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Comprehensive Agrarian Reform

Program (CARP) And

Comprehensive Agrarian Reform
Program Extension with Reforms

Submitted by:
Jhana Marie B. Abcalen

Submitted to:
Professor. Melcah T. Pascua
Basic Economics with Taxation and Agrarian Reform
1Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program, commonly known as CARP, is
an agrarian reform law of the Philippines passed in 1988 (Republic Act No. 6657). It is part of
the long history of attempts at land reform in the Philippines. The law was outlined by
former President Corazon C. Aquino. 2When President Corazon C. Aquino was installed as
president by the people in 1986, the program on agrarian reform was pursued with greater vigor
and wider scope. Soon after her installation, Mrs. Aquino issued proclamation No. 131
instituting a Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP). She likewise promulgated
Executive Order (E.O) No. 229 declaring full ownership of the land to qualified farmer
beneficiaries covered by P.D. No. 27; and E.O. 129-A (modifying E.O. 129) recognizing and
strengthening the DAR and for other purposes. It is also caused the enactment of R.A. No. 6657,
otherwise known as the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law (CARL), which was signed on
June 1988. Under this law, the CARP was to be implemented for a period of ten years beginning
June 1988 to June 1998. It was also during the Aquino administration that funding for the CARP
for P52.7 billion was raised for its five-year period. Comprehensive Agrarian Reform
Program Extension with Reforms, known also as CALPER or CARPer, (Republic Act 9700)
was an extension of CARP that was passed in 2009 and is set to expire in 2014. In December
2008, the budget for CARP expired and there remained 1.2 million hectares of agricultural land
waiting to be acquired and distributed to farmers.


CARP Coverage:
Carp seeks the massive and rapid increases in agricultural productivity and improvement
of access of the masses to resources, particularly land. It features the redistribution of agricultural
land, the education and organization of beneficiaries, and the delivery of support services such as
credit, infrastructures, post-harvest facility and the like. (Mission of CARP)
CARP covers (1.) all alienable and disposable (A&D) lands of the public domain devoted to or
suitable for agriculture, (2.) all lands of the public domain in excess of the specific limits, (3.) all
other lands owned by the Government and also (4.) all the private lands devoted to or suitable for
agriculture regardless of the agricultural products raised or that can be raised thereon. The scope
of the CARP covers the ownership and control of some 10.3 million hectares of agricultural land,
representing about 1/3 of the total area of the Philippines, which shall be transferred over a 10-
year period to an estimated 3.9 million farmer beneficiaries.
Program component:
1. Land Tenure Improvement (LTI)-agricultural land redistribution.
2. Delivery of a package of Support Services or Program Beneficiaries Development.
3. Delivery of Agrarian Justice.
CARP Beneficiaries: Qualifications
1. Must be landless, i.e. as defined by law-not owning more than three hectares of agricultural
2. Must be at least 15 years old, be a resident of the barangay where the land holding is located
or head of the family at the time the property was transferred in the name of the Republic of the
Philippines; and
3. Have the willingness, ability, and aptitude to cultivate the land and make it productive.
RA 6657 includes all agricultural lessees and share tenants regardless of crops grown as well as
regular, seasonal and other farm workers, and framer’s organizations or cooperatives. Other
potential beneficiaries are agricultural graduates, rural women, veterans and relatives of enlisted
men and women, retirees of the AFP and the Integrated National Police, and rebel returnees and

Principles of Economics with Taxation and Agrarian Reform (2nd Edition) AZARCON, et al.

CARPER Coverage:
Beginning with the amendment of Sec. 2 and 3 of the CARL, which defines the duty of
the state to initiate the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP) and its beneficiaries,
the CARPER primarily extends the land distribution program of CARP by five years. It also
redefines the scope of the program, and as the Philippine Daily Inquirer reports, does away with
the provision for voluntary land transfer, which was used by landlords to distribute the land
under the controversial Stock Distribution Option. In Sec. 18, the CARPER also mandates that
all land reform cases must be under the jurisdiction of the Department of Agrarian
Reform (DAR) except for cases falling under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Department of
Agriculture (DA) and the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). Only
the Supreme Court has jurisdiction to issue any restraining order or writ of preliminary
injunction against the Presidential Agrarian Reform Council (PARC), the DAR, and other related
agencies on agrarian reform cases. A new Congressional Oversight Committee on Agrarian
Reform (COCAR) is also created by virtue of the CARPER, composed of the Chairpersons of
the Agrarian Reform Committees of both Houses and three members each from the Upper and
Lower House, to be designated respectively by the Senate President and the House Speaker.
It also incorporates a new section into the existing CARL, Section 37-A, specifically mandating
the inclusion of equal support services for rural women and the establishment of a women's desk
under the DAR.


CARPER is the extension of CARP; both land reform that have the same primary
objectives both the improvement of equality and the increase in productivity and growth in the
rural areas, by redistributing lands to farmers and regular farm workers who are landless,
irrespective of tenurial arrangements. CARP and CARPER are not just transferring of lands; it
also includes a package of support services such as economic and physical infrastructures
support services, (credit, extension, irrigation, roads and bridges, marketing facilities) and human
resource and institutional development or social infrastructure building and strengthening. Both
also seek to promote social justice and industrialization, providing the mechanism for their
implementation and for other purposes. The only difference is that the RA 9700 or the CARPER
law which was signed by GMA on August 7, 2009 contains an extension of the budget for CARP
especially the Land Acquisition and Distribution (LAD) program for five years starting July 1,
2009 and the necessary reforms to complete the acquisition and distribution of the remaining
One Million Hectares of private agricultural lands to landless farmers. Moreover, CARPER law
provides for clarification of policies and its interpretation by CARP implementation agencies
including the decision of judicial courts. RA 6657, the original CARP law (CARL) has not been
superseded by the CARPER law but strengthens or improves the CARL. Some provisions of the
CARL were amended like the provision on the award to beneficiaries and the schedule of
acquisition and distribution, new provisions were introduced like the Gender provisions and the
Congressional Over sight Committee and a number of Supreme Court decisions legislated like
the indefeasibility of titles given under agrarian reform and exclusive jurisdiction of DAR in
agrarian dispute criminal cases.



Through my research and readings about this topic I observe that CARP and CARPER
has actually a befitting mission, vision and objective towards equitable distribution and
ownership of land based on the principle of land to the tiller or owner-cultivatorship to provide
the beneficiaries the opportunity to enhance their dignity and to improve the quality of life in the
country side. Likewise, the totality of factors and support services designed to lift their economic
status shall be extended. However, a common CARP loophole was that landlords escaped
relinquishing their lands through land reclassifications. Lands classified by local zoning
ordinances as residential, commercial and industrial lands are excluded from CARP scope, and
despite of some success stories under agrarian reform, in some previous administration,
loopholes, issues and controversies rose where thousands of hand-to-mouth farmers were being
harassed by the landlords driving them out of their farms and leave them nothing causing many
farmers to rally and fighting for their rights and pleading for genuine land reform just like what
happen to Mendiola Massacre. Criticism on Aquino’s Administration of land reform was the
Stock Distribution Option of the Hacienda Luisita and was followed as an example of big other
landowners. Former President Cory Aquino was the first landlord to evade CARP, not to
mention that CARP was Aquino’s “centerpiece program” of her administration.
Previous Presidents has not satisfied the needs of the tenant’s maybe because the top
officials were also landlords themselves, so they made laws that has loopholes that are favorable
to themselves. Large portion of the “promised” lands are not yet given to many beneficiaries,
how long could this people – who only wanted a piece of land to till for a living would wait for a
genuine land reform? Could they still lay their hopes on our government? If not, to whom? Some
say that CARPER is a worse CARP, other say it is just the same while those who fought for say
it is better. For me, CARP should not became or extended to CARPER because some politicians/
law makers are just using this law to protect their private properties and for their own interest.
Billions of funds are just wasted because of its flawed implementation. Farmers don’t need
bogus agrarian reform but a well implemented genuine land reform.

Principles of Economics with Taxation and Agrarian Reform (2nd Edition) AZARCON, et al.