic computing capabilities. An additional
package, Simulink, adds graphical multi-domain simulation and model-based design for
dynamic and embedded systems.

Syntax
The MATLAB application is built around the MATLAB scripting language. Common usage of the
MATLAB application involves using the Command Window as an interactive mathematical shell or
executing text files containing MATLAB code.
Variables
Variables are defined using the assignment operator, = . MATLAB is a weakly typed programming
language because types are implicitly converted. It is an inferred typed language because variables can be
assigned without declaring their type, except if they are to be treated as symbolic objects,[9] and that their
type can change. Values can come from constants, from computation involving values of other variables,
or from the output of a function. For example:

>> x = 17
x =
17

>> x = 'hat'
x =
hat

>> y = x + 0
y =
104 97 116

>> x = [3*4, pi/2]


x =
12.0000 1.5708

>> y = 3*sin(x)
y =
-1.6097 3.0000

Vectors and matrices


A simple array is defined using the colon syntax: init :increment :terminator. For instance:

>> array = 1:2:9

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array =
1 3 5 7 9

defines a variable named array (or assigns a new value to an existing variable with the name array)
which is an array consisting of the values 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9. That is, the array starts at 1 (the init value),
increments with each step from the previous value by 2 (the increment value), and stops once it reaches
(or to avoid exceeding) 9 (the terminator value).

>> array = 1:3:9


array =
1 4 7

the increment value can actually be left out of this syntax (along with one of the colons), to use a default
value of 1.

>> ari = 1:5


ari =
1 2 3 4 5

assigns to the variable named ari an array with the values 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, since the default value of 1 is
used as the incrementer.
Indexing is one-based,[10] which is the usual convention for matrices in mathematics, although not for
some programming languages such as C, C++, and Java.
Matrices can be defined by separating the elements of a row with blank space or comma and using a
semicolon to terminate each row. The list of elements should be surrounded by square brackets: [].
Parentheses: () are used to access elements and sub arrays (they are also used to denote a function
argument list).

>> A = [16 3 2 13; 5 10 11 8; 9 6 7 12; 4 15 14 1]


A =
16 3 2 13
5 10 11 8
9 6 7 12
4 15 14 1

>> A(2,3)
ans =
11

Sets of indices can be specified by expressions such as "2:4", which evaluates to [2, 3, 4].

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A square identity matrix of size n can be generated using the function eye, and matrices of any size with
zeros or ones can be generated with the functions zeros and ones, respectively.

>> eye(3,3)
ans =
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1

>> zeros(2,3)
ans =
0 0 0
0 0 0

>> ones(2,3)
ans =
1 1 1
1 1 1

Most MATLAB functions can accept matrices and will apply themselves to each element. For
example, mod(2*J,n) will multiply every element in "J" by 2, and then reduce each element modulo
"n". MATLAB does include standard "for" and "while" loops, but (as in other similar applications such
as R), using the vectorized notation often produces code that is faster to execute. This code, excerpted
from the function magic.m, creates a magic square M for odd values of n (MATLAB
function meshgrid is used here to generate square matrices I and J containing 1:n).

[J,I] = meshgrid(1:n);
A = mod(I + J - (n + 3) / 2, n);
B = mod(I + 2 * J - 2, n);
M = n * A + B + 1;

Structures
MATLAB has structure data types.[11] Since all variables in MATLAB are arrays, a more adequate name
is "structure array", where each element of the array has the same field names. In addition, MATLAB
supports dynamic field names (field look-ups by name, field manipulations, etc.). Unfortunately,
MATLAB JIT does not support MATLAB structures, therefore just a simple bundling of various
variables into a structure will come at a cost.
Functions
When creating a MATLAB function, the name of the file should match the name of the first function in
the file. Valid function names begin with an alphabetic character, and can contain letters, numbers, or
underscores.

Function handles
MATLAB supports elements of lambda calculus by introducing function handles, or function references,
which are implemented either in .m files or anonymous/nested functions.

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Classes and Object-Oriented Programming


MATLAB's support for object-oriented programming includes classes, inheritance, virtual dispatch,
packages, pass-by-value semantics, and pass-by-reference semantics. However, the syntax and calling
conventions are significantly different from other languages. MATLAB has value classes and reference
classes, depending on whether the class has handle as a super-class (for reference classes) or not (for
value classes).
Method call behavior is different between value and reference classes. For example, a call to a method

object.method();

can alter any member of object only if object is an instance of a reference class.
An example of a simple class is provided below.

classdef hello
methods
function greet(this)
disp('Hello!')
end
end
end

When put into a file named hello.m, this can be executed with the following commands:

>> x = hello;
>> x.greet();
Hello!

Graphics and graphical user interface programming


MATLAB supports developing applications with graphical user interface features. MATLAB includes
GUIDE (GUI development environment) for graphically designing GUIs. It also has tightly integrated
graph-plotting features. For example the function plot can be used to produce a graph from two
vectors x and y. The code:

x = 0:pi/100:2*pi;
y = sin(x);
plot(x,y)

produces the following figure of the sine function:

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A MATLAB program can produce three-dimensional graphics using the functions surf, plot3 or mesh.

[X,Y] = meshgrid(-10:0.25:10,-10:0.25:10);
f = sinc(sqrt((X/pi).^2+(Y/pi).^2));
mesh(X,Y,f);
axis([-10 10 -10 10 -0.3 1])
xlabel('{\bfx}')
ylabel('{\bfy}')
zlabel('{\bfsinc} ({\bfR})')
hidden off

[X,Y] = meshgrid(-10:0.25:10,-10:0.25:10);
f = sinc(sqrt((X/pi).^2+(Y/pi).^2));
surf(X,Y,f);
axis([-10 10 -10 10 -0.3 1])
xlabel('{\bfx}')
ylabel('{\bfy}')
zlabel('{\bfsinc} ({\bfR})')

This code produces a surface 3D plot of the two-dimensional unnormalized sinc function:

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'if' statements, 'for' and 'while' Loops

‘if’ statements
Purpose: Tests an expression and only executes the code if the expression is true.

Format:
if expression
statement(s) to be executed (know as the body of the loop)
end

Rules:
 The variables in the expression to be tested must have values assigned prior to entering the IF statement.
 The block of code will only execute if the expression is true. If the expression is false, then the code is
ignored.
 Values assigned to the variables used in the expression may be changed in the block of code inside the IF
statement.

Examples:
x = 100;
y = -10;

if x < 50 %test to see if x is less than 50


z = x – y^2;
A = x + 12.5*y + z^3;
end
% won’t run because x is not less than 50

DEMO: Run a program using an IF statement (enter the following in an m-file):


x = input(‘Enter x’) % prompt to enter a value for x

if x < 4
disp (‘x is less than 4’)
end

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Enter several values of x, both greater than and less than 4 to see what happens. What do you expect if
you entered 3? What about 10?

'for' loops
Purpose: To repeat a statement or a group of statements for a fixed number of times.

Format:
for variable = expression
statement(s) to be executed (know as the body of the loop)
end

Rules:
 FOR loops must end with the END statement (lower case).
 The values for the loop variable are controlled by the expression
 The first time through the loop, the variable is assigned the first value in the expression. For the second
time through, MATLAB automatically assigns to the variable the second value in the expression. This
continues for each value in the expression. The loop terminates after the body of the loop has been
executed with the loop variable assigned to each value in the expression.
 The body of the loop is executed many times, but the loop is only executed once for each value in the
expression.
 The expression in a FOR loop is an array of values. The number of times a loop executes equals the
number of values in the expression array.
 After the loop is finished executing, the loop variable still exists in memory and its value is the last value
used inside the loop.
 Any name can be used for a loop variable.
o If the name of the loop variable was already used in the program prior to execution of the loop, old values
of the variable are erased and the values of the variable are controlled by the loop.
o i, j, and k are common loop variables; they should not be used if working with complex numbers.
 Loops can be nested.

Examples: Sequential numbers

for i=1:3 %executes three times


x=i^2
end
x=
1
x=
4
x=
9

Non-sequential numbers
for i=5:10:35 %executes four times
i
end

i=
5
i=
15
i=
25
i=
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Nested (FOR loop inside a FOR loop)


for i=1:3 %executes three times
i
for j = 10:10:30
j
end
end

i=
1
j=
10
j=
20
j=
30
i=
2
j=
10
j=
20
j=
30
i=
3
j=
10
j=
20
j=
30

DEMO: Write a program using a FOR loop:


 Variables: X, Y and loop variable i
 Initialize X = 5 outside the loop
 Loop variable, i, start = 0, end = 150, increment = 10
 In the loop:
o Calculate Y = X*i
o Display i, X and Y to the screen using the command:

sprintf(‘Inside the loop: i = %3.0f X = %3.0f Y = %8.2f \n’,i,X,Y)

 After the loop, write i, X, Y to the screen with the command:

sprintf(‘After the loop: i = %3.0f X = %3.0f Y = %8.2f \n’,i,X,Y)

 Lessons learned:
o The FOR loop stops after executing with i=150
o The last values of i, X, Y inside the loop are the same as the values after completion of the FOR loop

'while' loops
Purpose:To execute a statement, or a group of statements, for an indefinite number of times until the
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condition specified by while is no longer satisfied.

Format:
while expression is true
statement(s) to be executed (known as the body of the loop)
end

Rules:
 Must have a variable defined BEFORE the ‘while’ loop, so you can use it to enter the loop.
 The variable in the while statement must change INSIDE the while loop, or you will never exit the loop.
 After the loop is finished executing, the loop variable(s) still exist in memory and its value is the last value
the variable had in the while loop.

Examples: Basic Execution

x = 0;
while x <= 100
x = x+30
end

% The while loop is executed 4 times.


% The values are:

x = 30
x = 60
x = 90
x = 120

% When x = 120, the test (x<=100) failed, so the loop was exited.

As a counter
x = 10;
y = 20;
i = 1; %initialize the counter

while(i<= 50)
x=x+(y^2) %calculate x
i=i+1 %increment the counter
end

%This loop will execute exactly 50 times.


-OR-
x = 10;
y = 20;
i = 0; %initialize the counter; starting with %i=0

while(i < 50) %test for i<50


x=x+(y^2) %calculate x
i=i+1 %increment the counter
end

%This loop will execute exactly 50 times.

DEMO: Write a program using a WHILE loop:


• Variables: X, Y and loop variable j

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• Initialize X = 5 outside the loop
• Loop variable, j, start = 0, exit loop when j = 10
• In the loop:
o Calculate X = X*j
o Display j, and X to the screen using the command:

sprintf(‘Inside the loop: j = %3.0f X = %3.0f Y = %8.2f \n’,j,X,Y)

• After the loop, write j and x to the screen with the command:

sprintf(‘After the loop: j = %3.0f X = %3.0f Y = %8.2f \n’,j,X,Y)

 Lessons learned:
o The 'while' loop stops after j = 10
o The last values of j and X inside the loop are the same as the values after completion of the ‘while' loop

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2. SOLUTION FOR THE ONE DIMENSIONAL WAVE EQUATION


USING EXPLICIT METHOD OF LAX (CODE DEVELOPMENT).

The one dimensional scalar wave equation is given as

This equation represents a linear advection process with wave speed c = constant, which is
the speed of the travelling wave or the speed of propagation. u(x,t) is the signal or wave
information. The wave propagates at constant speed to the right if c > 0 and to the left if c <
1. The spatial domain can vary from -∞ to ∞. Suppose the initial conditions are

where is any function. The exact solution to the wave equation then is

is called the wave shape of wave form. Travelling or propagation here means that the
shape of the signal function with respect to x stays constant, however the function is
translated left or right with time at the speed c.

Numerical Solution
Method of discretization – finite difference form
Replace the spatial partial derivative with a central difference expression

Where n is the temporal index and j is the spatial index.


Replace the time derivative with a forward difference formula

We then have

Now let us replace by an average value between grid points j+1 and j-1 as

Substituting this in equation (1) we get the explicit method of Lax for the 1D scalar wave
equations as,

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Test Case for the numerical solution
Solve the one dimensional wave equation in the spatial domain of [0, 2*pi] with an initial
step function condition given by
U0(x,0) = 1 for x pi-1
= 0 otherwise
Choose 100 grid points with and find the wave form at t = 0.2 s.

Matlab code for the one dimensional wave equation

% Solves the one dimensional scalar wave equation du/dt + du/dx = 0 [0,2*pi]
% Using LAX METHOD
clc; clear;
t0 = 0; tf = 1;
M = 100; % number of points in x direction
N = 100; % number of points in y direction

% define the mesh in space


dx = 2*pi/M;
x = 0:dx:2*pi;

% define the mesh in time


dt = (tf-t0)/N;
t = t0:dt:tf;

% calculate value for lamda


c = 1;
lambda = c*dt/dx
display('lambda should be less than 1 for stability:')

% choose the wave number of the initial data and give its decay rate
u0 = x<=(pi-1);
u = zeros(M+1,N+1);
u(:,1) = u0;

% Implement the time marching Lax scheme:


for n=1:N
for i=2:M
u(i,n+1) = (u(i+1,n)+u(i-1,n))/2-(lambda/2)*(u(i+1,n)-u(i-1,n));
end
% Introduce exact values at the endpoints.
u(1,n+1)=1;
u(M+1,n+1)=0;
end

% plot the result in 21 intervals


for j=0:20
plot(x,u(:,1+5*j),'LineWidth',2);
axis([0,2*pi,-0.5,1.5]);
title('1D wave equation using explicit Lax Method','FontSize',12) xlabel('x');
ylabel('u'); pause(1)
end
%plot(x,u(:,101));

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Results:
1D wave equation using explicit Lax Method
1.5

0.5
u

-0.5
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
x

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3. SOLUTION FOR THE ONE DIMENSIONAL TRANSIENT HEAT


CONDUCTION EQUATION USING EXPLICIT METHOD (CODE
DEVELOPMENT)
The one dimensional transient (unsteady) heat conduction equation is given as

Where is the thermal diffusivity

This equation represents the conduction of heat energy in time and space. Transient nature of
this equation is represented in the dependence of temperature with time as opposed to a
steady state condition.

Numerical Solution
Method of discretization – finite difference form
Replace the time derivative with a forward difference expression

Where n is the temporal index and j is the spatial index.


Replace the second order spatial derivative on the RHS with a central difference formula

We then have

i.e. (2)

∆�
where � = �
∆� 2

Equation (2) is the final explicit update equation for the one dimensional transient heat
conduction equation.

Test Case for the numerical solution


A country rock has a temperature of 300oC and the dike a width of 5m, with a magma
temperature of 1200oC. Total length of the rock formation is 100m. Initial conditions are
temperatures of 300oC and 1200oC for the rock and dike respectively. Boundary conditions at
x = -L/2 and x = L/2 are at 300oC (see figure). Find the temperature distribution after 100
days. Use 200 grid points in the x direction with a 1 day time interval.
ROCK DIKE ROCK
300oC 1200oC 300oC
L

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

Matlab code for the one dimensional transient heat conduction equation

% Solves the 1D heat equation with an explicit finite difference scheme


clear all
clc
%Physical parameters
L = 100; % Length of modeled domain [m]
Td = 1200; % Temperature of magma [C]
Tr = 300; % Temperature of country rock [C]
kappa = 1e-6; % Thermal diffusivity of rock [m2/s]
W = 5; % Width of dike [m]
day = 3600*24; % # seconds per day
dt = 1*day; % Timestep [s]
% Numerical parameters
nx = 200; % Number of gridpoints in x-direction
nt = 100; % Number of timesteps to compute
dx = L/(nx-1); % Spacing of grid
x = -L/2:dx:L/2;% Grid

% Setup initial temperature profile


T = ones(size(x))*Tr;
T(abs(x)<=W/2) = Td;
time = 0;
for n=1:nt % Timestep loop
% Compute new temperature
Tnew = zeros(1,nx);
for i=2:nx-1
Tnew(i) = T(i) + (kappa*dt/(dx)^2)*(T(i+1)-(2*T(i))+T(i-1));
end
% Set boundary conditions
Tnew(1) = T(1);
Tnew(nx) = T(nx);
% Update temperature and time T =
Tnew;
time = time+dt;
end
% Plot solution plot(x,Tnew); xlabel('x [m]')
ylabel('Temperature [ˆoC]')
title(['Temperature evolution after ',num2str(time/day),' days'])

% draw the dike boundaries


x1 = -2.5;
x2 = 2.5;
y = linspace(300,800);
% Plot the dike boundaries
hold on
plot(x1,y, x2, y);

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Results:

Temperature evolution after 100 days


800

750

700

650
Temperature [ˆoC]

600

550

500

450

400

350

300
-50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50
x [m]

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4. GENERATION OF THE ALGEBRAIC GRIDS

Problem
Generate an algebraic grid about the upper surface of the airfoil. Points are clustered in j
direction near the lower surface (using β=1.05 in algebraic grid). Make sure the number of
points in i and j are flexible.

Introduction, Theory, & Formulations


A key component of grid generation is the conversion from the physical domain to the
computational domain, in order to allow for equidistant grid lines in rectangular form. In
considering a simple two dimensional case, physical coordinates x and y must be converted
to computational coordinates ξ and η. These computational coordinates are furthermore
known via the rectangular grid relations. As a result, they must be converted back into
physical coordinates in order to be of use. For the particular case concerning an airfoil placed
on the x axis, the following relationships exist:

As can be seen, Eq. (1) simply states that the x coordinate is the ξ coordinate, as there exists
no irregularities to alter that axis. The precise relationship in Eq. (2) is due to a required
clustering near the bottom surface. Here, β represents the clustering parameter, which is
given, and H represents the total height along the y axis. However, this does not account for
the geometry of the airfoil, wherein its top surface coordinate is a function of the distance
along the x axis. The exact equation is:

Here, y represents the max height of the airfoil, which would thus be the correspond to y=0 in
Eq.(2). Height is determined by subtracting this value from maximum height. This allows a
total expression for the grid y coordinative can be obtained. Note that the x used in Eq. (3)
assumes 0 at the nose of the airfoil and 1 at the tail. The previous equations effectively define
all that is needed to generate an algebraic grid. However, this grid will simply be used as a
starting point for the generation of an elliptic grid. Thus, once x and y are obtained
algebraically, they will be set as initial conditions for the x and y values used in order to
perform iterations of the developed finite difference equations.

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MATLAB code for Algebraic Grid Generation

%Algebraic Grid Generation


clear;
clc;
%Assign values for t and beta t=0.15;
beta=1.05;
%Prompt user for number of grid points
n=input('Enter the number of grid points in the i direction: '); m=input('Enter the
number of grid points in the j direction: ');
%Create zeroes matrix for surface plots
z=zeros(n,m);
%Assign lengths and values for eta and xi L=3;
eta=linspace(0,1,m);
xi=linspace(0,L,n);
%x is equal to xi X=xi;
%Find height ytop=2;
for i=1:n if
X(i) < 1
ybottom(i)=0;
elseif X(i) > 2
ybottom(i)=0;
else
x2(i)=X(i)-1;
ybottom(i)=(t/.2)*(0.2969*x2(i)^.5-0.126*x2(i)-
0.3516*x2(i)^2+0.2843*x2(i)^3-0.1015*x2(i)^4);
end
H(i)=ytop-ybottom(i);
end
%Loop to calculate coordinates zeta=beta+1;
gamma=beta-1;
alpha=zeta/gamma; for
i=1:n
for j=1:m chi=1-
eta(j);
y(i,j)=H(i)*(zeta-gamma*alpha^chi)/(alpha^chi+1)+ybottom(i); x(i,j)=X(i);
end
end
surface(x,y,z);
xlabel ('x');
ylabel ('y');
title ('Algerbraic Grid');

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Discussion of Results

Enter the number of grid points in the i direction: 50


Enter the number of grid points in the j direction: 50
Algerbraic Grid
2

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1
y

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
x

Figure shows the algebraic grid generation with the growth rate β=1.05 the grids are very fine
at y=0 and it gets coarser as the y increases.
The value of growth rate β can be varied and you can see the difference in the growth rate of
the grid.

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5. GENERATION OF THE ELLIPTIC GRIDS

Problem
Starting with an algebraic grid, generate an elliptic grid about the upper surface of the airfoil.
Points are clustered in j direction near the lower surface (using β=1.05 in algebraic grid).
Make sure the number of points in i and j are flexible.
Using a predetermined algebraic grid, an elliptic grid can be generated in order to fine tune
the results for airfoil flow. Coding an algebraic grid necessitates an accounting for the
geometry of the airfoil, as well as clustering via appropriate equations. Once these issues are
addressed, partial differential equations can be utilized in order to generate an elliptic grid.

Introduction, Theory, & Formulations


A key component of grid generation is the conversion from the physical domain to the
computational domain, in order to allow for equidistant grid lines in rectangular form. In
considering a simple two dimensional case, physical coordinates x and y must be converted
to computational coordinates ξ and η. These computational coordinates are furthermore
known via the rectangular grid relations. As a result, they must be converted back into
physical coordinates in order to be of use. For the particular case concerning an airfoil placed
on the x axis, the following relationships exist:

As can be seen, Eq. (1) simply states that the x coordinate is the ξ coordinate, as there exists
no irregularities to alter that axis. The precise relationship in Eq. (2) is due to a required
clustering near the bottom surface. Here, β represents the clustering parameter, which is
given, and H represents the total height along the y axis. However, this does not account for
the geometry of the airfoil, wherein its top surface coordinate is a function of the distance
along the x axis. The exact equation is:

Here, y represents the max height of the airfoil, which would thus be the correspond to y=0 in
Eq.(2). Height is determined by subtracting this value from maximum height. This allows a
total expression for the grid y coordinative can be obtained. Note that the x used in Eq. (3)
assumes 0 at the nose of the airfoil and 1 at the tail. The previous equations effectively define
all that is needed to generate an algebraic grid. However, this grid will simply be used as a
starting point for the generation of an elliptic grid. Thus, once x and y are obtained
algebraically, they will be set as initial conditions for the x and y values used in order to
perform iterations of the developed finite difference equations.

Two elliptic partial differential equations must be solved in order to fully define the desired
grid. In doing this, boundary conditions are required. For this case, x and y values along the

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edges of the defined physical domain will be left in place. These being predefined allows all
interior coordinates to be developed. The following system of elliptic partial differential
equations can be used to define the domain:

Here, the subscripts denote second order derivative of that variable. Notice that these
equations do not express x and y as dependent variables. Rather, they are treated as the
independent variables, requiring a transformation. When such a mathematical transformation
is preformed Eqs. (4) And (5) become, respectively:

Where,

The previously stated equations must all be expressed in terms of finite differences. Once this
is done, x and y at each grid point can be found through iterations. Expanding Equation (8)
through (10) explicitly in central space yields:

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Here, the superscript, n, indexes the iteration, where n is the current iteration and n+1 is the
following iteration. These equations are written this way due to the fact that points above and
to the right of the point being evaluated are unknown, and, thus, old values must be used. The
same procedure of finite differencing can be applied to Eqs. (6) and (7). However, results
from these will be of the same form; that is, only the terms x and y will be different.
Considering the expansion of Eq. (6) yields:

Considering,

This equation can then be explicitly solved for the value which is the coordinate of
interest.
Doing so yields:

Similarly,
Considering the expansion of Eq.(7) and solving it for value of :

This formula can then be implemented through coding in order to find all values of x. The
formulation is exactly the same for the y value. Through code, multiple iterations will occur
until convergence is reached; that is, the desired x values will be found once the difference
between and is below tolerance and the desired y values will be found once
the difference between and falls below said tolerance. These values, when
plotted, should produce an elliptic grid that can be utilized to determine flow within the
domain containing the airfoil.

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MATLAB code for Elliptic Grid Generation

%Elliptic Grid Generation clear;


clc;
%Assign values for t and beta t=0.15;
beta=1.05;
%Prompt user for number of grid points
n=input('Enter the number of grid points in the i direction: '); m=input('Enter the
number of grid points in the j direction: ');
%Create zeroes matrix for surface plots
z=zeros(n,m);
%Assign lengths and values for eta and xi L=3;
eta=linspace(0,1,m);
xi=linspace(0,L,n);
%x is equal to xi X=xi;
%Find height ytop=2;
for i=1:n if
X(i) < 1
ybottom(i)=0;
elseif X(i) > 2
ybottom(i)=0;
else
x2(i)=X(i)-1;
ybottom(i)=(t/.2)*(0.2969*x2(i)^.5-0.126*x2(i)-
0.3516*x2(i)^2+0.2843*x2(i)^3-0.1015*x2(i)^4);
end
H(i)=ytop-ybottom(i);
end
%Loop to calculate coordinates zeta=beta+1;
gamma=beta-1;
alpha=zeta/gamma; for
i=1:n
for j=1:m chi=1-
eta(j);
y(i,j)=H(i)*(zeta-gamma*alpha^chi)/(alpha^chi+1)+ybottom(i); x(i,j)=X(i);
end
end

%Elliptic initial conditions xold=x;


yold=y;
%Calculate computational step sizes
delta_eta=1/(m-1);
delta_xi=L/(n-1);
dx=1; %Conditions to start loop dy=1;
%Conditions to start loop
%Assign tolerance value
tol=.0001;

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%Nested loop to determine elliptic grid xdiff=0;


ydiff=0;
count=0;
while dy > tol || dx > tol for
i=2:n-1
for j=2:m-1
a1=(xold(i,j+1)-x(i,j-1))/(2*delta_eta);
a2=(yold(i,j+1)-y(i,j-1))/(2*delta_eta);
a=a1^2+a2^2;
c1=(xold(i+1,j)-x(i-1,j))/(2*delta_xi);
c2=(yold(i+1,j)-y(i-1,j))/(2*delta_xi);
c=c1^2+c2^2;
b=a1*c1+a2*c2;

alpha=a/delta_xi^2;
beta=-2*b/(4*delta_xi*delta_eta);
gamma=c/delta_eta^2;
theta=1/(2*alpha+2*gamma);

phi_1=beta*(xold(i+1,j+1)-xold(i+1,j-1)-xold(i-1,j+1)+x(i-1,j-1));
x(i,j)=theta*(alpha*(xold(i+1,j)+x(i-1,j))+gamma*(xold(i,j+1)+x(i,j-
1))+phi_1);
xdiff=x(i,j)-xold(i,j)+xdiff;
phi_2=beta*(yold(i+1,j+1)-yold(i+1,j-1)-yold(i-1,j+1)+y(i-1,j-1));
y(i,j)=theta*(alpha*(yold(i+1,j)+y(i-1,j))+gamma*(yold(i,j+1)+y(i,j-
1))+phi_2);
ydiff=y(i,j)-yold(i,j)+ydiff; end
end
dx=xdiff;
dy=ydiff;
xdiff=0; ydiff=0;
xold=x; yold=y;
count=count+1;
end
fprintf('The solution took %i iterations to converge. \n \n', count); surface(x,y,z);
xlabel ('x');
ylabel ('y');
title ('Elliptic grid over an Airfoil');

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Result and Discussion

In the plot of an Elliptical, the Grid lines have been smoothed out due to the elliptic
equations, eliminating extreme jaggedness resulting from the algebraic grid. This would
ensure a more accurate flow model.

Enter the number of grid points in the i direction: 50


Enter the number of grid points in the j direction: 50
The solution took 2434 iterations to converge.
Elliptic grid over an Airfoil
2

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1
y

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
x

Overall, an elliptic grid was shown to provide desired results for discretization. It succeeded
in smoothing out otherwise rough edges created through algebraic grid generation. At the
same time, the algebraic grid provided a suitable starting point for the generation of the
elliptic grid.

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INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS
ANSYS ICEM CFD meshing software starts with advanced CAD/geometry readers and repair tools to
allow the user to quickly progress to a variety of geometry-tolerant meshers and produce high-quality
volume or surface meshes with minimal effort. Advanced mesh diagnostics, interactive and automated
mesh editing, output to a wide variety of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and finite element analysis
(FEA) solvers and multiphysics post-processing tools make ANSYS ICEM CFD a complete meshing
solution. ANSYS endeavors to provide a variety of flexible tools that can take the model from any
geometry to any solver in one modern and fully scriptable environment.

 Mesh from dirty CAD and/or faceted geometry such as STL


 Efficiently mesh large, complex models
 Hexa mesh (structured or unstructured) with advanced control
 Extended mesh diagnostics and advanced interactive mesh editing
 Output to a wide variety of CFD and FEA solvers as well as neutral formats

ANSYS ICEM CFD is a popular proprietary software package used for CAD and mesh generation. Some
open source software includes OpenFOAM, FeatFlow, Open FVM etc. Present discussion is applicable
to ANSYS ICEM CFD software.
It can create structured, unstructured, multi-block, and hybrid grids with different cell geometries.

GEOMETRY MODELLING
ANSYS ICEM CFD is meant to mesh a geometry already created using other dedicated CAD packages.
Therefore, the geometry modelling features are primarily meant to 'clean-up' an imported CAD model.
Nevertheless, there are some very powerful geometry creation, editing and repair (manual and
automated) tools available in ANSYS ICEM CFD which assist in arriving at the meshing stage quickly.
Unlike the concept of volume in tools like GAMBIT, ICEM CFD rather treats a collection of surfaces
which encompass a closed region as BODY. Therefore, the typical topological issues encountered in
GAMBIT (e.g. face cannot be deleted since it is referenced by higher topology) don't show up here. The
emphasis in ICEM CFD to create a mesh is to have a 'water-tight' geometry. It means if there is a source
of water inside a region, the water should be contained and not leak out of the BODY.

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Apart from the regular points, curves, surface creation and editing tools, ANSYS ICEM CFD especially
has the capability to do BUILD TOPOLOGY which removes unwanted surfaces and then you can view
if there are any 'holes' in the region of interest for meshing. Existence of holes would mean that the
algorithm which generates the mesh would cause the mesh to 'leak out' of the domain. Holes are typically
identified through the colour of the curves. The following is the colour coding in ANSYS ICEM CFD,
after the BUILD TOPOLOGY option has been implemented:

 YELLOW: curve attached to a single surface - possibly a hole exists. In some cases this might be
desirable for e.g., thin internal walls require at least one curve with single surface attached to it.
 RED: curve shared by two surface - the usual case.
 BLUE: curve shared by more than two surface.
 Green: Unattached Curves - not attached to any surface

MESHING APPROACH AND MESH


There are often some misunderstandings regarding structured/unstructured mesh, meshing algorithm and
solver. A mesh may look like a structured mesh but may/may not have been created using a structured
algorithm based tool. For e.g., GAMBIT is an unstructured meshing tool. Therefore, even if it creates a
mesh that looks like a structured (single or multi-block) mesh through pain-staking efforts in geometry
decomposition, the algorithm employed was still an unstructured one. On top of it, most of the popular
CFD tools like, ANSYS FLUENT, ANSYS CFX, Star CCM+, OpenFOAM, etc. are unstructured solvers
which can only work on an unstructured mesh even if we provide it with a structured looking mesh
created using structured/unstructured algorithm based meshing tools. ANSYS ICEM CFD can generate
both structured and unstructured meshes using structured or unstructured algorithms which can be given
as inputs to structured as well as unstructured solvers, respectively.

Structured meshing strategy


While simple ducts can be modelled using a single block, majority of the geometries encountered in real
life have to be modelled using multi-block strategies if at all it is possible.
The following are the different multi-block strategies available which can be implemented using ANSYS
ICEM CFD.

 O-grid
 C-grid
 Quarter O-grid
 H-grid

Unstructured meshing strategy


Unlike the structured approach for meshing, the unstructured meshing algorithm is more or less an
optimization problem, wherein, it is required to fill-in a given space (with curvilinear boundaries) with
standard shapes (e.g., triangle, quadrilaterals - 2D; tetrahedrals, hexahedrals, polyhedrals, prisms,
pyramids - 3D) which have constraints on their size. The basic algorithms employed for doing
unstructured meshing are:

 Octree (easiest from the user's perspective; robust but least control over the final cell count which is
usually the highest)

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 Delaunay (better control over the final cell count but may have sudden jumps in the size of the elements)
 Advancing front (performs very smooth transition of the element sizes and may result in quite accurate
but high cell count)

Best practices
If using Octree -

 Perform volume meshing


 Improve the quality of the volume mesh using Edit Mesh options
 Create prism layers for boundary layer near the walls
 Improve the total mesh quality using Edit Mesh options
If using Delaunay or Advancing Front -

 Perform surface meshing


 Improve the quality of the surface mesh using Edit Mesh options
 Perform volume meshing
 Improve the quality of the volume mesh using Edit Mesh options
 Create prism layers for boundary layer near the walls
 Improve the total mesh quality using Edit Mesh options

basic viewport interaction

 use the left mouse button and drag to rotate the view
 use the middle mouse button to pan the view

importing data

CREATING A STRUCTURED GRID


The first thing to do when creating a structured grid is to create the geometry or a .tin file in ICEM. You
can do this by manually creating it in ICEM or importing data into ICEM, for example 3-dimensional
point data from a .txt file.
The tools available are specified under the geometry tab. There are quite a number of tools and they can
be quite useful. However, it is suggested that some planning is done before beginning to make a
geometry. There are tools specifically for curves.

 curves can be split or joined to other curves.


 Points can be created at cross-sections of curves.
 Surfaces can be created from curves.
All of this gives extra flexibility in the methods of designing a grid.

Tip Also, different parts of the grid can be saved under a part
A tip that is quite useful is the use of name which can be switched off or on if you want certain things
the F9 key to "pause" the tool being to be invisible like points or curves or certain surfaces. You can
used so the grid can be moved or also copy an entire set of geometry by selecting the parts you
zoomed in to. want and translating it to a specified point using the

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'translation' tool. This is useful, especially when creating a symmetrical object such as a wing, where
the aerofoil can be copied to another location and then joined up to the original aerofoil with curves.
Once the geometry is created, the next step is to create the actual grid. Note that the tolerances of the
geometry plays an important role in the accuracy of the grid. So make sure that depending on what you
want, the tolerances are high enough. Using the blocking tab, a block can be created around the entire
geometry and then split up into sections. The mesh is created by specifying the distribution of points
along the edges of the blocks. Therefore the more blocks you have, the more flexibility you have in
changing the distribution of points along the edges. The edges and vertices of the blocks must be
assosciated with the geomery curves and points.
Once the blocks have been created and all the required points and curves assosciated, the number of
points and the distribution can be set along each edge. In somecases, you want the density of cells to be
high, for example at the boundary layer of an object, whereas to save time, you may want the cells
further away to be large. There are various types of distribution such as linear, geometrical and
exponential variation that can be used. The premesh tool can then be used to view the meshing. There is
also a quality check tool, where one can specify how you want to check the quality of the blocking. For
example, one can check the variation in volume size to see if it varies smoothly, or if there are any
negative volumes, which would suggest that the grid crosses into solid surfaces.
The blocking is saved as a .blk file. When all is done, the mesh can be made readable by a solver by
specifying what type of solver is to be used in the "output tab".

CREATING AN UNSTRUCTURED GRID

Once the curves and surfaces have been created, click the mesh tab -> surface mesh and define the mesh
density on the surfaces.

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The surface menu is shown on the right, and to select surfaces, click the button next to it and start
selecting surfaces, using middle-click when done. Then select a mesh density (0.05 in this case, but will
vary with each case) and checkremesh selected surfaces if needed, and click ok.
Then, click volume mesh, and select the method (tetra for tetragonal unstructured meshes) to generate the
unstructured grid, press 'ok' and wait for the grid to be generated and review the result.

ANSYS computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation software allows you to predict, with
confidence, the impact of fluid flows on products — throughout design and manufacturing as
well as during end use. The software's unparalleled fluid flow analysis capabilities can be used
to design and optimize new equipment and to troubleshoot already existing installations.
Whatever phenomena you are studying — single- or multi-phase, isothermal or reacting,
compressible or not — ANSYS fluid dynamics solutions give you valuable insight into your
product's. ANSYS CFD analysis tools include the widely used and well-validated ANSYS
Fluent and ANSYS CFX, available separately or together in the ANSYS CFD bundle. Because
of solver robustness and speed, development team knowledge and experience, and advanced
modeling capabilities, ANSYS fluid dynamics solutions provide results you can trust. The
technology is highly scalable, providing efficient parallel calculations from a few to thousands
of processing cores. Combining Fluent or CFX with the full-featured ANSYS CFD-Post post-
processing tool allows you to perform advanced quantitative analysis or create high-quality
Visualizations and animations.
As a result of these tight connections, ANSYS CFX delivers benefits that include the ability TO:

 Quickly prepare product/process geometry for flow analysis without tedious rework.
 Avoid duplication through a common data model that is persistently shared across physics —
beyond basic fluid flow.
 Easily define a series of parametric variations in geometry, mesh, physics and post-processing,
enabling automatic new CFD results for that series with a single mouse click
 Improve product/process quality by increasing the understanding of variability and design
sensitivity.
 Easily set up and perform multiphysics simulations

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Numerical simulation of the following flow problems using commercial


software packages:

6. FLOW OVER AN AEROFOIL

AIM: To simulate flow over NACA 0012 airfoil

Problem description:

Consider air flowing over NACA 0012 airfoil. The free stream Mach number is 1.2.
Assume standard sea-level values for the free stream properties:
Pressure = 101,325 Pa
Density = 1.2250 kg/m3
Temperature = 288.16 K
Kinematic viscosity v = 1.4607e-5 m2/s
Steps Involved In ICEM
CFD: Creation of Geometry in ICEM CFD:

 Importing the Aerofoil coordinates


File→Import Geometry→Formatted point data→Select the file of aerofoil
coordinates which is in DAT format→ok. Now the coordinates will be
displayed.
 Geometry→Create/modify curve→From points→Select above points and
leave last 2 points→middle click
 Similarly on bottom side
 Join the end points of the curves

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

1) Creation of parts:
 Parts in the tree→Right click→Create part→
Select Upper curve: Suction
Select Lower curve: Pressure
3rd Line: TE
2) Creation of Domain:
 Create points (-1,1),(-1,-1),(2,1),(2,-1)
 Join these points
 Create parts as Inlet, Outlet, Top & Bottom
 Geometry→Create/Modify surface→Simple surface→Select all the lines of
domain→ok

 Create the new part as: Surface


3) Saving the Geometry:
 File→Change working directory→Choose the folder
 File→Geometry→Save Geometry as→Give the name.
4) Creation of Blocking and Association:
 Blocking→Create block→Initialize blocks→Type as:2D Planar→ok
 Associate→Associate vertex to point→Select a vertex and a point→Apply→
Similarly associate remaining 3 vertices to points
 Associate→Associate edge to curve→Select a edge and a curve →Apply→
Similarly associate remaining 3 edges to curves
 Split block→Select the edges→Create the blocks as shown in figure

 Split block→O grid →Select edges→Select last 2 edges in the middle


row→ok→Select blocks→Select last 2 blocks in the middle row→ok
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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

Thus the O grid has been generated as shown in below fig.

 Associate
Associate vertex to pointSelect the vertex of the O grid and the
2nd point on the upper curve(suction)ok
Similarly associate remaining 3 vertices of the O grid to the points on the
aerofoil as shown in the below fig.

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

 Associate→Associate edge to curve→Select the 3 edges of block which is


inside of the aerofoil and select the suction & pressure curves→ok
Similarly associate the TE edge to TE curve.
 Delete block→Select the block inside the aerofoil→ok
5) Generation of Mesh:
 Pre-mesh parameters→Edge parameters→Switch ON the Copy Parameters→
Select the edges and give desired no. of nodes→ok
 Switch ON Pre-mesh in the tree→click yes to compute the meshing
 Pre-mesh→Right click→Convert to unstructured mesh
Now the required mesh has been generated as shown in below fig.

6) Saving the Project:


 File→Save Project as→Give the name.
7) Writing output file:
 Output→Select solver→Output solver as: Fluent_V6→Common Structural
solver as: ANSYS→ok
 Write input→Click NO→Open the file→Click 2D→ok

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual
Steps Involved in Fluent:
8) Importing the mesh file:
 File→Read→mesh→Choose the output file written in ICEM CFD
Now the mesh has imported into the fluent solver.
9) Problem setup:
 General→Type as: Pressure based
 Models→Energy ON→Viscous-laminar
 Materials→Air
 Cell zone conditions→Type as: fluid→ok
 Boundary conditions→Select inlet→Edit→Give velocity magnitude as:
400m/s.
 Boundary conditions→Select outlet→Edit→Give gauge pressure as: 0 Pa
10) Solution:
 Select the required monitors
 Solution initialization→Compute from: inlet→Initialize
 Run calculations→Enter the no. of iterations as: 1000→Calculate
11) Results:
 Graphics and animations→select the required flow parameters in the
contours and vectors.
The results are shown below as:

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

7. SUPERSONIC FLOW OVER A WEDGE

Problem description:

Consider air flowing over wedge. The free stream Mach number is 3 and the angle of
attack is 5°. Assume standard sea-level values for the free stream properties:
Pressure =101,325Pa
Density =1.2250kg/m3
Temperature =288.16K
Kinematic viscosity v = 1.4607e-5 m2/s

Steps Involved In ICEM CFD:

12) Creation of Geometry in ICEM CFD:

 Geometry→Create point→Explicit coordinates→Enter the coordinates as


given in table shown:

X 0 0 0.5 1.5 1.5 0.5

Y 0 1.259 1.259 1.259 0268 0


Z 0 0 0 0 0 0

Geometry→Create/modify curve→From points→Select any 2


points→ok→Similarly create the curves to all points
 Geometry→Create/Modify surface→Simple surface→Select all the lines of
domain→ok

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

13) Creation of parts:


 Parts in the tree→Right click→Create part→
Select Left curve: Inlet
Select Right curve: Outlet
Select Top curve: Top
Select inclined curve: Wedge
Select bottom curve: Front_wedge
14) Saving the Geometry:
 File→Change working directory→Choose the folder
 File→Geometry→Save Geometry as→Give the name.
15) Creation of Blocking and Association:
 Blocking→Create block→Initialize blocks→Type as:2D Planar→ok
 Associate→Associate vertex to point→Select a vertex and a point→Apply→
Similarly associate remaining 3 vertices to points
 Associate→Associate edge to curve→Select a edge and a curve →Apply→
Similarly associate remaining 3 edges to 5 curves

16) Generation of Mesh:


 Pre-mesh parameters→Edge parameters→Switch ON the Copy Parameters→
Select the Horizontal edge and give no. of nodes as: 100→ok
 Pre-mesh parameters→Edge parameters→Switch ON the Copy Parameters→
Select the Vertical edge and give no. of nodes as: 100→Spacing as:
0.001→Ratio as: 1.1→ok

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

 Switch ON Pre-mesh in the tree→click yes to compute the meshing


 Pre-mesh→Right click→Convert to unstructured mesh
Now the required mesh has been generated as shown in below fig:

17) Saving the Project:


 File→Save Project as→Give the name.
18) Writing output file:
 Output→Select solver→Output solver as: Fluent_V6→Common Structural
solver as: ANSYS→ok
 Write input→Click NO→Open the file→Click 2D→ok

Steps Involved in Fluent:

19) Importing the mesh file:


 File→Read→mesh→Choose the output file written in ICEM CFD
Now the mesh has imported into the fluent solver.
20) Problem setup:
 General→Type as: Density based
 Models→Energy ON→ Select Viscous-laminar→Edit→Set model as: k-
omega(2 equ)
 Materials→Air→Create/Edit→Set density as: Ideal-gas→Set viscosity as:
Sutherland→Change
 Cell zone conditions→ Type as: fluid→Set operating conditions→Set
operating pressure as: 0Pa

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

 Boundary conditions→Select inlet→Give type as: pressure-far-


field→Edit→Give Gauge pressure as: 101325Pa→Set Mach as: 3→ok
 Boundary conditions→Select outlet→Edit→Give gauge pressure as: 0Pa

21) Solution:
 Select Solution Controls→Set Courant number as: 1
 Select the required monitors
 Solution initialization→Compute from: inlet→Initialize
 Run calculations→Enter the no. of iterations as: 1000→Calculate
22) Results:
 Graphics and animations→Select the required flow parameters in the contours
and vectors.
The results are shown below as:

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

8. FLOW OVER A FLAT PLATE


Aim: To study the characteristics of flow over a flat plate

Description: Consider a plate of 1m and the flow of air is 0.00133 m/s. The plate is an
stationary solid wall having no slip as its boundary condition.

Procedure:

Geometry→ create point→ explicit coordinates→ 1(0,0,0), 2(1,0,0), 3(1,1,0) and


4(0,1,0) → ok
Create/modify curve→ select 2 points→ middle click
Select all points to make a rectangle

Create/modify surface→ select the entire lines→ surface is created


Create part→ name inlet→ select the left edge→ middle click
similarly create outlet, top and bottom
Switch off points and curves→ create part→ name surf→ click on surface→ ok
Blocking→ create block→ select entities→ click spectacles→ middle click→ switch
on points and curves
Go to association→ associate vertex→ select the point→ double click on the point
Associate→ edge to curve→ select the edge→ ok→ again select the edge→ ok
Similarly for the remaining edges
Premesh parameters→ edge parameters→ select any edge→ click on copy
parameters→ nodes-60, spacing-0.01, ratio-1.1→ ok
Blocking tree→ premesh→ right click→ convert structured to unstructured mesh

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

Change the working directory


output→ output solver→ fluent V6→ common-ansys→ ok

FLUENT:

Folder→ general→ mesh→ fluent mesh→ ok


Click on check→ done
Models→ viscous laminar→ materials→ air
Cell zone conditions→ solid→ ok
Boundary conditions→ bottom→ edit→ stationary wall→ ok, inlet→ velocity-
0.00133→ ok, outlet→ guage pressure-0→ ok, top→ edit→ moving wall→ ok
Dynamic mesh→ solution→ solution method-simple, solution controls-
0.3,1,0.3→ ok
Monitor initializer→ compute from inlet→ x=0.00133→ initialize
Calculation activities→ no of iterations-200→ run calculations→ click on
calculate→ ok

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

Results→ graphics and animations→ contour→ set up→ display options→


filled→ display
Contour→ velocity→ display
vector→ velocity→ display
For residue→ contour→ residue→ display

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

9. LAMINAR FLOW THROUGH PIPE


AIM: To study characteristics of laminar flow through a pipe.

DESCRIPTION: Consider a pipe of radius 0.05 and 1 m length. The freestream velocity
considered is 40m/s.

STEPS INVOLVED:
1) Create A Geometry:
a) Create a point: Geometry →create point →explicit coordinates→(X, Y, Z) =
(0, 0, 0) →apply→(X, Y, Z) = (1, 0, 0) →ok.

b) Create a pipe: Geometry→Create/modify surfaces→Standard shapes→


cylinder→radius1=radius2 = 0.05→select the 2 points →ok

2) Generation of parts:

 Part →create part→inlet→select inlet→ok.

 Part →create part →outlet →select outlet →ok.

 Part →create part →pipe →select pipe without inlet and outlet →ok.

3) Generation of blocking:

 Blocking →create block →solid →select pipe element with inlet and outlet→
apply→ok.

 Blocking →associate →edge to curve →select the 4 edges of the blocking at


inlet →apply →select the inlet curve→ok.

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

 Blocking→associate →edge to curve→select the 4 edges of the blocking at


outlet →apply→select the outlet curve→ok.

 Associate→faces to surface→select inlet face → apply →select as


inlet→accept →ok.

 Associate → faces to surface →select outlet face →apply →select as outlet


→accept →ok.

 Associate →face to surface →select pipe faces → apply → select as pipe →


accept →ok.

 Blocking →split block →O grid block →select the 2 faces (inlet & outlet)
→apply →ok.

4) Generation of Meshing:

 Blocking → pre-mesh parameters → edge parameters → switch on the copy


parameters →select 1 edge →give no. of nodes =20→ok.

 Repeat the above steps to the remaining edges also and then apply.

 Blocking →pre-mesh →compute.

 Blocking →pre-mesh →convert to unstructured mesh.

5) Generation of Solver file :

 Output→select solver→ansys.cfx→ANSYS→ok.

 Output →write input →done →check the file is saved folder →ok.

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

6) Solution in CFX Solver:

 Start →programs →ANSYS →fluid dynamics →CFX →ok.

 Change the working directory (where ICEM CFD mesh file was
saved)→Click on CFX-PRE.

7) CFX-PRE:
 File→new case→general→ok.

 File→import→mesh→select the meshed filed→ok.

 Boundary→Boundary1→Boundary type as: inlet→location as:


inlet→boundary conditions as: velocity=40m/s→ok.

 Boundary→Boundary2→boundary type as: outlet→location as:


outlet→boundary conditions as: static pressure=0→ok.

 Boundary→Boundary3→boundary type as: wall→location as:


pipe→boundary conditions as: no slip condition, smooth wall→ok.

 Domain→basic settings→location as: solid→domain type as: fluid


domain→material as: air→ok.

 Solver control→basic settings→ max.itterationsas:1000→residual target as:


0.000000001→ok.

 Write solver input file→give the name of the file→ok.

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

8) CFX-Solver Manager:

 File→Define run→Solver input file→Select the file→Start run.

9) CFX-POST:

 FileLoad resultsOk.

 LocationPlaneOkEnter the CoordinatesApply.

 ContoursOkSet domain as: fluidSet location as: planeSet range as:


localSet boundary data as: conservativeApply.
 The results are shown below as:

Incoming flow through inlet

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

pressure contour

velocity vector

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

10.FLOW PAST OVER A CYLINDER


AIM : To study the characteristics of flow over a cylinder.

DESCRIPTION: Consider a cyclinder of 3m radius and 6m height. The free stream velocity
considered 20m/s. the properties of air is ρ=1.18kg/m3.

PROCEDURE:
CREATION OF GEOMETRY:

Geometry → create point → explicit coordinates → (0,0,0)


Geometry → create surface → standard shapes → box → (36 18 18) → apply →
solid simple display
Geometry → create point → based on 2 locations → select 2 diagonal points of face
Geometry → transform geometry → copy → select point → Z-offset =6 → apply →
z-offset=12→ ok.
Geometry → surfaces → standard shapes → cylinder r1=3.r2=3 → select 2 points of
cylinder → apply

CREATION OF PARTS AND MESH GENERATION:


parts→ create parts → ( part name) → select entities → middle click (create
parts according to the problem i.e. inlet, outlet, cylinder & free slip wall)
geometry → solid → part(mp) → select two points lying outside the cylinder
→ apply.
Mesh → mesh parameters → cylinder -1.5, inlet-2.5, outlet-2.5, slipfree-0.7
Mesh → global mesh setup → global mesh size → max element size (3) →
apply.
Mesh → compute mesh → compute.

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual

Output → outpur solver- ANSYS CFX → common solver → ANSYS →


APPLY
WRITE INPUT → OK

PROBLEM DEFINITION IN CFX-PRE:


CFX → change the working directory → cfx-pre File
→ new case → general → apply.
Mesh → import mesh → ICEM CFD → OK
domain → fluid domain → air at 25c
Boundary → inlet → domain: inlet → velocity=40m/s.
Boundary → outlet → domain outlet → static pressure=0 Pa → apply
Boundary → freeslip → domain free slip → free slip → ok.
Solver settings → 1000 iterations → apply. Define
solver → solver input file → ok

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Solve:
CFD solver → open cfx file → define run → ok

Post processing:

CFD post → load result → select .res file


Location → plane → Z=9 apply
Contours → domain: plane1 → velocity → local → conservative →
apply.

Contours → domain: plane1 → pressure→ local → conservative → apply.

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Vectors → domain: plane 1 → local → conservative →


apply

Stream lines → domain : plane 1 → local → conservative → apply.

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Dept of ANE, MRCET CA Lab Manual
VIVA QUESTIONS:

1. Define CFD?
2. What are the three major steps of CFD?
3. What are the governing equations of CFD?
4. What is meant by Discretization?
5. Which type of Discretization is used in CFD?
6. Difference between forward and backward differencing scheme?
7. What is Explicit method and Implicit method?
8. What is LAX method?
9. What is a stability criterion?
10. What is thermal diffusivity?
11. Define Grid?
12. Difference between Structured and Unstructured grid?
13. What is meant by Grid Independence study?
14. What is linspace command in MATLAB?
15. How to give titles to X and Y axis of a graph?
16. How to create Hybrid mesh in ICEM?
17. How to create structured grid in ICEM?
18. What is the importance of Body point in ICEM?
19. How to define material properties in CFX or FLUENT?
20. What is meant by convergence criteria?
21. How to define supersonic inlet conditions in CFX?
22. What is Grid adaption technique?
23. What is meant by parallel and serial processing?
24. In how many ways CFD results can be presented?
25. How to define formulas in CFD Post?
26. What are the causes for reverse flow or diverged flow during CFD iterations?
27. What are the relaxations factors in FLUENT?
28. What is courant number and how does it affects the solution?
29. What are the different types of turbulence models in CFD?
30. Difference between free slip and no-slip conditions?

55
COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES

LABORATORY MANUAL

B.TECH
(IV YEAR – I SEM)
(2016-17)

Prepared by:
Ms. A.UDAYA DEEPIKA, Assistant Professor
Mrs. L.SUSHMA, Assistant Professor

Department of Aeronautical Engineering

MALLA REDDY COLLEGE


OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
(Autonomous Institution – UGC, Govt. of India)
Recognized under 2(f) and 12 (B) of UGC ACT 1956
Affiliated to JNTUH, Hyderabad, Approved by AICTE - Accredited by NBA & NAAC – A Grade - ISO 9001:2015 Certified)
Maisammaguda, Dhulapally (Post Via. Hakimpet), Secunderabad – 500100, Telangana State, India.
DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING

VISION

Department of Aeronautical Engineering aims to be indispensable source in Aeronautical


Engineering which has a zeal to provide the value driven platform for the students to acquire
knowledge and empower themselves to shoulder higher responsibility in building a strong
nation.

MISSION
a) The primary mission of the department is to promote engineering education and research.
(b) To strive consistently to provide quality education, keeping in pace with time and
technology.
(c) Department passions to integrate the intellectual, spiritual, ethical and social development
of the students for shaping them into dynamic engineers.

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 2


PROGRAMME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES (PEO’S)

PEO1: PROFESSIONALISM & CITIZENSHIP


To create and sustain a community of learning in which students acquire knowledge and learn
to apply it professionally with due consideration for ethical, ecological and economic issues.
PEO2: TECHNICAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS
To provide knowledge based services to satisfy the needs of society and the industry by
providing hands on experience in various technologies in core field.
PEO3: INVENTION, INNOVATION AND CREATIVITY
To make the students to design, experiment, analyze, interpret in the core field with the help
of other multi disciplinary concepts wherever applicable.
PEO4: PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
To educate the students to disseminate research findings with good soft skills and become a
successful entrepreneur.
PEO5: HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT
To graduate the students in building national capabilities in technology, education and
research.

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 3


PROGRAM SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES (PSO’s)

1. To mould students to become a professional with all necessary skills, personality and
sound knowledge in basic and advance technological areas.
2. To promote understanding of concepts and develop ability in design manufacture and
maintenance of aircraft, aerospace vehicles and associated equipment and develop
application capability of the concepts sciences to engineering design and processes.
3. Understanding the current scenario in the field of aeronautics and acquire ability to apply
knowledge of engineering, science and mathematics to design and conduct experiments in
the field of Aeronautical Engineering.
4. To develop leadership skills in our students necessary to shape the social, intellectual,
business and technical worlds.

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 4


PROGRAM OBJECTIVES (PO’S)

Engineering Graduates will be able to:


1. Engineering knowledge: Apply the knowledge of mathematics, science,
engineering fundamentals, and an engineering specialization to the solution of
complex engineering problems.
2. Problem analysis: Identify, formulate, review research literature, and analyze
complex engineering problems reaching substantiated conclusions using first
principles of mathematics, natural sciences, and engineering sciences.
3. Design / development of solutions: Design solutions for complex engineering
problems and design system components or processes that meet the specified needs
with appropriate consideration for the public health and safety, and the cultural,
societal, and environmental considerations.
4. Conduct investigations of complex problems: Use research-based knowledge and
research methods including design of experiments, analysis and interpretation of
data, and synthesis of the information to provide valid conclusions.
5. Modern tool usage: Create, select, and apply appropriate techniques, resources,
and modern engineering and IT tools including prediction and modeling to
complex engineering activities with an understanding of the limitations.
6. The engineer and society: Apply reasoning informed by the contextual knowledge
to assess societal, health, safety, legal and cultural issues and the consequent
responsibilities relevant to the professional engineering practice.
7. Environment and sustainability: Understand the impact of the professional
engineering solutions in societal and environmental contexts, and demonstrate the
knowledge of, and need for sustainable development.
8. Ethics: Apply ethical principles and commit to professional ethics and
responsibilities and norms of the engineering practice.
9. Individual and team work: Function effectively as an individual, and as a
member or leader in diverse teams, and in multidisciplinary settings.
10. Communication: Communicate effectively on complex engineering activities with
the engineering community and with society at large, such as, being able to
comprehend and write effective reports and design documentation, make effective
presentations, and give and receive clear instructions.
11. Project management and finance: Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of
the engineering and management principles and apply these to one’s own work, as
a member and leader in a team, to manage projects and in multi disciplinary
environments.
12. Life- long learning: Recognize the need for, and have the preparation and ability
to engage in independent and life-long learning in the broadest context of
technological change.

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 5


COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB

1.2. Introduction to the features and application of any one of the professional
software employed in modeling and analysis of aircraft structures.

MODLING, ANALYSIS (MAXIMUM STRESSES, DEFLECTIONS) AND


CODE DEVELPOMENT, OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS UNDER
ARBITRARY STATIC LOADING-VALIDATION OF SOLUTIONS
WITH PROFESSIONAL SOFTWARE

3. Bending of uniform cantilever beams.


4. Compressive strength of rectangular stiffened plane panels of uniform cross-
section.
5. Shear and torsion of stiffened thin walled open and closed sections.
6. Statically indeterminate trusses.
7. Free vibration of uniform cantilever beams-determination of natural
frequencies and mode shapes.

MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE AIRCRAFT COMPONENTS


USING PROFESSIONAL SOFTWARE

8. 3 dimensional landing gear trusses.


9. Tapered wing box beams.
10. Fuselage bulkheads.

Suggested soft wares


ANSYS
NASTRAN
PATRAN

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 6


LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

SL NO EXPERIMENT NO NAME OF THE EXPERIMENT PAGE


NO
1 INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION TO ANSYS 8
2 EXPERIMENT -1 TWO DIMENSIONAL STATIC 14
LINEAR ANALYSIS OF A
CANTILEVER BEAM

2 EXPERIMENT: 2 COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF


RECTANGULAR STIFFENED 20
PLANE PANEL OF UNIFORM
CROSS-SECTION

3 EXPERIMENT -3(A) 27
SHEAR OF STIFFENED THIN
WALLED OPEN SECTION BEAM
4 EXPERIMENT -3(B) TORSIONAL STRENGTH OF A 34
THIN WALLED OPEN SECTION
BEAM

5 EXPERIMENT: 3(C) SHEAR FORCE OF STIFFENED 42


THIN WALLED CLOSED
SECTION BEAM

6 EXPERIMENT: 3(D) TORSIONAL STRENGTH OF A 50


THIN WALLED CLOSED
SECTION BEAM

7 EXPERIMENT: 4 2-D STATIC LINEAR ANALYSIS 58


OF A TRUSS STRUCTURE

8 EXPERIMENT -5 MODAL ANALYSIS OF 64


UNIFORM CANTILEVER BEAM

9 EXPERIMENT: 6 ANALYSIS OF A LANDING 68


GEAR

10 EXPERIMENT: 7 STATIC ANALYSIS OF 75


TAPERED WING BOX

11 EXPERIMENT: 8 ANALYSIS OF A FUSELAGE 79

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 7


INTRODUCTION
ANSYS is a general purpose finite element modelling package for numerically
solving a wide variety of mechanical problems. These problems include: static/dynamic
structural analysis (both linear and non-linear), heat transfer and fluid problems, as well as
acoustic and electro-magnetic problems.
In general, a finite element solution may be broken into the following three stages. This is a
general guideline that can be used for setting up any finite element analysis.

1. Pre-processing: defining the problem; the major steps in pre-processing are given
below:
 Define keypoints/lines/areas/volumes
 Define element type and material/geometric properties
 Mesh lines/areas/volumes as required.

The amount of detail required will depend on the dimensionality of the analysis (i.e.
1D, 2D, axi-symmetric, 3D).

2. Solution: assigning loads, constraints and solving; here we specify the loads (point
or pressure), constraints (translational and rotational) and finally solve the resulting
set of equations.

3. Postprocessing: further processing and viewing of the results; in this stage one
may wish to see:
o Lists of nodal displacements
o Element forces and displacements
o Deflection plots
o Stress contour diagrams

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 8


1. ANSYS 13.0 Environment
The ANSYS Environment for ANSYS 13.0 contains 2 windows: the Main Window and an
Output Window. Note that this is somewhat different from the previous version of ANSYS
which made use of 6 different windows.
1. Main Window

a. Utility Menu
The Utility Menu contains functions that are available throughout the ANSYS
session, such as file controls, selections, graphic controls and parameters.
b. Input Window
The Input Line shows program prompt messages and allows you to type in
commands directly.
c. Toolbar
The Toolbar contains push buttons that execute commonly used ANSYS
commands. More push buttons can be added if desired.
d. Main Menu
The Main Menu contains the primary ANSYS functions, organized by
preprocessor, solution, general postprocessor, design optimizer. It is from this
menu that the vast majority of modelling commands are issued. This is where
you will note the greatest change between previous versions of ANSYS and
version 7.0. However, while the versions appear different, the menu structure
has not changed.

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 9


e. Graphics Window
The Graphic Window is where graphics are shown and graphical picking can
be made. It is here where you will graphically view the model in its various
stages of construction and the ensuing results from the analysis.

2. Output Window

The Output Window shows text output from the program, such as listing of data etc. It
is usually positioned behind the main window and can de put to the front if necessary.

2. ANSYS Files

Introduction
A large number of files are created when you run ANSYS. If you started ANSYS without
specifying a jobname, the name of all the files created will be FILE.* where the * represents
various extensions described below. If you specified a jobname, say Frame, then the created
files will all have the file prefix, Frame again with various extensions:
frame.db
Database file (binary). This file stores the geometry, boundary conditions and any
solutions.
frame.dbb
Backup of the database file (binary).
frame.err
Error file (text). Listing of all error and warning messages.
frame.out
Output of all ANSYS operations (text). This is what normally scrolls in the output
window during an ANSYS session.
frame.log
Logfile or listing of ANSYS commands (text). Listing of all equivalent ANSYS
command line commands used during the current session.
etc...
Depending on the operations carried out, other files may have been written. These files may
contain results, etc.

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 10


3. Plotting ANSYS Results to a File

Plotting of Figures

There are two major routes to get hardcopies from ANSYS. The first is a quick a raster-based
screen dump, while the second is a scalable vector plot.

1.0 Quick Image Save

When you want to quickly save an image of the entire screen or the current 'Graphics
window', select:
 'Utility menu bar'/'PlotCtrls'/'Hard Copy ...'.
 In the window that appears, you will normally want to select 'Graphics window',
'Monochrome', 'Reverse Video', 'Landscape' and 'Save to:'.
 Then enter the file name of your choice.
 Press 'OK'
This raster image file may now be printed on a PostScript printer or included in a document.

Display and Conversion

The plot file that has been saved is stored in a proprietary file format that must be
converted into a more common graphic file format like PostScript, or HPGL for example.
This is performed by running a separate program called display. To do this, you have a
couple of options:
1. Select display from the ANSYS launcher menu (if you started ANSYS that way)
2. Shut down ANSYS or open up a new terminal window and then type display at the
Unix prompt.
Either way, a large graphics window will appear. Decrease the size of this window, because it
most likely covers the window in which you will enter the display plotting commands. Load
your plot file with the following command:
file,frame,pic
if your plot file is 'plots.pic'. Note that although the file is 'plots.pic' (with a period), Display
wants 'plots,pic'(with a comma). You can display your plots to the graphics window by
issuing the command like
plot,n
where n is plot number. If you plotted 5 images to this file in ANSYS, then n could be any
number from 1 to 5.
Now that the plots have been read in, they may be saved to printer files of various formats:

1. Colour PostScript: To save the images to a colour postscript file, enter the following
commands in display:
2. pscr,color,2
3. /show,pscr
4. plot,n

Where n is the plot number, as above. You can plot as many images as you want to
postscript files in this manner. For subsequent plots, you only require the plot,n
command as the other options have now been set. Each image is plotted to a postscript
file such as pscrxx.grph, where xx is a number, starting at 00

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 11


.

Note: when you import a postscript file into a word processor, the postscript image
will appear as blank box. The printer information is still present, but it can only be
viewed when it's printed out to a postscript printer.

Printing it out: Now that you've got your color postscript file, what are you going to
do with it? Take a look here for instructions on colour postscript printing at a couple
of sites on campus where you can have your beautiful stress plot plotted to paper,
overheads or even posters!

5. Black & White PostScript: The above mentioned colour postscript files can get very
large in size and may not even print out on the postscript printer in the lab because it
takes so long to transfer the files to the printer and process them. A way around this is
to print them out in a black and white postscript format instead of colour; besides the
colour specifications don't do any good for the black and white lab printer anyways.
To do this, you set the postscript color option to '3', i.e. and then issue the other
commands as before
6. pscr,color,3
7. /show,pscr
8. plot,n

4. Mechanical APDL Documentation Descriptions


The manuals listed below form the ANSYS product documentation set. They include
descriptions of the procedures, commands, elements, and theoretical details needed to use
ANSYS. A brief description of each manual follows.

Advanced Analysis Techniques Guide: Discusses techniques commonly used for complex
analyses or by experienced ANSYS users, including design optimization, manual rezoning,
cyclic symmetry, rotating structures, submodeling, substructuring, component mode
synthesis, and cross sections.

ANSYS Connection User's Guide: Gives instructions for using the ANSYS Connection
products, which help you import parts and models into ANSYS.

ANSYS Parametric Design Language Guide: Describes features of the ANSYS Parametric
Design Language (APDL), including parameters, array parameters, macros, and ways to
interface with the ANSYS GUI. Explains how to automate common tasks or to build your
model in terms of parameters. Includes a command reference for all APDL-related
commands.

Basic Analysis Guide: Describes general tasks that apply to any type of analysis, including
applying loads to a model, obtaining a solution, and using the ANSYS program's graphics
capabilities to review results.

Command Reference: Describes all ANSYS commands, in alphabetical order. It is the


definitive reference for correct command usage, providing associated menu paths, product
applicability, and usage notes.

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 12


Contact Technology Guide: Describes how to perform contact analyses (surface-to-surface,
node-to-surface, node-to-node) and describes other contact-related features such as multipoint
constraints and spot welds.

Coupled-Field Analysis Guide: Explains how to perform analyses that involve an interaction
between two or more fields of engineering.

Distributed ANSYS Guide: Explains how to configure a distributed processing environment


and proceed with a distributed analysis.

Element Reference: Describes all ANSYS element, in numerical order. It is the primary
reference for correct element type input and output, providing comprehensive descriptions for
every option of every element. Includes a pictorial catalog of the characteristics of each
ANSYS element.

Modeling and Meshing Guide: Explains how to build a finite element model and mesh it.

Multibody Analysis Guide: Describes how to perform a multibody simulation to analyze the
dynamic behavior of a system of interconnected bodies comprised of flexible and/or rigid
components.

Operations Guide: Describes basic ANSYS operations such as starting, stopping, interactive
or batch operation, using help, and use of the graphical user interface (GUI).

Performance Guide: Describes factors that impact the performance of ANSYS on current
hardware systems and provides information on how to optimize performance for different
ANSYS analysis types and equation solvers.

Rotordynamic Analysis Guide: Describes how to perform analysis of vibrational behavior in


axially symmetric rotating structures, such as gas turbine engines, motors, and disk drives.

Structural Analysis Guide: Describes how to perform the following structural analyses: static,
modal, harmonic, transient, spectrum, buckling, nonlinear, material curve fitting, gasket joint
simulation, fracture, composite, fatigue, p-method, beam, and shell.

Theory Reference for the Mechanical APDL and Mechanical Applications: Provides the
theoretical basis for calculations in the ANSYS program, such as elements, solvers and
results formulations, material models, and analysis methods. By understanding the underlying
theory, you can make better use of ANSYS capabilities while being aware of assumptions
and limitations.

Thermal Analysis Guide: Describes how to do steady-state or transient thermal analyses.

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 13


EXPERIMENT: 1
TWO DIMENSIONAL STATIC LINEAR ANALYSIS OF A
CANTILEVER BEAM
 Experiment as given in the JNTUH curriculum.

 BENDING OF UNIFORM CANTILEVER BEAM

AIM: To determine the stresses acting on a cantilever beam with a point load of -10000 N
acting at one of its ends and perpendicular to the axis of the beam.
 Young’s modulus = 2e5
 Poisson’s ratio = 0.3
 Length of the beam = 2m = 2000mm
 Breadth of the beam = 10 cm = 100mm
 Height of the beam = 50mm
PROCEDURE:
PRE PROCESSING
STEP 1: From the Main menu select preferences
Select structural and press OK
STEP 2: From the main menu select Pre-processor
Element type  Add / edit/Delete  Add  BEAM – 2D Elastic 3  Apply 
Close
Material properties  material models  Structural  Linear  Elastic  Isotropic
EX = 2e5; PRXY = 0.3
STEP 3: From the main menu select Pre-processor
Sections  Beam  Common Sections  Select subtype as Rectangular section 
Enter B = 100, H = 50  Apply  Preview
Real constants  Add  Add  Ok  Geometric Properties  Area = 5000, Izz =
4170000, Height = 50  Ok  Close
STEP 4: From the main menu select Pre-processor  Modelling
 Create the key points in the Workspace
Create  Key points  in active CS
X 0 2000
Y 0 0

Click APPLY to all the points and for the last point click OK
 Create LINES using the Key points
Create  Lines  Lines  Straight Line  Click on Key points to generate lines

Select Plot controls from menu bar  Capture image  file save as and save your file

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 14


Figure: Model

STEP 4: Meshing the Geometry


From the main menu select Meshing
Meshing  Size controls  Manual size  Lines  All lines – Number of element
divisions = 20  Click OK
Meshing  Mesh  Lines – pick all

Figure: Meshed Model


SOLUTION PHASE: ASSIGNING LOADS AND SOLVING

STEP 5: From the ANSYS main menu open Solution


Solution  Analysis type  new analysis – Static
STEP 6: Defining loads at the Key points
Solution  Define Loads  Apply  Structural  Displacement  On key points
Left end – ALL DOF arrested
Solution  Define loads  Apply  Structural  Force/moment  On key Points
Right end – Apply a load of FY = -1000N
Select Plot controls from menu bar  Capture image  file save as and save your file

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 15


Figure: Model with boundary conditions
STEP 7: Solving the system
Solution Solve  Current LS
POSTPROCESSING: VIEWING THE RESULTS

1. Deformation
From the main menu select General post processing

General post processing  Plot Results  Deformed Shape


Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the
undeformed object

Figure: Deformed and undeformed Model

 Nodal solution

From the Utility menu select PLOT


PLOT Results Contour plot  Nodal solution – DOF solution – Y component of
displacement – OK

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 16


Figure: Y-Component displacement of the Model
RESULT:
Case: 1:- To determine the stresses acting on a cantilever beam with a point load of -
10000 N acting at one of its ends and perpendicular to the axis of the beam.
1. DMX = 31.974
SMN = -31.974
PROBLEM DEFINITIONS DIFFERENT FROM JNTU TOPICS
Case: 2:- To determine the stresses acting on a cantilever beam with a point load of -
9000 N acting at one of its ends and perpendicular to the axis of the beam.
1. DMX = 28.777
SMN = -28.777

Case: 3:- To determine the stresses acting on a cantilever beam with a point load of -
8000 N acting at one of its ends and perpendicular to the axis of the beam.
1. DMX = 25.58
SMN = -25.58

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 17


Case: 4:- To determine the stresses acting on a cantilever beam with a point load of -
7000 N acting at one of its ends and perpendicular to the axis of the beam.
1. DMX = 22.382
SMN = -22.382

Case: 5:- To determine the stresses acting on a cantilever beam with a point load of -
6000 N acting at one of its ends and perpendicular to the axis of the beam.
1. DMX = 19.185
SMN = -19.185

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 18


Case: 6:- To determine the stresses acting on a cantilever beam with a point load of -
5000 N acting at one of its ends and perpendicular to the axis of the beam.
1. DMX = 15.988
SMN = -15.988

VIVA QUESTIONS
1. If a cantilever beam has a uniformly distributed load, will the bending moment diagram
be quadratic or cubic?
2. Name the element type used for beams?
3. Define Analysis and its Purpose?
4. What are the modules in Ansys Programming?
5. What are the Real Constants & Material Properties in Ansys? Explain?

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 19


EXPERIMENT: 2
COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF RECTANGULAR STIFFENED
PLANE PANEL OF UNIFORM CROSS-SECTION
 Experiment as given in the JNTUH curriculum.
 Compressive strength of rectangular stiffened plane panel.

AIM: To analyze the compressive strength of rectangular stiffened plane panel of uniform
cross-section which is subjected to a pressure of 12000 Pa.

APPARATUS: Ansys 13.0


GIVEN DATA:
 Young’s modulus = 2e11
 Thickness I=1.2, J=1.2
 Poisson’s ratio = 0.27
 Density = 7850kg/m3

PROCEDURE:

PRE PROCESSING
STEP 1: From the Main menu select preferences
Select structural→ h-method and press OK
STEP 2: From the main menu select Pre-processor
Element type  Add / edit/Delete  Add  select shellelastic 4 node 63ok
Real constants  Add Addselect type1 shellok
ThicknessI=1.2, J=1.2ok
Material properties  material models  Structural  Linear  Elastic  Isotropic
EX = 2e11; PRXY = 0.27; Density = 7850
STEP 3: From the main menu select Pre-processor  Modeling
 Create the key points in the Workspace
Create  Key points  In active CS
X Y Z
0 0 0
6 0 0
6 4 0
0 4 0
Click APPLY to all the points and for the last point click OK
 Create LINES using the Key points
Create  Lines  Straight Line  select 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, 4-1 Key points to generate
lines

STEP 4: Modeling  create  Areas arbitrary by lines  select all four lines  ok

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 20


STEP 5: Meshing the Geometry
From the main menu select Meshing
Meshing  mesh attributes  all areas  select the area  shell  ok
Meshing  Size controls  Manual size  by areas  all areas  Number of
element edge length = 1  Click ok
Meshing  Mesh  areas  mapped  3 or 4 sided  select area  ok

SOLUTION PHASE: ASSIGNING LOADS AND SOLVING

STEP 5: From the ANSYS main menu open Solution


Solution  Analysis type  new analysis  Static
STEP 6: Defining loads
Loads  define loads  Apply  Structural  Displacement  On lines  select
line 1-2 & 1-4  ok
Select  ALL DOF arrested
Define loads  Apply  Structural  Pressure  select on lines 2-3 & 3-4  ok
Enter pressure = 12000  ok

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 21


STEP 7: Solving the system
Solution Solve  Current LS
POSTPROCESSING: VIEWING THE RESULTS

2. Deformation
From the main menu select General post processing

General post processing  Plot Results  Deformed Shape

Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the
undeformed object

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 22


 Nodal solution

From the Utility menu select PLOT

PLOT Results Contour plot  Nodal solution

Result  DOF solution  Y component of displacement  OK

Result  stress  Von mises stress

RESULT:

Case: 1:- To determine the stresses acting on a rectangular plane with a pressure load of
12000 N acting on the lines 2 & 3.
DMX = 0.187e-07
SMX = 939.279

PROBLEM DEFINITIONS DIFFERENT FROM JNTU TOPICS


Case: 2:- To determine the stresses acting on a rectangular plane with a pressure load of
11000 N acting on the lines 2 & 3

DMX = .224e-07
SMX = 1127

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 23


Case: 3:- To determine the stresses acting on a rectangular plane with a pressure load of
10000 N acting on the lines 2 & 3

DMX = 0.224e-06
SMX = 4747
Case: 4:- To determine the stresses acting on a rectangular plane with a pressure load of
13000 N acting on the lines 2 & 3

DMX = 0.224e-06
SMX = 1127
Case: 5:- To determine the stresses acting on a rectangular plane with a pressure load of
14000 N acting on the lines 2 & 3

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 24


DMX = 0.224e-06
SMX = 1127
Case: 6:- To determine the stresses acting on a rectangular plane with a pressure load of
15000 N acting on the lines 2 & 3

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 25


DMX = 0.224e-06
SMX = 1127

VIVA QUESTIONS

1. What do you mean by degrees of freedom?


2. Define key points, lines, nodes, elements?
3. Can meshing is done after elements are created?
4. Types of co-ordinate systems?
5. What is symmetry and types of symmetry?

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 26


EXPERIMENT: 3
a) SHEAR OF STIFFENED THIN WALLED OPEN SECTION BEAM
 Experiment as given in the JNTUH curriculum.

 Shear of stiffened thin walled open section

AIM: To analyze shear of stiffened thin walled open section beam which is subjected to a
pressure of 50 MPa.

APPARATUS: Ansys 13.0


GIVEN DATA:
 Young’s modulus = 0.7e11
 Thickness I = 1.3, J = 1.3
 Poisson’s ratio = 0.3
 Density = 2700 kg/m3

PROCEDURE:

PRE PROCESSING
STEP 1: From the Main menu select preferences
Select structural→ h-method and press OK
STEP 2: From the main menu select Pre-processor
Element type  Add / edit/Delete  Add  select shellelastic 4 node
63applysolidquad 4 node 182ok
Real constants  Add Addselect type1 shellok  enter
ThicknessI =1.3, J=1.3  ok  close
Material properties  material models  Structural  Linear  Elastic  Isotropic
EX = 0.7e11; PRXY = 0.3 & Density = 2700  ok  close
STEP 3: From the main menu select Pre-processor  Modeling
 Create the key points in the Workspace
Create  Key points  In active CS
X Y Z
0 0 0
2 0 0
2 0.2 0
0.2 0.2 0
0.2 1.8 0
0.5 1.8 0
0.5 2 0
0 2 0

Click APPLY to all the points and for the last point click OK
 Create LINES using the Key points
Create  Lines  Straight Line  Select 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, 4-5, 5-6, 6-7, 7-8, 8-1 Key
points to generate lines

STEP 4: Modeling  create  Areas  arbitrary by lines  select all four lines  ok

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 27


Modeling  operate  extrude  areas  along normal  select the area  ok 
enter the extrude length as 0.5

Select Plot controls from menu bar  Capture image  file save as and save your file

Figure: Open section beam model

STEP 5: Meshing the Geometry


From the main menu select Meshing
Meshing  mesh attributes  all areas  select the element type  no shell  ok
Select All volumes select the element type number plane ok
Meshing  Size controls  Manual size  by areas  all areas  Number of
element edge length = 0.025  Click ok
Meshing  Mesh  areas  free  select box type instead of single  select the
total volume  ok

Select Plot controls from menu bar  Capture image  file save as and save your file

Figure: Open section beam meshed model

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 28


SOLUTION PHASE: ASSIGNING LOADS AND SOLVING

STEP 5: Defining loads


Loads  define loads  Apply  Structural  Displacement  On areas  select
the bottom edge  ok  all DOF  ok
Select  ALL DOF arrested
Define loads  Apply  Structural  Pressure  on areas  select box
type (instead of single)  select the top flange  ok
Enter pressure = 12000  ok

Figure: Boundary and operating conditions model


STEP 6: Solving the system
Solution Solve  Current LS
POSTPROCESSING: VIEWING THE RESULTS
1. Deformation
From the main menu select General post processing

General post processing  Plot Results  Deformed Shape


Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the
undeformed object

Figure: Deformed and undeformed model

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 29


Nodal solution
From the Utility menu select PLOT
PLOT Results Contour plot  Nodal solution
2. Select DOF solution  X component of displacement  OK

Figure: X-Component of displacement model

3. Select stress  XY shear stress

Figure: XY shear stress model

4. Select stress  Von mises stress

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 30


Figure: Von mises stress model
RESULT:
Case: 1:- To analyze shear of stiffened thin walled open section beam which is subjected
to a pressure of 50 MPa.
1. DMX = 0.917E-03
2. DMX = 0.917E-03
SMN = 0.598E-06
SMX = 0.902E-03
3. DMX = 0.917E-03
SMN = 0.468E+07
SMX = 0.120E+08
4. DMX = 0.917E-03
SMX = 0.563E+08
PROBLEM DEFINITIONS DIFFERENT FROM JNTU TOPICS

Case: 2:- To analyze shear of stiffened thin walled open section beam which is subjected
to a pressure of 51 MPa.
1. DMX = 0.935E-03
SMX = 0.574E+08

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 31


Case: 3:- To analyze shear of stiffened thin walled open section beam which is subjected
to a pressure of 52 MPa.
1. DMX = 0.954E-03
SMX = 0.586E+08

Case: 4:- To analyze shear of stiffened thin walled open section beam which is subjected
to a pressure of 53 MPa.
1. DMX = 0.972E-03
SMX = 0.597E+08

Case: 5:- To analyze shear of stiffened thin walled open section beam which is subjected
to a pressure of 54 MPa.
1. DMX = 0.990E-03
SMX = 0.608E+08

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 32


Case: 6:- To analyze shear of stiffened thin walled open section beam which is subjected
to a pressure of 55 MPa.
1. DMX = 1.08E-03
SMX = 0.620E+08

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 33


EXPERIMENT: 3 B
TORSIONAL STRENGTH OF A THIN WALLED OPEN SECTION
BEAM
 Experiment as given in the JNTUH curriculum.

 TORSION OF STIFFENED THIN WALLED OPEN SECTION

AIM: To analyze Torsion of stiffened thin walled open section beam which is subjected to a
pressure of 20 MPa.

APPARATUS: Ansys 13.0


GIVEN DATA:
 Young’s modulus = 0.7e11
 Thickness I = 1.3, J = 1.3
 Poisson’s ratio = 0.3
 Density = 2700 kg/m3

PROCEDURE:

PRE PROCESSING
STEP 1: From the Main menu select preferences
Select structural→ h-method and press OK
STEP 2: From the main menu select Pre-processor
Element type  Add / edit/Delete  Add  select shellelastic 4 node
63applysolidquad 4 node 182ok
Real constants  Add Addselect type1 shellok  enter
ThicknessI =1.3, J=1.3  ok  close
Material properties  material models  Structural  Linear  Elastic  Isotropic
EX = 0.7e11; PRXY = 0.3 & Density = 2700  ok  close
STEP 3: From the main menu select Pre-processor  Modeling
 Create the key points in the Workspace
Create  Key points  In active CS
X Y Z
0 0 0
2 0 0
2 0.2 0
0.2 0.2 0
0.2 1.8 0
0.5 1.8 0
0.5 2 0
0 2 0

Click APPLY to all the points and for the last point click OK
 Create LINES using the Key points
Create  Lines  Straight Line  Select 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, 4-5, 5-6, 6-7, 7-8, 8-1 Key
points to generate lines

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 34


STEP 4: Modeling  create  Areas  arbitrary by lines  select all four lines  ok
Modeling  operate  extrude  areas  along normal  select the area  ok 
enter the extrude length as 0.5

Select Plot controls from menu bar  Capture image  file save as and save your file

Figure: Open section beam model

STEP 5: Meshing the Geometry


From the main menu select Meshing
Meshing  mesh attributes  all areas  select the element type  no shell  ok
Select all volumes select the element type number plane ok
Meshing  Size controls  Manual size  by areas  all areas  Number of
element edge length = 0.025  Click ok
Meshing  Mesh  areas  free  select box type instead of single  select the
total volume  ok

Figure: Open section beam meshed model


SOLUTION PHASE: ASSIGNING LOADS AND SOLVING

STEP 5: Defining loads


Loads  define loads  Apply  Structural  Displacement  On areas  select
the front C/S area and select the bottom flange free end area  ok  all DOF  ok
Select  ALL DOF arrested
Define loads  Apply  Structural  Pressure  on areas  select the frontal area
of web and free end area of top flange (20Mpa)  ok

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 35


Define loads  Apply  Structural  Pressure  on areas  select the back end
area of web (-20 MPa)  ok

Figure: Boundary and operating conditions model


STEP 6: Solving the system
Solution Solve  Current LS
POSTPROCESSING: VIEWING THE RESULTS

1. Deformation
From the main menu select General post processing

General post processing  Plot Results  Deformed Shape


Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the
undeformed object

Figure: Deformed and undeformed model

Nodal solution
From the Utility menu select PLOT
PLOT Results Contour plot  Nodal solution
2.Select DOF solution  Y component of rotation  OK

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 36


Figure: Y- component of rotation model
3.Select DOF solution  X component of displacement  OK

Figure: X- component of displacement model

4. Select stress  YZ shear stress

Figure: YZ shear stress model

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 37


5. Select stress  Von mises stress

Figure: Von mises stress model


RESULT:
Case: 1:- To analyze Torsion of stiffened thin walled open section beam which is
subjected to a pressure of 20 MPa.
1. DMX = 0.108E-04
2. DMX = 0.108E-04
SMN = -0.261E-04
SMX = 0.242E-05
3. DMX = 0.108E-04
SMX = 0.100E-04
4. DMX = 0.108E-04
SMN = 0.187E+07
SMX = 0.199E+07
5. DMX = 0.108E-04
SMX = 0.258E+08
PROBLEM DEFINITIONS DIFFERENT FROM JNTU TOPICS

Case: 2:- To analyze Torsion of stiffened thin walled open section beam which is
subjected to a pressure of 21 MPa.
1. DMX = 0.113E-04
SMX = 0.270E+08

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 38


Case: 3:- To analyze Torsion of stiffened thin walled open section beam which is
subjected to a pressure of 22 MPa.
1. DMX = 0.119E-04
SMX = 0.283E+08

Case: 4:- To analyze Torsion of stiffened thin walled open section beam which is
subjected to a pressure of 23 MPa.
1. DMX = 0.124E-04
SMX = 0.295E+08

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 39


Case: 5:- To analyze Torsion of stiffened thin walled open section beam which is
subjected to a pressure of 24 MPa.
1. DMX = 0.130E-04
SMX = 0.308E+08

Case: 6:- To analyze Torsion of stiffened thin walled open section beam which is
subjected to a pressure of 25 MPa.
1. DMX = 0.135E-04
SMX = 0.321E+08

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 40


VIVA QUESTIONS
1. Define shear flow.
2. Define Torsion.
3. Write down the torsion equation.
4. Define von mises stress.
5. Define elastic constants.

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 41


EXPERIMENT: 3 C
SHEAR FORCE OF STIFFENED THIN WALLED CLOSED SECTION
BEAM
 Experiment as given in the JNTUH curriculum.

 Shear force of stiffened thin walled closed section

AIM: To analyze shear of stiffened thin walled closed section beam which is subjected to a
pressure of 50 MPa.

APPARATUS: Ansys 13.0


GIVEN DATA:
 Young’s modulus = 0.7e11
 Thickness I = 1.3, J = 1.3
 Poisson’s ratio = 0.3
 Density = 2700 kg/m3

PROCEDURE:

PRE PROCESSING
STEP 1: From the Main menu select preferences
Select structural→ h-method and press OK
STEP 2: From the main menu select Pre-processor
Element type  Add / edit/Delete  Add  select shellelastic 4 node
63applysolidquad 4 node 182ok
Real constants  Add Addselect type1 shellok  enter
ThicknessI =1.3, J=1.3  ok  close
Material properties  material models  Structural  Linear  Elastic  Isotropic
EX = 0.7e11; PRXY = 0.3 & Density = 2700  ok  close
STEP 3: From the main menu select Pre-processor  Modeling
 Create the key points in the Workspace
Create  Key points  In active CS
X Y Z
0 0 0
1 0 0
0.2 0.2 0
0.8 0.2 0
0.2 1.8 0
0.8 1.8 0
0 2 0
1 2 0

Click APPLY to all the points and for the last point click OK
 Create LINES using the Key points
Create  Lines  Straight Line  Select 1-2, 2-8, 8-7, 7-1, 3-4, 4-6, 6-5, 5-3 Key
points to generate lines

STEP 4: Modeling  create  Areas  arbitrary by lines  select all lines  ok

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 42


Modeling  operate  extrude  areas  along normal  select the area  ok 
enter the extrude length as 0.75
Select Plot controls from menu bar  Capture image  file save as and save your file

Figure: Closed section beam model

STEP 5: Meshing the Geometry


From the main menu select Meshing
Meshing  mesh attributes  all areas  select the element type  no shell  ok
Select all volumes select the element type number plane ok
Meshing  Size controls  Manual size  by areas  all areas  Number of
element edge length = 0.025  Click ok
Meshing  Mesh  areas  free  select box type instead of single  select the
total volume  ok

Select Plot controls from menu bar  Capture image  file save as and save your file

Figure: Closed section beam meshed model

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 43


SOLUTION PHASE: ASSIGNING LOADS AND SOLVING

STEP 5: Defining loads


Loads  define loads  Apply  Structural  Displacement  On areas  select
the bottom edge  ok  all DOF  ok
Select  ALL DOF arrested
Define loads  Apply  Structural  Pressure  on areas  select surface
of web  ok
Enter pressure = 50 MPa  ok

Figure: Boundary and operating conditions model


STEP 6: Solving the system
Solution Solve  Current LS
POSTPROCESSING: VIEWING THE RESULTS
1. Deformation
From the main menu select General post processing

General post processing  Plot Results  Deformed Shape


Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the
undeformed object

Figure: Deformed and undeformed model

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 44


Nodal solution
From the Utility menu select PLOT
PLOT Results Contour plot  Nodal solution
2. Select DOF solution  Y component of displacement  OK

Figure: Y-Component of displacement model

3. Select stress  XZ shear stress

Figure: XZ shear stress model

4. Select stress  Von mises stress

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 45


Figure: Von mises stress model
RESULT:
Case: 1:- To analyze shear of stiffened thin walled closed section beam which is
subjected to a pressure of 50 MPa.
1. DMX = 0.001421
2. DMX = 0.001421
SMN = -0.108E-06
SMX = 0.517E-03
3. DMX = 0.001421
SMN = -0.820E+07
SMX = 0.820E+07
4. DMX = 0.001421
SMX = 0.135E+09
PROBLEM DEFINITIONS DIFFERENT FROM JNTU TOPICS

Case: 2:- To analyze shear of stiffened thin walled closed section beam which is
subjected to a pressure of 51 MPa.
DMX = 0.001383
SMX = 0.138E+09

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 46


Case: 3:- To analyze shear of stiffened thin walled closed section beam which is
subjected to a pressure of 52 MPa.
DMX = 0.00141
SMX = 0.140E+09

Case: 4:- To analyze shear of stiffened thin walled closed section beam which is
subjected to a pressure of 53 MPa.
DMX = 0.001437
SMX = 0.143E+09

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 47


Case: 5:- To analyze shear of stiffened thin walled closed section beam which is
subjected to a pressure of 54 MPa.
DMX = 0.001464
SMX = 0.145E+09

Case: 6:- To analyze shear of stiffened thin walled closed section beam which is
subjected to a pressure of 55 MPa.
DMX = 0.001491
SMX = 0.147E+09

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 48


COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 49
EXPERIMENT: 3 D
TORSIONAL STRENGTH OF A THIN WALLED CLOSED SECTION
BEAM
 Experiment as given in the JNTUH curriculum.
 Shear of stiffened thin walled closed section

AIM: To analyze shear of stiffened thin walled closed section beam which is subjected to a
pressure of 20 MPa.

APPARATUS: Ansys 13.0


GIVEN DATA:
 Young’s modulus = 0.7e11
 Thickness I = 1.3, J = 1.3
 Poisson’s ratio = 0.3
 Density = 2700 kg/m3

PROCEDURE:

PRE PROCESSING
STEP 1: From the Main menu select preferences
Select structural→ h-method and press OK
STEP 2: From the main menu select Pre-processor
Element type  Add / edit/Delete  Add  select shellelastic 4 node
63applysolidquad 4 node 182ok
Real constants  Add Addselect type1 shellok  enter
ThicknessI =1.3, J=1.3  ok  close
Material properties  material models  Structural  Linear  Elastic  Isotropic
EX = 0.7e11; PRXY = 0.3 & Density = 2700  ok  close
STEP 3: From the main menu select Pre-processor  Modeling
 Create the key points in the Workspace
Create  Key points  In active CS
X Y Z
0 0 0
1 0 0
0.2 0.2 0
0.8 0.2 0
0.2 1.8 0
0.8 1.8 0
0 2 0
1 2 0

Click APPLY to all the points and for the last point click OK
 Create LINES using the Key points
Create  Lines  Straight Line  Select 1-2, 2-8, 8-7, 7-1, 3-4, 4-6, 6-5, 5-3 Key
points to generate lines

STEP 4: Modeling  create  Areas  arbitrary by lines  select all lines  ok

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 50


Modeling  operate  extrude  areas  along normal  select the area  ok 
enter the extrude length as 0.75
Select Plot controls from menu bar  Capture image  file save as and save your file

Figure: Closed section beam model


STEP 5: Meshing the Geometry
From the main menu select Meshing
Meshing  mesh attributes  all areas  select the element type  no shell  ok
Select all volumes select the element type number plane ok
Meshing  Size controls  Manual size  by areas  all areas  Number of
element edge length = 0.025  Click ok
Meshing  Mesh  areas  free  select box type instead of single  select the
total volume  ok

Figure: Closed section beam meshed model


SOLUTION PHASE: ASSIGNING LOADS AND SOLVING

STEP 5: Defining loads


Loads  define loads  Apply  Structural  Displacement  On areas  select
the bottom edge and end C/S area of beam  ok  all DOF  ok
Select  ALL DOF arrested
Define loads  Apply  Structural  Pressure  on areas  select the extreme
right of web (20Mpa)  ok

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 51


Define loads  Apply  Structural  Pressure  on areas  select the extreme
left of web (-20 MPa)  ok

Figure: Boundary and operating condition model

STEP 6: Solving the system


Solution Solve  Current LS
POSTPROCESSING: VIEWING THE RESULTS

1. Deformation
From the main menu select General post processing

General post processing  Plot Results  Deformed Shape


Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the
undeformed object

Figure: Deformed and undeformed model

Nodal solution
From the Utility menu select PLOT
PLOT Results Contour plot  Nodal solution

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 52


2. Select DOF solution  Y component of rotation  OK

Figure: Y- component of rotation model


3. Select DOF solution  X component of displacement  OK

Figure: X- component of displacement model

4. Select stress  YZ shear stress

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 53


Figure: YZ shear stress model

5. Select stress  Von mises stress

Figure: Von mises stress model


RESULT:
Case: 1:- To analyze Torsion of stiffened thin walled closed section beam which is
subjected to a pressure of 20 MPa.
1. DMX = 0.255E-04
2. DMX = 0.255E-04
SMN = -0.261E-04
SMX = 0.242E-05
3. DMX = 0.255E-04
SMX = 0.238E-04
4. DMX = 0.255E-04
SMN = -0.344E+07
SMX = 0.309E+07
5. DMX = 0.255E-04
SMX = 0.285E+08
COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 54
PROBLEM DEFINITIONS DIFFERENT FROM JNTU TOPICS

Case: 2:- To analyze Torsion of stiffened thin walled closed section beam which is
subjected to a pressure of 21 MPa.
DMX = 0.268E-04
SMX = 0.299E+08

Case: 3:- To analyze Torsion of stiffened thin walled closed section beam which is
subjected to a pressure of 22 MPa.
DMX = 0.280E-04
SMX = 0.313E+08

Case: 4:- To analyze Torsion of stiffened thin walled closed section beam which is
subjected to a pressure of 23 MPa.
DMX = 0.293E-04
SMX = 0.327E+08

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 55


Case: 5:- To analyze Torsion of stiffened thin walled closed section beam which is
subjected to a pressure of 24 MPa.
DMX = 0.305E-04
SMX = 0.341E+08

Case: 6:- To analyze Torsion of stiffened thin walled closed section beam which is
subjected to a pressure of 25 MPa.
DMX = 0.318E-04
SMX = 0.355E+08

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 56


VIVA QUESTIONS
1. Define stiffness.
2. What are Boolean operations?
3. Define truss?
4. Name all the types of elements used in Ansys with example?
5. What is Poisson’s ratio and give the steps for obtaining Poisson’s ratio value.

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 57


EXPERIMENT: 4
2-D STATIC LINEAR ANALYSIS OF A TRUSS STRUCTURE
 Experiment as given in the JNTUH curriculum.
 Statically indeterminate truss.

AIM: To determine the nodal deflections, reaction forces, and stress of the indeterminate
truss system when it is subjected to a load of 8000 N. (E = 200GPa, A = 3250mm2)
PROCEDURE:
PREPROCESSING
STEP 1: From the Main menu select preferences
Select structural and press OK
STEP 2: From the main menu select Preprocessor
Element type  Add / edit/Delete  Add  Link – 2D spar 8  ok close
Real constants  Add  Geometric Properties  Area = 3250
Material properties  material models  Structural  Linear  Elastic  Isotropic
EX = 2e5; PRXY = 0.3
STEP 3: From the main menu select Pre-processor  Modeling
 Create the key points in the Workspace

Pre-processor  Modeling  Create  Nodes  In active CS


X Y Z
0 0 0
5 0 0
10 0 0
15 0 0
2.5 2.5 0
7.5 2.5 0
12.5 2.5 0

Click APPLY to all the points and for the last point click OK

 Create LINES using the Elements

Pre-processor  Modeling  Create  Elements  Auto numbered  through


nodes  select node 1&2  apply 2&3  apply3&4  apply1&5 
apply5&2  apply 2&6  apply6&3 apply  3&7  apply  7&4 
apply  5&6  apply 6&7 ok  close

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 58


Figure: Model
SOLUTION PHASE: ASSIGNING LOADS AND SOLVING
STEP 5: From the ANSYS main menu open Solution
Solution  Analysis type  new analysis – Static
STEP 6: Defining loads at the Key points
Solution  Define Loads  Apply  Structural  Displacement  On nodes 
select node 1&4 ok  select All DOF  ok
Left end – ALL DOF arrested
Solution  Define loads  Apply  Structural  Force/moment  On nodes
Select node 2&3  ok FY direction  Give force value as -8000N  ok  close

Figure: Model with boundary conditions


STEP 7: Solving the system
Solution Solve  Current LS
POSTPROCESSING: VIEWING THE RESULTS

1. Deformation
From the main menu select General post processing

General post processing  Plot Results  Deformed Shape

Select 'Def + undef edge' and click 'OK' to view both the deformed and the undeformed
object.
COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 59
Figure: Deformed and undeformed Model

Nodal solution

From the Utility menu select PLOT

PLOT Results Contour plot  Nodal solution  DOF solution  Y component


of displacement  OK

RESULT:

Case: 1:- To Determine the nodal deflections, reaction forces, and stress for the truss
system shown below (E = 200GPa, A = 3250mm2). At load -8000N
1. DMX = .461E-03
SMN = -.461E-03

Figure: Y-Component displacement of the Model

PROBLEM DEFINITIONS DIFFERENT FROM JNTU TOPICS

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 60


Case: 2:- To Determine the nodal deflections, reaction forces, and stress for the truss
system shown below (E = 200GPa, A = 3250mm2). At load -7000N
2. DMX = .404E-03
SMN = -.404E-03

Case: 3:- To Determine the nodal deflections, reaction forces, and stress for the truss
system shown below (E = 200GPa, A = 3250mm2). At load -6000N
3. DMX = .346E-03
SMN = -.346E-03

Case: 4:- To Determine the nodal deflections, reaction forces, and stress for the truss
system shown below (E = 200GPa, A = 3250mm2). At load -5000N
4. DMX = .288E-03
SMN = -.288E-03

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 61


Case: 5:- To Determine the nodal deflections, reaction forces, and stress for the truss
system shown below (E = 200GPa, A = 3250mm2). At load -9000N

5. DMX = .519E-03
SMN = -.519E-03

Case: 6:- To Determine the nodal deflections, reaction forces, and stress for the truss
system shown below (E = 200GPa, A = 3250mm2). At load -10000N
6. DMX = .577E-03
SMN = -.577E-03

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 62


VIVA QUESTIONS
1. Ansys needs the final element model(FEM) for its final solution.(T/F)
2. Element attributes must be set before meshing the solid model. (T/F)
3. In a plane strain, the strain in the direction of thickness is assumed to be zero.(T/F)
4. The ______ elements are used for in-plane bending problems.
5. Which one of the following elements is required to define the thickness as a real
constant?
a. Beam
b. Shell
c. Solid
d. None

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 63


EXPERIMENT: 5
MODAL ANALYSIS OF UNIFORM CANTILEVER BEAM
 Experiment as given in the JNTUH curriculum.
 Free vibration of uniform cantilever beam.

Aim: Analyze the given uniform cantilever beam using Ansys and find out the variation in
the frequencies for 5 mode shapes.
Apparatus: ANSYS Software 13.0
Given Data:
Young’s Modulus: 2e5
Poisson’s Ratio: 0.27
Length of the beam: 1000
Steps of Modeling:
Preferences ► Structural ► H- method ► OK
Preprocessor ► Element Type ► Add ► Add ►
Beam ► 2D elastic 3 ► Apply► OK
Real constants ► add ► beam 3 ► Area = 1025
► Izz = 450
► thickness = 6 & width 25 mm
Material Properties ► Material Models ► Structural ► Linear ► Elastic ► Isotropic ►
EXX: 2e5
PRXY: .27
Density: 2870
Modeling ► Create ► Key points ► In Active CS
X Y Z
1. 0 0 0

2. 1000 0 0

Pre-processor  Modelling  Create  Lines  Straight Line  Click on Key points to


generate lines

Meshing the Geometry

From the main menu select Meshing


Meshing  Size controls  Manual size  Lines  All lines – Number of element
divisions = 1  Click OK
Meshing  Mesh  Lines – pick all

Defining loads

Loads ► Define Loads ► Apply ► Structural ► Displacement ► On nodes ► Select node


1 ► Select All DOF ► OK
Solution
Loads ► Analysis Type ► New Analysis ► Select Modal ► OK
Loads ► Analysis Option ► No.of Mode Shapes = 5 ► OK
Enter the Start Freq = 0
End Frequency = 0 ► OK
Solution ► Solve ► Current LS ► Warnings can be ignored ► Solution is Done

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 64


RESULTS:
General Post Processor ► Read Results ► by Pick

RESULT:

Case: 1:- To determine the 1st mode frequency acting on cantilever beam.

DMX: 0.369e-04

Frequency: 0.310e-05

PROBLEM DEFINITIONS DIFFERENT FROM JNTU TOPICS

Case: 2:- To determine the 2nd mode frequency acting on cantilever beam.

DMX: 0.369e-04

Frequency: 0.194e-04

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 65


Case: 3:- To determine the 3rd mode frequency acting on cantilever beam.

DMX: 0.369e-04

Frequency: 0.543e-04

Case: 4:- To determine the 3rd mode frequency acting on cantilever beam.

DMX: 0.369e-04

Frequency: 0.106e-04

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 66


Case: 4:- To determine the 3rd mode frequency acting on cantilever beam.

DMX: 0.369e-04

Frequency: 0.176e-04

VIVA QUESTIONS
1. Name the types of meshing.
2. Explain the Main Steps involved in Ansys Programming.
3. What is Modal Analysis? Write the Steps involved in Modal Analysis.
4. How do you see the Animations of the Deformed Shapes in Ansys?
5. Write the Procedure for finding the SFD & BMD of a Link.

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 67


EXPERIMENT: 6
ANALYSIS OF A LANDING GEAR
 Experiment as given in the JNTUH curriculum.
 3 dimensional landing gear trusses.

Aim: Analyze the given landing gear structure with applied load of 10000N.
Apparatus: Ansys Software 13.0 Version
Given Data:
Angle (Strut):30 degrees
Poisson’s Ratio=0.3
Steps of Modeling:
Preferences ► Structural ► H-Method ► OK
Preprocessor ► Element Type ► Add ► Add ► Select Link ► Spar 8 ► Apply
Preprocessor ► Element Type ► Add ► Add ► Select Beam ► 2 Node 188 ► OK ►
Close
Real Constants ► Add ► Add ► Select Type Link 8 ► Click OK
Enter the cross sectional area =1 ► OK ► Close
Material Properties ► Material Models ► Structural ► Linear ► Elastic ► Isotropic
Enter the Young’s Modulus (EXY) = 2e5
Poisson’s Ratio (PRXY) = 0.3
Sections ►Beam ►Common Sections ►Subtype ► Select Solid Circle
R=1
N=24
T=0, Click Ok
Preprocessor ► Modeling ► Create ► Key points ► In Active CS ►
Create the keypoints according to the table
KP no X Y Z
1. 0 0 0
2. 8 0 0
3. 0 26 0
4. 0 50 0
5. -6 50 0
6. 14 50 0
7. 16 50 0
8. 14 48 0
9. 3 26 0
10. 0 26 -3
11. 0 50 -24

Modeling ► Create ► Lines ► Lines ► Straight Lines ►

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 68


Join the keypoints according to table
Line no Join
1. 1&2
2. 1&3
3. 3&4
4. 4&5
5. 4&6
6. 6&7
7. 6&8
8. 3&9
9. 3 & 10
10. 8&9
11. 10 & 11

Main menu ► Plot Cntrls ► Numbering ►


Click in the box against Line Numbers, Apply then Ok
Plots ► Lines
Preprocessor ► Meshing ► Mesh Attributes ► All lines ►
Select element type Beam 188, Ok
Meshing ► Mesh Attributes ► Picked Lines ►
Pick lines 11 & 10, Ok
Select element type link 8, Ok
Meshing ► Size Cntrls ► Manual Size ► Lines ► All Lines ►
Edge length = 1
No of divisions should be left blank (not zero or anything else)
Meshing ► Size Cntrls ► Manual size ► lines ► Picked lines ►
Pick lines 11 & 10, Ok
Edge length should be left blank (not zero or anything else)
No of divisions = 1
Meshing ► Mesh ► Lines
Pick all Lines, Ok
Main menu► plot Cntrls ► Style ► Size and Shape
Click in the box against Display Element Type,
Change the Real Constants Multiplier to 1, Apply then Ok

Plot Cntrls ►Numbering ►

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 69


Click in the box against Keypoint Numbers
Click n the box against Line Numbers (off), Apply then Ok
Plots ► Key points ► Key points
Solution ► Define Loads ► Apply ► Structural ► Displacement ► On key Points ►
Select keypoints 5 & 7, Ok
Select UY & UZ, Apply
Select keypoint 11, Ok
Select UX, UY & UZ, Ok
Solution ► Define Loads ► Apply ► Structural ► Force/Moment ► On keypoints
Select keypoint 2, Ok
Select FY and Give the value below as 14672, Apply
Select keypoint 2, Ok
Select FZ and give the value below as 3119, Ok

Main menu ► Plots ► Multiplots


Solution ► Solve ► current LS ► Ok

Close the Status Command window after solving is complete.

General postproc ► Plot Results ► Contour Plots ► Element Solu ► Stress ► Von Mises
Stress, Click Ok
Element Table ► Define Table ►Click Add,
From the list to the lefts select By Sequence Number,
From the list to the right select SMISC, type 1 beside SMISC, Apply
From the list to the lefts select By Sequence Number,
From the list to the right select LS, type 1 beside LS, Ok then Close
(NOTE: LS1-Axial stress, SMISC1-Axial force)
Element Table ► List Elem Table ►
Select LS1 from the list, Apply
Select SMISC1 from the list and unselect LS1, Ok

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 70


Result:

Von Misses Stress

Y Component Displacement

RESULT:

Case: 1 (Load FY direction 14672 N and FZ direction 3119 N)


Y Component Displacement Von Misses Stress
2. DMX = 3.156 DMX = 3.156
SMN = -0.170816 SMX = 186772
SMX = 2.123

PROBLEM DEFINITIONS DIFFERENT FROM JNTU TOPICS

Case: 2 (Load direction 14000 N and FZ direction 3000 N)


Y Component Displacement Von Misses Stress
1. DMX = 3.02 DMX = 3.02
SMN = -0.110897 SMX = 178631
SMX = 1.1304

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 71


Case: 3 (Load direction 13500 N and FZ direction 2500 N)
Y Component Displacement Von Misses Stress
1. DMX = 2.777 DMX = 2.777
SMN = -0.10781 SMX = 165449
SMX = 1.249

Case: 4 (Load direction 13250 N and FZ direction 2200 N)


Y Component Displacement Von Misses Stress
1. DMX = 2.647 DMX = 2.647
SMN = -0.107276 SMX = 158014
SMX = 1.221

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 72


Case: 5 (Load direction 13000 N and FZ direction 2000 N)
Y Component Displacement Von Misses Stress
1. DMX = 2.552 DMX = 2.552
SMN = -0.106165 SMX = 152311
SMX = 1.194

Case: 6 (Load direction 12462 N and FZ direction 1850 N)

Y Component Displacement Von Misses Stress


1. DMX = 2.428 DMX = 2.428
SMN = -0.102159 SMX = 144856
SMX = 1.143

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 73


VIVA QUESTIONS
1. If a cantilever beam has a uniformly distributed load, will the bending moment diagram
be quadratic or cubic?
2. Name the element type used for beams?
3. Define Analysis and its Purpose?
4. What are the modules in Ansys Programming?
5. What are the Real Constants & Material Properties in Ansys? Explain?

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 74


EXPERIMENT: 7
STATIC ANALYSIS OF TAPERED WING BOX
 Experiment as given in the JNTUH curriculum.
 Tapered wing box beam.

Aim: Analyze the given wing structure using Ansys and find out the variation in the
Structure of the Wing.
Apparatus: ANSYS Software 13.0
Given Data:
Young’s Modulus: 7e10
Poisson’s Ratio: 0.3
Length of the Wing: 30
Steps of Modeling:
Preferences ► Structural ► H- method ► OK
Preprocessor ► Element Type ► Add ► Add ►
Solid ► Brick 8 Node 45 ► Apply
Beam ► 2 node 188 ► Apply ►
Shell ► elastic 4 node 63 ► Click OK
Real constants ► Add ► shell 63 ► I = 1.2, j = 1.7, k = 2.2
Material Properties ► Material Models ► Structural ► Linear ► Elastic ► Isotropic ►
EXX: 7e10
PRXY: 0.3
Density: 2700
Modeling ► Create ► Key points ► In Active CS
X Y Z
1. 0 0 0

2. 8 4 0

3. 8 -4 0

4. -6 3 0

5. -6 -3 0

6. 6 3 30

7. 6 -3 30

8. -4 -2 30

9. -4 2 30

Modeling ► Create ► Lines ► straight lines ► 2, 3 - 2, 4 - 4, 5 - 5, 3 ► Apply


Lines ►6, 8 - 6, 7 - 7, 9 - 8, 9 ► Apply
Lines ► 8, 4 & 9, 5
Lines ► 2, 6 & 7, 3 ► OK
Modeling ► Create ► Areas ► Arbitrary ► by lines ► Select Upper Lines of Both sides ►
Left Line, Right Lines ► Click Apply ► Select Lower Lines of both the sides ► Left Line
and Right Line Click Apply ► Click OK

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 75


Modeling ► Create ► Volumes ► Arbitrary ► by Areas ► Box Selection ► Select all the
Areas ► Click OK ► Hence a Solid Volume is created
Meshing ► Mesh Attributes ► all lines ► Select beam 188 ► OK
Meshing ► Mesh Attributes ► All Areas ► Select shell 63 ► OK
Meshing ► Mesh Attributes ► All Volumes ► Select solid 45 ► OK
Meshing ► Size control ► manual size ► pick all lines ► Enter the Element Edge Length
as 1 ► OK
Meshing ►size control ► areas ► Box Selection ► Enter the Element Edge Length as 1 ►
OK
Meshing ► Mesh ► Volumes ► free ► Select the box ► select full body ► OK
Loads ► Define Loads ► Apply ► Structural ► Displacement ► On Areas ► Select the
Large Airfoil Area ► Click Apply ► Select All DOF ► OK
Loads ► Define Loads ► Apply ► Structural ► Pressure ► On Areas ► Select the upper
and lower surface ► Click Apply ► Enter the Load Value =10000N & -10000N
Loads ► Analysis Type ► New Analysis ► Select Static ► OK
Solution ► Solve ► Current LS ► Warnings can be ignored ► Solution is done
RESULTS:
General Post Processor ► Plot Results ► Deformed Shape ► Deformed + Undeformed ►
OK
General Post Processor ► Plot Results ► Contour Plot ► Nodal Solution ► DOF Solution
Case: 1:- To determine the stresses acting on a tapered wing with a pressure load of
10000 & -10000 N acting on the lines upper and lower surfaces.

Y Component of Displacement = 0.527e-04


Von Mises Stress = 338872

PROBLEM DEFINITIONS DIFFERENT FROM JNTU TOPICS


Case: 2:- To determine the stresses acting on a tapered wing with a pressure load of
12000 & -12000 N acting on the lines upper and lower surfaces.

Y Component of Displacement = 0.633e-04


Von Mises Stress = 406647

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 76


Case: 3:- To determine the stresses acting on a tapered wing with a pressure load of
14000 & -14000 N acting on the lines upper and lower surfaces.

Y Component of Displacement = 0.738e-04


Von Mises Stress = 474421

Case:4:- To determine the stresses acting on a tapered wing with a pressure load of
16000 & -16000 N acting on the lines upper and lower surfaces.

Y Component of Displacement = 0.844e-04


Von Mises Stress = 542196

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 77


Case: 5:- To determine the stresses acting on a tapered wing with a pressure load of
10000 & -10000 N acting on the lines upper and lower surfaces.

Y Component of Displacement = 0.949e-04


Von Mises Stress = 609970

Case: 6:- To determine the stresses acting on a tapered wing with a pressure load of
10000 & -10000 N acting on the lines upper and lower surfaces.

Y Component of Displacement = 0.105e-03


Von Mises Stress = 677744

VIVA QUESTIONS

1. The _____ analysis is used to calculate the vibration characteristics of a structure.


2. The SI unit of frequency is _________.
3. Ansys report is saved with the _______ file extension.
4. The images captured using the Ansys report generator are saved with a_______ file
extension.
5. The maximum stress value should be less than the applied stress bound value. (T/F)

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 78


EXPERIMENT: 8
ANALYSIS OF A FUSELAGE
 Experiment as given in the JNTUH curriculum.
 Fuselage bulkhead.

AIM: - To Calculate the deformation of the aluminum fuselage section under the application
of internal load of 100000 Pa.
PREPROCESSING
STEP 1: From the Main menu select preferences
Select structural and press OK
STEP 2: From the main menu select Pre-processor
Element type  Add / edit/Delete  Add  Solid – 10 node 92 Apply
Add  Beam 2 Node 188  Apply  Add  Shell Elastic 4 node 63

Real Constants  Add  Select shell  give thickness (I) = 1 ok  close.


Material properties  material models  Structural  Linear  Elastic  Isotropic
EX = 0.7e11; PRXY = 0.3; Density = 2700
STEP 3: From the main menu select Pre-processor
Pre-processor  modelling  Create  Areas  Circle  Annulus
WP x = 0 ; WP y = 0; Rad – 1 = 2.5; Rad -2 = 2.3 OK
Pre-processor  Modelling  Create  Circle  Solid –
WP x = 0; X = 2.25; Y = 0 Radius = 0.15 Apply
WP x = 0; X = -2.25; Y = 0 Radius = 0.15 Apply
WP x = 0; X =0; Y = 2.25; Radius = 0.15 Apply
WP x = 0; X = 0; Y = -2.25 Radius = 0.15 OK

Pre-processor  Modelling  Operate  Booleans  Add  Areas – Pick all OK

Pre-processor  Modelling  Operate  Extrude  Areas  By XYZ offset

X= 0; Y=0; Z = 5

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 79


STEP 4: Meshing the Geometry
Pre-processor Meshing  Size controls  Manual Size  All Areas  give
element edge length as 0.15  ok

Meshing  Size controls  Manual Size  All lines  give element edge length as
0.15  ok

Meshing  Mesh  areas  free  select box type instead of single  select the total
volume  ok

SOLUTION PHASE:
STEP 5: From the ANSYS main menu open Solution
STEP 6: Loads  define loads  Apply  Structural  Displacement  On areas
 select box type  select box (4 points at centre)  all DOF  ok Select  ALL
DOF arrested
Define loads  Apply  Structural  Pressure  on areas  select the internal
surface of the fuselage and give value (100000)  ok
STEP 7: Solving the system
Solution Solve  Current LS
POSTPROCESSING: VIEWING THE RESULTS

RESULT:

Case: 1:- To Calculate the deformation of the aluminum fuselage section under the
application of internal load at 1e5.

Y COMPONENT OF DISPLACEMENT

DMX = .194E-04

SMN = -.194E-04

SMX = .194E-04

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 80


VON MISSES STRESS

DMX = .194E-04

SMX = .124E+07

PROBLEM DEFINITIONS DIFFERENT FROM JNTU TOPICS

Case: 2:- To Calculate the deformation of the aluminum fuselage section under the
application of internal load at 1.1e5.

Y COMPONENT OF DISPLACEMENT

DMX = .819E-05

SMN = -.819E-05

SMX = .819E-05

VON MISSES STRESS

DMX = .819E-05

SMX = 559474

Case: 3:- To Calculate the deformation of the aluminum fuselage section under the
application of internal load at 1.2e5.

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 81


Y COMPONENT OF DISPLACEMENT

DMX = .893E-05

SMN = -.893E-05

SMX = .893E-05

VON MISSES STRESS

DMX = .893E-05

SMX = 610335

Case: 4:- To Calculate the deformation of the aluminum fuselage section under the
application of internal load 0.9e5.

Y COMPONENT OF DISPLACEMENT
DMX = .670E-05
SMN = -.670E-05
SMX = .670E-05
VON MISSES STRESS

DMX = .670E-05
SMX = 457751

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 82


Case: 5:- To Calculate the deformation of the aluminum fuselage section under the
application of internal load at 0.8e5.

Y COMPONENT OF DISPLACEMENT

DMX = .595E-05

SMN = -.595E-05

SMX = .595E-05

VON MISSES STRESS

DMX = .595E-05

SMX = 406890

Case: 6:- To Calculate the deformation of the aluminum fuselage section under the
application of internal load at 0.7e5.

Y COMPONENT OF DISPLACEMENT

DMX = .521E-05

SMN = -.521E-05

SMX = .521E-05

VON MISSES STRESS

DMX = .521E-05

SMX = 356029

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 83


VIVA QUESTIONS
1. Difference between interactive mode and batch mode.
2. What are different types of structural analysis used in ansys?
3. What are the different types of thin walled beams?
4. Define Harmonic analysis.
5. Define Spectrum Analysis.

COMPUTATIONAL STRUCTURES LAB Pg. No: 84