Anda di halaman 1dari 4

1 /A /2 6

Field and laboratory measurements of soil stiffness


Mesure sur place et en laboratoire de raideur de sol

R. J. JARDINE, Department of Civil Engineering, Imperial College, London, UK


A. FOURIE, Department of Civil Engineering, Imperial College, London, UK
J. MASWOSWE, Department o f Civil Engineering, Imperial College, London, UK
J.B. BURLAND, Department of Civil Engineering, Imperial College, London, UK

SYNOPSIS A s i m p l e a n d p r e c i s e m e t h o d o f m e a s u r i n g l o c a l a x i a l s t r a i n s o n t r i a x i a l s a m p l e s is
d e s c r i b e d a n d it is d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t c o n v e n t i o n a l m e t h o d s o f s t r a i n m e a s u r e m e n t c a n l e a d t o v e r y
significant under estimates of soil stiffness. R e s u l t s o f t r i a x i a l t e s t s on s a m p l e s o f L o n d o n C l a y
s h o w t h a t t h e u n d r a i n e d s t r e s s - s t r a i n b e h a v i o u r is s t r o n g l y n o n - l i n e a r b u t n o t g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d b y
sampling or stress-path. T h e u n d r a i n e d s t i f f n e s s e s at s m a l l s t r a i n s a r e in g o o d a g r e e m e n t w i t h
values obtained from high quality insitu tests and from b a c k -analysis of field m e a s u r e m e n t s . Good
a g r e e m e n t is o b t a i n e d b e t w e e n l a b o r a t o r y d e t e r m i n e d u n d r a i n e d s t r e s s - s t r a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a n d
i n s i t u s t r e s s - s t r a i n b e h a v i o u r d e d u c e d f r o m t h r e e i n s t r u m e n t e d l o a d i n g t e s t s in L o n d o n C lay.

INTRODUCTION Two series of triaxial tests have been carried


ou t u s i n g the n e w te c h n i q u e s on u n d i s t u r b e d
The back analysis of obse r v e d ground movements
s a m p l e s o f L o n d o n C l a y f r o m s i t e s at C a n o n s P a r k
a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f o u n d a t i o n s a n d e x c a v a t i o n s in
in N o r t h L o n d o n a n d B e l l C o m m o n in E p p i n g F o r e s t
st i f f clays often leads to s t i f f n e s s e s w h i c h are
m o r e t h a n an o r d e r o f m a g n i t u d e g r e a t e r t h a n The samples wer e obta i n e d by thin w a l l e d push
v a l u e s m e a s u r e d in t he l a b o r a t o r y . In the p a s t s ampling and were t ested u n c o n s olidated u n ­
these d i f f e r e n c e s h a v e b een a t t r i b u t e d to sample drained with pore pressure measurement.
d i s t u r b a n c e ( M a r s l a n d 19 71) a n d t h e c h o i c e o f
i n a p p r o p r i a t e s t r e s s p a t h s (Parry 1979). T h e results of a t y p ical test on a sam p l e from
C a n o n s P a r k a r e g i v e n i n F i g u r e 1. The observed
e f f e c t i v e s t r e s s p a t h is p l o t t e d in F i g u r e 1(a).
F o l l o w i n g t h e w o r k o f C o s t a F i l h o (1980) a V a l u e s o f l o c a l l y m e a s u r e d a x i a l s t r a i n are
simple, precise me tho d of routinely m easuring i n d i c a t e d a n d it is o f c o n s i d e r a b l e p r a c t i c a l
l o c a l s t r a i n s on s a m p l e s h a s r e c e n t l y b e e n im p o r t a n c e to n ote that a sh e a r stress eaual to
d e v e l o p e d ( B u r l a n d a n d S y m e s (1982)). Using this a q u a r t e r o f t h e f a i l u r e v a l u e is r e q u i r e d
t e c h n i a u e J a r d i n e e t al (1984) h a v e s h o w n t h a t b e f o r e a s t r a i n o f 0 . 1 % is a c h i e v e d . In F i g u r e
s i g n i f i c a n t err o r s can result f rom c o n v e n t i o n a l 1 (b) t h e s t r e s s - s t r a i n c u r v e s o b t a i n e d f r o m
m e t h o d s of s t r a i n m e a s u r e m e n t and t h a t at s m a l l local and e x t e r n a l m e a s u r e m e n t s are compared.
s t r a i n s t h e a c t u a l s t i f f n e s s is f r e q u e n t l y m u c h It can be seen that the e x t e r n a l mea s u r e m e n t s ,
greater than that deduced from external wh i c h have b e e n c o r r e c t e d for load cell
measurements. In this p a p e r the results of a compliance, lead to apparently linear initial
comprehensive series of laboratory tests, usinq stress-strain behaviour. However the local
the n ew techniques, on samples of London Clay measurements show much stiffer non-linear
are reported. T h e s e d ata are com p a r e d w ith behaviour.
stiffness profiles derived from high quality
insitu tests and stress-strain characteristics
deduced from field measurements. In F i g u r e 1(c) t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e i n t e r n a l
m e a s u r e m e n t s o f s t i f f n e s s are p l o t t e d in t e r m s
of E u / c u versus log strain w h e r e is t h e
s e c a n t iindrained Y o u n g ' s m o d u l u s . The strongly
LABORATORY MEASUREMENT OF STIFFNESS n o n - l i n e a r n a t u r e o f t h e s a m p l e r e s p o n s e is
evident with Eu/c values decreasing from about
The technique used for m e asuring the mean local
1,700 at 0.003% strain to more commonly acc e p t e d
axial strains of triaxial samples makes use of
v a l u e s of 1 0 0 to 2 0 0 at 0 . 5 to 1.0% st r a i n . It
a p a i r of a x i a l d i s p l a c e m e n t g a u g e s m o u n t e d on
should be noted that the initial linear portion
the specimen. T h e p r i n c i p l e o f t h e g a u g e is
of the externally measured stress strain curve
that the r e lative v e r t i c a l d i s p l a c e m e n t b e t ween
g i v e s an E u / c u v a l u e o f 3 0 0 w h i c h is a p p r o x i m ­
t w o f o o t i n g s b o n d e d t o t h e s a m p l e m e m b r a n e is
ately six times less than the i n itial value
converted to a rotation by means of a hinged
obtained from internal measurements.
arrangement. T h e r o t a t i o n is m e a s u r e d b y m e a n s
o f an e l e c t r o l y t i c level. T h e d e v i c e can
r e s o l v e t o less th a n l u m o v e r a r a n g e o f 15mm, For e ase of p r e s e n t a t i o n the s t i f f n e s s - s t r a i n
is s i m p l e t o m o u n t a n d is n o t d a m a g e d w h e n t h e c h a r acteristics can be repre s e n t e d by the two
s a m p l e is t a k e n t o f a i l u r e . A full description p a r a m e t e r s E u /0 - 0 l ) , t h e u n d r a i n e d s e c a n t
o f t e c h n i q u e is g i v e n b y J a r d i n e e t al (1984). m o d u l u s a t 0 . 0 1 % s t r a i n , a n d L, t h e i n d e x o f

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(a) Undrained stress path. (b) Initial stress-strain behaviour. (c ) S t i f f n e s s - s t r a i n characteristic.


Figure 1. Typical London Clay UU test data (Canons" P a r k 7,3m depth)
P r o f ile a t
Eu MPa C a n o n s Ftark
linearity d e f i n e d as E u ( o -1 / E u ( o .oi)
50 100
COMPARISON OF INSITU AND LABORATORY
MEASUREMENTS
Figure 2 shows the results of UU triaxial
tests on s a m ples of L o n d o n C lay from Canons
P a r k , w i t h the s o i l p r o f i l e i n d i c a t e d on the
s a m e figure. . A s h a r p i n c r e a s e in u n d r a i n e d
s t r e n g t h w a s observed, p a s s i n g f r o m the
d i s t u r b e d t o t h e u n d i s t u r b e d L o n d o n Clay.
T h e r e i s a c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n c r e a s e in
Eu(o.ol) at a r o u n d 4.3 m e t r e s de p t h . The
v a l u e s o f Eu (o.ol) from Bel l Common are also
p l o t t e d , b u t w i t h d e p t h d e f i n e d as d i s t a n c e
from the top of the London Clay.
For comparison the distributions of E u from
c a m k o m e t e r and large 'diameter Plate tests
c a r r i e d o u t n e a r b y a t H e n d o n (Viindle a n d W r o t h
( 1 9 7 7 ) ) a r e s h o w n o n F i g u r e 2. A l s o s h o w n is
the d i s t r i b u t i o n of Eu w i t h depth o b t a i n e d f ro m
the back a n alysis of the m e a s u r e d m o v e m e n t s of
an e x c a v a t e d r e t a i n i n g w a l l in c e n t r a l L o n d o n
( C o l e a n d B u r l a n d (.19 7 2 ) ) .
T h e r e s u l t s g i v e n in F i g u r e 2 s h o w t h a t the
v a l u e o f E u (o.ol) is. s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n f l u e n c e d
by geological history but does not increase
r a pidly w i t h depth w i t h i n the u n d i s t u r b e d
L ond o n Clay. T h e v a l u e s o f E u (0 .0 i) are
considerably larger than apparent values of
obtained from high quality insitu tests and
field m e a s u r e m e n t s of the settlement of
structures. B u t l e r (1975) n o t e d t h a t f o r
f o u n t J a t i o n s o n L o n d o n C l a y E u= 4 0 0 c u . T h e s e
results might be anticipated since the measured
boundary displacements for surface loading or
p r e s s u r e m e t e r tests are st r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by
the more highly stressed, lower stiffness, Figure 2. Comparison of laboratory Eu
o.ol
regions. T h e r e f o r e the b ack analysis of such v a l u e s wi t h i n s i t u d a t a .
measurements using linear elasticity will give
s tiff n e s s e s wh i c h are gene r a l l y lower than the and stress p a t h on u n d r a i n e d stif f n e s s a n u m b e r
small strain triaxial values. H o w e v e r the o f l a b o r a t o r y t e s t s w e r e c a r r i e d o u t on r e c o n ­
p r o f i l e o f Ey d e d u c e d f r o m o b s e r v a t i o n s o f s t i t u t e d London Clay. The samples were consoli­
g r o u n d m o v e m e n t s a r o u n d e x c a v a t i o n s lies closer dated one-dim e n s i o n a l l y from a slurry and
t o t h e E u (o.ol) p r o f i l e . T h i s is t h o u g h t t o further consolidated and swelled back under K 0
r e s u l t f r o m th.e w e a k e r i n f l u e n c e o f l o c a l l y conditions to various o v e r c o nsolidation ratios
o v e r s t r e s s e d z o n e s in s u c h p r o b l e m s ( S i m p s o n e t u s i n g a t r i a x i a l s tr e s s p a t h cell. Undrained
al 1979). compression and extension tests were then
c a r r i e d out.
It is o f c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t to n o t e tha t
dynamic values of shear modulus G o b tai ned by J a r d i n e e t al (1984) h a v e s h o w n t h a t t h e n o n -
Abbiss (1981).using geophysical methods give d i m e n s i o n a l r a t i o E u/Po' is less s e n s i t i v e to
v a l u e s o f E (=3 x G) w h i c h a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 0 % O C R a n d g e n e r a l l y m o r e s a t i s f a c t o r y t h a n E u /c^
g r e a t e r t h a n t h e v a l u e s o f E u (0 .0 i) f o u n d in U U ( P Q ' is t h e i n i t i a l m e a n e f f e c t i v e s t r e s s ) .
tests. Figure-3(a) shows characteristics of Ey/p'o
versus log strain for the tests on r e c o n s t i t u ­
INFLUENCE OF STRESS HISTORY
t e d L o n d o n C l a y . I t c a n b e s e e n t h a t E u/ p 1 f o r
To investigate the influence of stress history e x t e n s i o n is g e n e r a l l y a b o u t 5 0 % o f t h a t f o r

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1 / A /2 6

Ja. Ik range for


Po' Hi' Canons Park

Test ’Eu/P0')ooi L (means)


ocr=3Comp 880 0-42 (Eu/FbTooi L
ocr=3 Ext 482 0 26 Bell C. 687 0-45
ocr=7 Comp 650 0-45 Canons P. 587 0-39
ocr=7 Ext 422 038

Axial strain % A xial strain %

(a) Reconsituted London Clay,K0 consolidated. (b) Intact London Clav, summary of UU tests.

Figure 3. Laboratory stiffness-strain characteristics.


compression. values of Eu wer e c a l c ulated using ela s t i c
theory. I n F i g u r e 4(a) t h e v a l u e s o f E u/ c ^ f o r
F i g u r e 3 ( b ) s h o w s t h e e n v e l o p e s o f E u / p '0 f o r
the UU tests on h igh q u a l i t y s a m ples from each level can b e seen to agree w i t h the results
Canons Park and Bell Common. A l t h o u g h the o b t a i n e d from the deep plate test. At this site
s c a t t e r is s o m e w h a t larger, t he a g r e e m e n t w i t h the Lond o n Clay e x t ends to the surface and a
t h e t e s t s o n t h e r e c o n s t i t u t e d m a t e r i a l is v a l u e o f K 0 = 2 . 5 h a s b e e n a s s u m e d in o r d e r t o
r e m a r k a b l y good. In g e n e r a l the v a l u e s of E„ o b t a i n v a l u e s o f p 0 '. I n F i g u r e 4(b) t h e v a l u e s
for a UU test fall bet w e e n the corresp o n d i n g o f E u / P 0' are p l o t t e d and r e a s onable a g r e e m e n t
values for K 0 c ompression and K 0 extension is a g a i n o b t a i n e d w i t h t h e p l a t e t e s t . The high
tests on r e c o n s t i t u t e d material. Thus the v a l u e f o r 0 . 5 m d e p t h is t h o u g h t t o b e d u e t o
i n f l u e n c e o f s a m p l i n g a n d s t r e s s h i s t o r y is n o t surface desiccation.
as d o m i n a n t as h a s p r e v i o u s l y b e e n t h o u g h t . C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e E u / p Q' v a l u e s i n F i g u r e 4(b)
FIELD MEASUREMENTS OF STRESS-STRAIN BEHAVIOUR from the loading tests w i t h laboratory values
( F i g u r e 3(b) s h o w s t h a t t h e y a r e a b o u t 2 0 %
As m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y , w h e n the s t r e s s - s t r a i n g r e a t e r than the m e a n values f rom the UU tests.
pr o p e r t i e s are non - l i n e a r , b a c k - a n a l y s i s of H o w e v e r , t h e v a l u e s o f E u / p 0' f r o m t h e a n i s o t r c p -
m e a s u r e d b o u n d a r y d i s p l a c e m e n t s leads to values ically consolidated compression tests agree well
of Eu w h i c h are lower than the small strain wit h the values from the field loading tests,
laboratory values. The direct me a s u r e m e n t of b u t h a v e s m a l l e r v a l u e s o f L.
i n s i t u s t r e s s - s t r a i n b e h a v i o u r is g r e a t l y
fa c i l i t a t e d whe n local strains are measured. In 3m square load test «
th i s s e c t i o n an a n a l y s i s o f d a t a f r o m t h r e e s u c h = 0 26 <
f i e l d t e s t s o n L o n d o n C l a y is p r e s e n t e d .
M a r s l a n d an d E a s o n (1973) p r e s e n t th e r e s u l t s
F = o uu >
= 0 62 <

Eu.
Mean L = 057
<Eu/p¿)001 = 750

o f a n l a t e l o a d i n g t e s t in w h i c h d i s p l a c e m e n t s Po'
of th e grou n d w e r e m e a s u r e d at various depths V
(¡.m]
d u r i n g l o a ding at a c onstant rate of p e n e t r a t i o n
of 2.5 per minute. T h e p l a t e w a s 865rcm d i a m e t e r
an d the test wa s c a r r i e d out at a site in Central G.(1 5m)
• I0 5m)
Lon d o n at the b ase of a 9 0 0 m m d i a m e t e r 17.5m
deep shaft. The results allow the direct
calculation of average strains for three levels 0.01 0.1 1 .0 0.01 0.1 1

b e n e a t h the p l a t e for v a r i o u s a p p l i e d loads. V e rtic a l s tra in (% )


The sec a n t Y o u n g ' s m o d u l u s Eu c o r r e s p o n d i n g to
each value of strain can be e v a l u a t e d using (a) Normalised bv Cu . (b) Normalised by p'Q
e l a s t i c the o r y to obtain the stress changes. At Figure 4. Field stiffness-strain characteris­
this site the average laboratory u ndrained tics from loading tests.
strength C u was 20GkN/m . F i g u r e 4(a) s h o w s
F i e l d d ata f rom a c o m p l e t e l y diffe r e n t type of
of plo t of E u / c u vslog v e r t i c a l strain for the
l o a d i n g is g i v e n b y t h e m e a s u r e m e n t o f v e r t i c a l
three levels. I t is e s t i m a t e d t h a t a t a d e p t h
s h e a r s t r a i n s a t t h r e e d e p t h s c l o s e to an
o f 1 7 . 5 m o n t h i s s i t e , w h i c h is o v e r l a i n b y
i n s t r u m e n t e d j a c k e d - i n - p l a c e t u b u l a r ?steel pile
a b o u t 7m o f g r a v e l a n d s o f t clay, the v a l u e of
at H e n d o n p r e s e n t e d b y C o o k e , P r i c e a n d Tarr
K 0 is a b o u t 1.5 g i v i n g p 0 1 = 2 4 0 k N / m . Figure
(1979). Since the shear stresses tr a n s f e r r e d to
4 ( b ) s h o w s a p l o t o f E u / p 0 ' vs l o n g v e r t i c a l
the g r o u n d w e r e ac c u r a t e l y m e a s u r e d the d ata can
strain.
be used to d etermine directly the r e l a tionship
R e c e n t l y a l o a d i n g t e s t w a s c a r r i e d o ut on b e t w e e n s h e a r s t r e s s "tyjj a n d s h e a r s t r a i n ^
L o n d o n Clay a t B r a c k n e l l . The test consisted for the London Clay. In F i g u r e 5(a) t h e
of l o ading a 3m square area at grou n d level relationships between secant and log li
to an a v e r a g e p r e s s u r e o f l l O k p a w i t h are p l o t t e d for the three i n s t r u m e n t e d levels
s e t t l e m e n t s m e a s u r e d a t d e p t h s o f 0 , 1, 2, 3 a n d r em o t e from the p i l e tip. The marked non-
5 metr e s b e n e a t h the centre. The average l i n e a r i t y o f t h e s t r e s s - s t r a i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s is
strains between each level were evaluated three e v i d e n t a n d is s i m i l a r i n f o r m t o t h e l a b o r a t o r y
h o u r s a f t e r loading and the c o r r e s p o n d i n g r e s u l t s g i v e n i n F i g u r e 3.

513
1 / A /2 6

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Shear wave measurements of the elasticity of the
Gw (Mpa)

ground. G e o t e c h n i q u e 31, 1, 9 1 - 1 0 4 .
B u r l a n d J . B . a n d S y m e s M. ( 1 9 8 2 ) .
A simple axial displacement gauge f o r u s e in t h e
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B u t l e r F.G. (1975).
Shear strain ( %) Hea v i l y o v e r - c o n s o l i d a t e d clays. Conf.
Major principal strain
Settlement of Structures, Cambridge, London,
(a) Measured data (b) Normalized by n Pentech Press.
Figure 5. Field stiffness-strain characteris­ C o l e K.W. an d B u r l a n d J.B. (1972).
tics f r o m p i l e l o a d i n g test. Ob servations of retaining wal l movements
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p l a n e s t r a i n t h e m a j o r p r i n c i p a l s t r a i n 61='iiv h / 2 triaxial apparatus. G e o t e c h n i q u e 3 4 , 3.
a n d f o r a n i s o t r o p i c m a t e r i a l E u = 3 G vh. In M a r s l a n d A. (.1971)..
F i g u r e 5(b) t h e v a l u e s o f 3 0 ^ ^ . ' ar e p l o t t e d Laboratory and insitu measurements of the
a g a inst log E l - The valu e s agree r e m a r k a b l y defor m a t i o n m o duli of London Clay. Proc. Symp.
w e l l w i t h the results o b t a i n e d from the Int. o f S t r u c t u r e a n d F o u n d a t i o n ,
anisotropically consolidated compression tests B irm i n g h a m , pp 7-17.
g i v e n in F i g u r e 3(a).
M a r s l a n d A. a n d E a s o n B . J . ( 1 9 7 3 ) .
M e a s u r e m e n t s o f d i s p l a c e m e n t s in t h e g r o u n d
b e l o w l o a d e d p l a t e s in d e e p b o r e h o l e s . Proc.
CONCLUSIONS Symp. Field Instrumentation, London,
1. A s i m p l e , p r e c i s e t e c h n i q u e o f r o u t i n e l y Butterworths.
m e a s u r i n g local s t r a i n s on t r i a x i a l s a m ples has R a n d o l p h M . F . , C a r t e r J . P . a n d W r o t h C . P . (1979).
b e e n d e v e l o p e d w h i c h is a c c u r a t e t o a b o u t 2 x D r i v e n p i l e s in c l a y - the e f f e c t s of
10 ^ s t r a i n . installation and subsequent consolidation.
2. U s i n g t h e t e c h n i q u e i t h a s b e e n s h o w n t h a t G e o t e c h n i c r u e 29 , 4 , 3 6 1 - 3 9 3 .
conventional laboratory methods of measuri ng
soil stiffness can lead to very signi f i c a n t P a r r y , R . H . G . (197° ).
errors. D i s c u s s i o n Proc. 7th Eur. Conf. SMEE.
3. A s e r i e s o f t e s t s o n s a m p l e s o f L o n d o n C l a y Brighton, pp 129-131.
using the n e w t e chnique sho w that the undr a i n e d S i m p s o n B. e t a l ( 1 9 7 9 ) .
s t r e s s - s t r a i n b e h a v i o u r is s t r o n g l y n o n - l i n e a r Design pa r a m e t e r s for stiff clays.
h a v i n g E u / p 0' values w h i c h dec r e a s e from about Proc. 7th Eur. Conf. S MFE, B r i g h t o n , V o l . 5,
800 at 0 . 0 1 % s t r a i n to a b o u t 300 at 0 . 1 % strain. 91-125.
Values of stiffness obtained from high quality
insitu tests and field measurements fall within W i n d l e D. a n d W r o t h C . P . ( 1 9 7 7 ) .
this range. I n situ measur e m e n t of the properties
4. T e s t s o n r e c o n s t i t u t e d s a m p l e s o f L o n d o n of stiff clays. P roc. 9th Int. Conf.
Clay show that stress relief due to sampling and SMFE. T o k y o , V o l 1, 3 4 7 - 3 5 2 .
applied stress path do not have a dominant
i n f l u e n c e on m e a s u r e d stiffness.
5. T h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a f r o m t h r e e f i e l d
l o a d i n g t e s t s on L o n d o n Clay, in w h i c h l ocal
strains w i t h i n the soil mass have been measured,
give non-linear stress-strain properties which
agree remarkably well with those determined
f rom t r i a x i a l tests.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
M u c h of the f i e l d w o r k d e s c r i b e d in this p a p e r
was carried out bv the B u i l d i n g Research
E s t a b l i s h m e n t and the c o n t r i b u t i o n s are g r a t e ­
fully acknowledged. The results of the loading
test at B r a c k n e l l are p u b l i s h e d w i t h the
pe r m i s s i o n of P e t e r B r e t t A s s ociates.

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