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Introduction The Dimensioning Challenge Review: Furling Models The SWT Contest Approach Conclusion

Furling for Small Wind Turbines


Dimensioning of a Cheap, Reliable and Multipurpose Solution

Florian Roscheck

Advanced Wind Turbine Systems Course, Kiel University of Applied Sciences

December 17, 2013

Florian Roscheck Furling for Small Wind Turbines 1/19


Introduction The Dimensioning Challenge Review: Furling Models The SWT Contest Approach Conclusion

Agenda
1 Introduction
What is Furling?
Horizontal Furling

2 The Dimensioning Challenge


Mission Statement
Balancing Many Design Parameters

3 Review: Furling Models


Monterrey Parameter Study
NREL Model
Do-it-yourself Dimensioning

4 The SWT Contest Approach


Requirements and Refined Mission Statement
Dimensioning Process
Getting the furl-in wind speed from NREL Equations

5 Conclusion

Florian Roscheck Furling for Small Wind Turbines 2/19


Introduction The Dimensioning Challenge Review: Furling Models The SWT Contest Approach Conclusion

1 Introduction
What is Furling?
Horizontal Furling

2 The Dimensioning Challenge

3 Review: Furling Models

4 The SWT Contest Approach

5 Conclusion

Florian Roscheck Furling for Small Wind Turbines 3/19


Introduction The Dimensioning Challenge Review: Furling Models The SWT Contest Approach Conclusion

What is Furling?
Purpose of furling:
Overspeed protection
Adjust rotor to wind direction via yaw system

Example: Furling with const. TSR


Rotor Speed in 1/min

180 Basic working principle:


120 Turning rotor out of the wind at
high wind speeds
60 Decreasing rotor speed
0 Decreasing generated power
0 10 20 30 40
Wind Speed in m/s
Wood, David: Small Wind Turbines. London : Springer, 2011. – ISBN 9781849961745
Muljadi, J. ; Forsyth, T. ; Butterfield, C.P.: Soft-Stall Control versus Furling Control for Small
Wind Turbine Power Regulation (Windpower ’98). Bakersfield : NREL, 1998.

Florian Roscheck Furling for Small Wind Turbines 4/19


Introduction The Dimensioning Challenge Review: Furling Models The SWT Contest Approach Conclusion

Horizontal Furling

Figure: Vertical axis wind turbine with horizontal furling system in furled state

Sanchez, Orlando: Furling Turbine. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x6jiVABIAUk,


accessed Dec 11, 2013

Florian Roscheck Furling for Small Wind Turbines 5/19


Introduction The Dimensioning Challenge Review: Furling Models The SWT Contest Approach Conclusion

1 Introduction

2 The Dimensioning Challenge


Mission Statement
Balancing Many Design Parameters

3 Review: Furling Models

4 The SWT Contest Approach

5 Conclusion

Florian Roscheck Furling for Small Wind Turbines 6/19


Introduction The Dimensioning Challenge Review: Furling Models The SWT Contest Approach Conclusion

Mission Statement

We want to find a furling system geometry


which fulfills certain requirements
by predicting
static and dynamic furling behavior.

Florian Roscheck Furling for Small Wind Turbines 7/19


Introduction The Dimensioning Challenge Review: Furling Models The SWT Contest Approach Conclusion

Balancing Many Design Parameters


Input: Ten design parameters
One weight
Two angles
Seven lengths
Output: Furling Behavior
Furl-In Speed
Furl-Out Speed
Time to Furl
System Oscillation
Challenge:
Balancing design parameters to
get required furling behavior
Audierene, Etienne ; Elizondo, Jorge ; Bergami, Leonardo ; Ibarra, Humberto ; Probst, Oliver:
Analysis of the furling behavior of small wind turbines.
In: Applied Energy 87 (2010), p. 2278–2292

Florian Roscheck Furling for Small Wind Turbines 8/19


Introduction The Dimensioning Challenge Review: Furling Models The SWT Contest Approach Conclusion

1 Introduction

2 The Dimensioning Challenge

3 Review: Furling Models


Monterrey Parameter Study
NREL Model
Do-it-yourself Dimensioning

4 The SWT Contest Approach

5 Conclusion

Florian Roscheck Furling for Small Wind Turbines 9/19


C Bfirst-order
B w_Introduction w2system with C
C an inhomogeneity given both
The by the aero-
B 1C B The Dimensioning Challenge Review: Furling Models SWT Contest Approach Conclusion
Bð12ÞC ¼ B B dynamic moments
0 _ _ 0 _2C
C
Q and Q andð21Þ
the non-linear kinetic energy
@ h2 A @ Q h $ J 1 w2 h2 $ J 3 w2 Ah
_ /
Monterrey Parameter
terms. For1 0a_ 2
more Study
@V realistic description additional terms accounting
w_2
he in- Q w þ J h
2 1 2
$
for the friction of the bearings of both yawing and furling axes have
@w

hifted to be included. The equation of motion then reads:


Characteristics:
tion the system can be viewed as a locally linear
with an inhomogeneity
0 given
10 _both 0
1 by the aero- Mainly 1 0 1
1 0 0 0 h1 h2 steady windf1 conditions
s Qh and QB / and the non-linear
C B kinetic
C B energy C B C
ð13Þ B 0 1 0additional
realistic description 0 CB w_terms
1C B w2
Simple rotor C B f2 model
thrust C
B CB C ¼ accounting
B
B 0 _ _ 0 _2
C
C ¼B C
he bearings@of0 both
0 yawing
J 1 J 3 Aand
@ h_ 2furling
A @ Qh $
axes J 1 w2 h2 $ J 3 w2 $ b1 h2 A @ f3 A
have
partial Wake model
e equation of 0motion
0 J 3then
J 2 reads:
w_ 2 Q w þ 12 J 01 h_ 22 $ @V
@w
$ b2 w2 f4
0_ 1 0 1 0 Results:
1 Yaw and furl angle ð22Þ
over time
h1 h2 f1
Bð14Þ C BUsing the Gauss–Seidel C B C Problems:
w2 method we can explicitly state the solution
B w_ 1 C B C ¼ B f2 C
C B
B C¼B ofQthe system for a given time step C Difficult to debug
_ _ _ f3 t:A
2
@ h_ 2 A B C
0 0
@ h $ J 1 w 2 h 2 $ J w
3 2 $ b 1 h 2 A @
nd the 0 1
w_ 2 0Q 1þ 1 J h_ 2 $ @V $ fb1 2 w2
0
f4 Needs damping correction
h_ 1w 2 1B2 @w C
B w_ C B f
B 1C Bf ! "!2 "C ð22Þ
C Useful:
Figure:
ð15Þ BPart Cof¼equation
B 3 $ J3 system J1 f4 $J 3 f3 C ð23Þ
eidel method @ h_we 2 can@
A B explicitly
J1 J1 state J 1 J 2 $Jthe
2 solution Geometry recommendations
C
3 A
used time
a given in Monterrey
step
w_ 2 t: Study J1 f4 $J 3 f3
J 1 J 2 $J 23 Dynamic behaviour information
refer-
f1
1
pass- The
C four angular variables appearing on the left-hand side of Eq.
f C can now be calculated in an iterative manner.
"!2Audierene,
vector "(23)
C
Etienne ; Elizondo, Jorge ; Bergami, Leonardo ð23Þ ; Ibarra, Humberto ; Probst, Oliver:
J f $J f C
awing
3
1
1 4 3 3
J 1 J 2 $J 23 of C
Analysis the furling behavior of small wind turbines.
In: Applied A Energy 87 (2010), p. 2278–2292
1 f4 $J 3 f3
2.3.2. Calculation of the aerodynamic moments
J 1 J 2 $J 23 2.3.2.1. Yaw moments. First theRoscheck
Florian torque created
Furling forby the
Small rotor
Wind thrust
Turbines 10/19
Introduction The Dimensioning Challenge Review: Furling Models The SWT Contest Approach Conclusion

NREL Model
Wind Energy Program Wind Energy Program
Characteristics:
General Wind Turbine Model
Complex rotor aerodynamics
Wind Speed V Relative wind
direction −θ w Generator and controller model
Aerodynamics
∆θ
(YawDyn ⇒ Fuzzy) Results:
Mechanical rpm Yaw and furl angle over time
Torque

Moments, Generator Electrical


Steady-state equilibrium
Thrusts
Load solutions
Controller Problems:
Yaw/Furling Dynamics
θ High calculation time
4-15 M. Bikdash 23 Wake not considered
Figure: NREL Model Flowchart Useful: Ready-to-use steady-state
equilibrium formulas

Bikdash, Marwan: Modeling and Control of a Bergey-Type furling Wind Turbine,


http://wind.nrel.gov/furling/bikdash.pdf, accessed May 5, 2009

Florian Roscheck Furling for Small Wind Turbines 11/19


Introduction The Dimensioning Challenge Review: Furling Models The SWT Contest Approach Conclusion

Do-it-yourself Dimensioning

Characteristics:
Five static equlibrium equations
Non-scientific
Results: Furling Tail Geometry
Problems:
Assumes CP of 0.5
Figure: Logo from Back Shed
Project Website
Very limited configuration
possibilities
Wake, controller etc. neglected
Useful: Estimate if on right track

Littleford, Glenn: TheBackShed.com – Furling,


http://www.thebackshed.com/Windmill/Docs/Furling.asp, accessed Dec 13, 2013

Florian Roscheck Furling for Small Wind Turbines 12/19


Introduction The Dimensioning Challenge Review: Furling Models The SWT Contest Approach Conclusion

1 Introduction

2 The Dimensioning Challenge

3 Review: Furling Models

4 The SWT Contest Approach


Requirements and Refined Mission Statement
Dimensioning Process
Getting the furl-in wind speed from NREL Equations

5 Conclusion

Florian Roscheck Furling for Small Wind Turbines 13/19


Introduction The Dimensioning Challenge Review: Furling Models The SWT Contest Approach Conclusion

Requirements and Refined Mission Statement


Original mission statement:
“We want to find a furling system geometry which fulfills certain
requirements by predicting static and dynamic furling behavior.“

Requirements:
Well-defined furl-in wind speed vin
Low hysteresis ∆v = vin − vout
Adjustable vin in a given range ∆vin with adding weight ∆m to tail

Constraints: Only very limited time and limited software tools

Refined mission statement:


“We want to find a furling system geometry for a given vin with a low ∆v,
which is adjustable in the range ∆vin by adding ∆m to the tail
using a fast, manual iterative process.“
Florian Roscheck Furling for Small Wind Turbines 14/19
Introduction The Dimensioning Challenge Review: Furling Models The SWT Contest Approach Conclusion

Dimensioning Process

1 Estimate thrust
2 Estimate nacelle and rotor inertias,
choose L2 , L1 := 0
3 Choose β, γ, L4 acc. to Monterrey
Study
4 Choose airfoil geometry acc. to
Wood
5 Choose iteration initial values acc.
to Monterrey, DIY
6 Iterate over NREL equations
changing L3 , L5 , m to acquire
requested vin

Florian Roscheck Furling for Small Wind Turbines 15/19


Introduction The Dimensioning Challenge Review: Furling Models The SWT Contest Approach Conclusion

Getting the furl-in wind speed from NREL Equations


∆θ: Yaw error resulting from thrust force on rotor and tail fin
vwind : Wind speed, vin : Furl-in wind speed

1 Solve yaw equilibrium condition for ∆θ, 0 < vwind < 1.5 · vcutout :
0 = Fthrust (vwind , ∆θ)L5 + Mtail (vwind , ∆θ)
Result: Curve f (vwind ) = ∆θ

2 Calculate vin (∆θ), f (vwind )min < ∆θ < f (vwind )max :


r
mgL3 sin γ cos γ
vin (∆θ) = 1 c·s
ρ 2 (L3 + 23 c) cos β(CL cos ∆θ+CD sin ∆θ)
2

Result: Curve f (∆θ) = vin

3 Plot f (vwind ) = ∆θ, f (∆θ) = vin in a single diagram


4 Determine intersection point, read furl-in wind speed vin
Bikdash, Marwan: Modeling and Control of a Bergey-Type furling Wind Turbine,
http://wind.nrel.gov/furling/bikdash.pdf, accessed May 5, 2009

Florian Roscheck Furling for Small Wind Turbines 16/19


Introduction The Dimensioning Challenge Review: Furling Models The SWT Contest Approach Conclusion

Getting the furl-in wind speed from NREL Equations

Example: Plot of solutions of NREL equations for specific geometry


10
vin = 11.1 m/s
8
∆θ in deg

4 m+
m + ∆m
m 0.5∆m
2
f (vwind ) = ∆θ
f (∆θ) = vin
0
0 5 10 15 20 25
vwind , vin in m/s
Florian Roscheck Furling for Small Wind Turbines 17/19
Introduction The Dimensioning Challenge Review: Furling Models The SWT Contest Approach Conclusion

1 Introduction

2 The Dimensioning Challenge

3 Review: Furling Models

4 The SWT Contest Approach

5 Conclusion

Florian Roscheck Furling for Small Wind Turbines 18/19


Introduction The Dimensioning Challenge Review: Furling Models The SWT Contest Approach Conclusion

In case somebody ever asks you about furling for small wind turbines. . .
Many influence parameters
Limited literature around
You need to test your system!

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