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Refinery Control Valves

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API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 553
FIRST EDITION, SEPTEMBER 1998

REAFFIRMED: FEBRUARY 2007

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


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Refinery Control Valves

Downstream Segment

API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 553


FIRST EDITION, SEPTEMBER 1998

REAFFIRMED: FEBRUARY 2007


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SPECIAL NOTES

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API is not undertaking to meet the duties of employers, manufacturers, or suppliers to
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and safety risks and precautions, nor undertaking their obligations under local, state, or fed-
eral laws.
Information concerning safety and health risks and proper precautions with respect to par-
ticular materials and conditions should be obtained from the employer, the manufacturer or
supplier of that material, or the material safety data sheet.
Nothing contained in any API publication is to be construed as granting any right, by
implication or otherwise, for the manufacture, sale, or use of any method, apparatus, or prod-
uct covered by letters patent. Neither should anything contained in the publication be con-
strued as insuring anyone against liability for infringement of letters patent.
Generally, API standards are reviewed and revised, reafÞrmed, or withdrawn at least every
Þve years. Sometimes a one-time extension of up to two years will be added to this review
cycle. This publication will no longer be in effect Þve years after its publication date as an
operative API standard or, where an extension has been granted, upon republication. Status
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published annually and updated quarterly by API, 1220 L Street, N.W., Washington, D.C.
20005.
This document was produced under API standardization procedures that ensure appropri-
ate notiÞcation and participation in the developmental process and is designated as an API
standard. Questions concerning the interpretation of the content of this standard or com-
ments and questions concerning the procedures under which this standard was developed
should be directed in writing to the director of the Manufacturing, Distribution and Market-

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ing Department, American Petroleum Institute, 1220 L Street, N.W., Washington, D.C.
20005. Requests for permission to reproduce or translate all or any part of the material pub-
lished herein should also be addressed to the director.
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without prior written permission from the publisher. Contact the Publisher,
API Publishing Services, 1220 L Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005.
Copyright © 1998 American Petroleum Institute

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FOREWORD

API publications may be used by anyone desiring to do so. Every effort has been made by
the Institute to assure the accuracy and reliability of the data contained in them; however, the
Institute makes no representation, warranty, or guarantee in connection with this publication
and hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage resulting
from its use or for the violation of any federal, state, or municipal regulation with which this
publication may conßict.
Suggested revisions are invited and should be submitted to the Director of the Manufac-
turing, Distribution and Marketing Department, American Petroleum Institute, 1220 L
Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005.

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CONTENTS

Page

1 SCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

2 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

3 CONTROL VALVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
3.1 Valve Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
3.2 Valve Actuators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
3.3 Valve Positioner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.4 Handwheels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.5 Switches And Solenoids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.6 Transducers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.7 Booster Relays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

4 SPECIFIC CRITERIA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.1 Globe-style Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
4.2 Rotary Style Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

5 INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.1 Accessibility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.2 Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.3 Control Valve Manifolds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

6 REFINERY APPLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
6.4 Boiler Feedwater Recirculation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
6.5 Feedwater to Waste Heat Boiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6.6 Sulfur Recovery Unit Acid Gas Block Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6.7 Sulfur Vapor to Eductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6.8 Liquid Sulfur to Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
6.9 Hydroßuoric Acid Service. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
6.10 Cat Cracker Bottoms Slurry Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
6.11 Feed to Hydrocracker Fractionator (Flashing) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
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6.12 Reformer Hot Gas Block/Bypass (Three-Way Butterßy). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16


6.13 Reactor Letdown with Erosive Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
6.14 KO Drum Vent to Hydrotreater Flare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
6.15 Antisurge Control Valves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
6.16 High Volume, Low Pressure Air Blower Anti-Surge Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
6.17 Crude Oil Processing Unit Throttling /Steam to Pre-Heat Exchanger . . . . . . 18
6.18 Pump Recirculation Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
6.19 Crude Oil Processing Unit Heavy Bottoms (High Temperature Tar). . . . . . . 18
6.20 Crude Oil Processing UnitÑThrottling/Wash Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
6.21 Crude Processing UnitÑThrottling/Hot Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
6.22 Spray Water to Desuperheater (Utilities) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
6.23 Exchanger HGO BypassÑFCC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
6.24 Gas Oil RecirculationÑCaustic Hydrotreater (CHD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
6.25 Hot Separator Liquid to Hot Flash Drum (Power Recovery
Turbine Bypass)ÑHydrocracker. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
6.26 Cold Separator Sour WaterÑHydrocracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

7 EMERGENCY BLOCK VALVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

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Page

7.1 Valve Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21


7.2 DeÞnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
7.3 Types of EVBs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

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7.4 EBV General Instillation Guidelines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
7.5 Actuator Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
7.6 FireprooÞng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

8 VAPOR DEPRESSURING VALVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23


8.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
8.2 Depressuring Valves and Actuator Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

9 HYDRAULIC SLIDE VALVE ACTUATORS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23


9.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
9.2 Hydraulic Power Unit (HPU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
9.3 Slide Valve Positioner Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
9.4 Instrumentation Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
9.5 Performance Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
9.6 Electrical Requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
9.7 Testing and Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
9.8 Slide Valve Actuator Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Figures
1 Control Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2 Live Loaded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3 Resilient Seat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4 Inherent Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
5A Sliding and Rotary Stem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
5B Sliding and Rotary Stem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
6 Pressure Drop Through a Restriction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
7 Cavitation Damage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
8 Typical Plug Damage from Flashing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
9 Multistaged Trim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
10 Diaphragm Actuator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
11 Double-Acting Spring Return Piston Actuator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
12 Electrohydraulic Actuator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
13A Handwheels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
13B Handwheels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
14 Limit Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
15 Butterßy Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
16 Lug Style Butterßy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

vi
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Refinery Control Valves

1 Scope NACE3
Std MR0175-90 SulÞde Stress Cracking Resistant Metal-
1.1 This Recommended Practice addresses the special
lic Materials for OilÞeld Equipment
needs of control valve applications in reÞnery services. The
knowledge and experience of the industry has been captured OSHA4
to provide proven solutions to well-known problems. 1910.95 Occupational Noise Exposure
1.2 This document provides recommended criteria for the U.S. EPA5
selection, speciÞcation, and application of piston and dia- 40 CFR Pt. 60 Appendix A, Attachment 1: Reference
phragm-actuated control valves. It also outlines control valve Method 21. Determination of Volatile
design considerations, and discusses control valve sizing, Organic Compound Leaks
noise, and fugitive emissions as well as deÞning types of com-
monly used control valves and their actuators. 3 Control Valves
1.3 Recommendations for emergency block and vent A control valve, as shown in Figure 1, consists of two
valves, on/off valves intended for emergency isolation or major subassemblies: a valve body and an actuator. The valve
venting, and special design valves for reÞnery services, such body is the portion that actually contains the process ßuid. It
as FCCU slide valves and vapor depressuring systems, are consists of a body, internal trim, bonnet, and sometimes a bot-
also included in this Recommended Practice. tom ßange and/or bonnet ßange. This subassembly must meet
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all of the applicable pressure, temperature, and corrosion


2 References requirements of the connecting piping.
The actuator assembly moves the control valve in response
All references shall be the latest edition.
to an actuating signal from an automatic or manual device. It
API must develop adequate thrust to overcome the forces within
Publ 2218 FireprooÞng Practices in Petroleum and the body subassembly and at the same time be responsive
Petrochemical Processing Plants enough to position the valve plug accurately during changing
RP 521 Guide for Pressure-Relieving and Depres- process demands.
suring Systems
3.1 VALVE BODY
Std 556 Manual on Installation of Instruments and
Control Systems for Fire Heaters and 3.1.1 Process design conditions dictate the ANSI pressure
Steam Generators classiÞcation and materials of construction for control valves,
Std 589 Fire Test for Evaluation of Stem Packing provided the standard offering meets or exceeds all piping
Spec 6FA SpeciÞcation for Fire Test for Valves and process control requirements. The valve end connections
Std 607 Fire Test for Soft-Seated Quarter-Turn and pressure rating should, as a minimum, conform to the
Valves piping speciÞcation. The valve material shall be suitable for
Std 609 Butterßy Valves: Double Flanged, Lug-and the process conditions.
Wafer-Type 3.1.2 Nickel alloy or stainless steel valve metallurgy should
ASME 1 be speciÞed for temperatures below -20¡F. High pressure
steam, ßashing water applications, and boiler feedwater ser-
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section
vice where differential pressures exceed 200 psi may require
VIII, Div. 1, International Society for Mea-
harder, chrome-molybdenum alloys. Sour service valve mate-
surement and Control Standard S75 Series
rials must meet the requirements of NACE MR0175-90. Cor-
of Control Valve Standards
rosive and erosive components even in trace quantities may
B16.34 ValvesÑFlanges, Threaded, and Welded affect the metallurgical choice of the valve.
End
3.1.3 Inner valve parts should be the manufacturerÕs stan-
FCI2 dard where acceptable. Hardened trim may be required for
70-2 Quality Control Standard for Control Valve
Seat Leakage 3NACE International, 1440 South Creek Drive, P.O. Box 218340, Houston,
Texas 77218-8340.
4Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor,
1American Society for Mechanical Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New Washington, D.C. 20402.
York, New York 10017. 5U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, available from the U.S. Government
2Fluid Controls Institute, P.O. Box 9036, Morristown, New Jersey 07960. Printing OfÞce, Washington, D.C. 20402.
1

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2 REFINERY CONTROL VALVES

Adjusting Screw Adjusting Screw


(with Lifting Ring) Gasket

Spring Spring Button

Piston Stem O-ring Piston Retaining Nut

Cylinder Actuator Stem Spacer

Piston Actuator Stem Bushing

Piston O-ring Actuator Stem O-ring

Stem Clamp Cylinder Retaining Ring


O

Gland Flange Actuator Stem

Upper Packing S
Stroke Plate

Yoke Clamp Stroke Bellows

Packing Spacer Yoke

Bonnet Upper Stem Guide

Bonnet Flange Upper Stem Guide Liner

Seat Retainer Bonnet Flange Bolting

Seat Ring Bonnet Gasket

Seat Ring Gasket Lower Packing

Body Lower Stem Guide

Half Ring Lower Stem Guide Liner

End Flange Plug

Figure 1—Control Valve

corrosive, erosive, cavitating, or ßashing service, and where recommended. In addition, high-tensile strength bolting is
valve differential pressure exceeds 200 psi. required.
3.1.4 Flanges are the preferred end connection for globe- 3.1.7 Flange Þnish describes the depth of the grooves in the
style valves, with butt-weld end connections acceptable for surface part of a ßange which is available for the sealing gas-
ANSI classes 900 and above. Threaded valves and valves ket. If a special Þnish is required for gaskets, it should be
with welded end connections are not recommended for speciÞed with the valve. The typical standard is 125Ð250
hydrocarbon service and should be speciÞed only with the RMS, which provides a good sealing surface for the gasket.
ownerÕs prior approval.
3.1.8 The installed face-to-face dimension of integral
3.1.5 Flanged control valve bodies are available with either ßange globe style valves should conform to ANSI/ISA
integral ßanges (machined as part of the body casting or forg- S75.03. Face-to-face dimensions of ßangeless control
ing, or ßanges welded to the body), or separable ßanges (indi- valves should conform to ANSI/ISA S75.04. Face-to-face
vidual removable ßanges that usually lock in place on the dimensions of separable ßanged globe style valves should
valve body by means of a two-piece retaining ring). conform to ISA S75.20 or ISA S75.03. Butterßy valves are
covered by API 609. Caution should be used to install ßan-
3.1.6 Flangeless valves have no ßange connections as
geless valves so that they will not leak in hydrocarbon ser-
part of the valve body and are simply bolted or clamped
vice under Þre conditions.
between the adjoining line ßanges. Long bolts used with
ßangeless valves can expand when exposed to Þre and 3.1.9 The valve body size should be no less then two
cause leakage. A Þre deßection shield and/or insulation is pipe sizes smaller than the line size. Smaller valve sizes

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API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 553 3

must be reviewed to make sure that line mechanical integ- 3.1.14 Fugitive Emissions
rity is not violated.
The Clean Air Act of 1990 or local requirements have
3.1.10 Final valve sizing should be reviewed by the valve established strict limits on emission to the atmosphere of cer-
manufacturer. tain hazardous substances. These substances are volatile haz-
ardous pollutants listed in the National Emission Standard for
3.1.11 Threaded seat rings should be avoided where possi-
Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP).
ble because corrosion often makes removal difÞcult.
Increased emphasis on limiting packing leaks has resulted
3.1.12 Bonnets in the development of new packing materials and methods.
Individual manufacturers are offering increasingly effective
Bonnets should be bolted. Bolting material should comply designs, and vendors should be consulted for speciÞc applica-
with ASTM A193/194/320 and should be compatible with the tions. See Figure 2.
valve body and bonnet. Kalrez¨ also has excellent inertness and good lubricating
Note: For the temperature range between -50¼F and 1000¼F, bolts and studs properties. It does not cold ßow and therefore does not need
should meet ASTM A193, Grade B7 speciÞcations. For temperatures live loading. It is available in V-rings. The temperature limit
between 1000¼F and 1100¼F, bolts should be ASTM A193, Grade B16. For
low temperature applications from -50¼F to -150¼F, bolts should be ASTM
with standard packing box construction is 700¼F.
A320, Grade B7. Nuts should be ASTM A194, Grade 2H for the above appli-
cations. Stainless steel bodies require stainless steel bolting. Higher grade 3.1.15 Seat Leakage
valve metallurgy requires 316 SST as the minimum bolting material.

Extended bonnets should be considered for process tem- a. See ANSI/FCI 70-2 standard for deÞnitions of leakage
peratures below 32¡F or above the temperature limits of the classes. Note that these deÞnitions change the way that leak-
packing materials shown below in section 3.1.13. age is deÞned and tested between Classes V and VI. Control
valves should have no less than a Class II leakage rating. For
Bonnet gaskets should be fully retained 316 SST spiral
most services, a Class IV rating is adequate. Class VI ratings
wound, with polytetraßoroethelene or graphite Þller. Flat gas-
kets made from PTFE sheet stock are acceptable where con- should be considered only for applications requiring mini-
ditions permit. Insert reinforcements should be 316 SST or mum possible leakage, and then only with owner approval.
other appropriate alloy, as required. b. Double-ported valves provide a Class II shutoff.
c. Single-seated globe valves with metal-to-metal seating
3.1.13 Packing surfaces meet Class IV. Class V shutoff can be achieved by
providing improved plug to seat ring concentricity or lapping
a. Packing boxes should be easily accessible for periodic
seating surfaces and/or increasing actuator thrust. Resilient
adjustment. The packing material should (1) be elastic and
seats on single seated valves can provide Class VI shutoff.
easily deformable, (2) be chemically inert, (3) be able to with-
stand applicable process conditions, (4) provide a degree of d. However, before an insert material is selected, it should be
Þre resistance, (5) minimize friction, and (6) reduce fugitive determined that the insert is compatible with the process ßuid,
emissions to meet regulatory requirements. Valve manufac- pressure, and temperature. In addition to normal process

--`,,``,,```,,,``,`,`,,,,,`,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
turerÕs packing temperature limits refer to the temperature at
the packing box.
b. PTFE has excellent inertness, good lubricating properties, (compressed) Live-loading
(not compressed)
and is one of the most popular valve packing materials. It
may be used in solid molded, braided, or turned form (V- Carbon-filled
rings) or as a lubricant for asbestos-free packing. Its tempera- PTFE backups
ture limit with standard packing box construction is 450¡F. If
used to meet fugitive emissions, virgin PTFE should be alter-
nated with carbon-Þlled PTFE or similar minimal cold-
ßowing material and live loaded.
c. Graphite laminated or preformed ring packing is chemi- Virgin PTFE
V-rings
cally inert except when strong oxidizers are handled. This type
of packing can be used for temperature applications approach-
ing 2000¼F. The biggest difÞculty caused by this type of
Wiper Rings
packing is very high packing friction, which often requires an
oversized actuator. Performance is often compromised,
because of signiÞcant increases in hysteresis and deadband.
d. Asbestos should not be used. Figure 2—Live Loaded

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4 REFINERY CONTROL VALVES

or rotary motion (see Figures 5B and 16). The selection of a


Insert Retainer valve for a particular application is primarily a function of the
process requirements for control performance, pressure drop,
temperature, and rangeability.

3.1.18 Sizing
Soft Seat Ring Insert
a. ISA S75.01, Flow Equations for Sizing Control Valves, is
the basic source used. Per ISA 75.02, Control Valve Capacity
Figure 3—Resilient Seat Test, the tolerance for control valve Cv testing is ±5% at full
opening; the tolerance for partial openings is not stated. Con-
100 trol valve data is based on water testing with a limited set of
sizes. The calculations become less accurate for ßuids signiÞ-
--`,,``,,```,,,``,`,`,,,,,`,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

90
cantly different from water, for very large or very small sizes,
80 and for conditions different from laboratory conditions.
pen

70 b. The primary factors that should be known for accurate siz-


ing are:
ck O

60
r
Flow, %

ea 1. The upstream and downstream pressures at the ßow


Qui

50 Lin
rates being considered.
t
en

40
2. The temperature of the ßuid.
rc

Pe
30 u al 3. The ßuid phase (gas, liquid, slurry) and the density of
Eq
20 the ßuid (speciÞc gravity, speciÞc weight, molecular
weight).
10
4. The viscosity (liquids).
0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
5. The vapor pressure and critical pressure (liquids).
6. SpeciÞc heat ratio (gas).
Valve Life, % 7. The compressibility factor (gas).
c. As part of valve selection, the overall system in which the
Figure 4—Inherent Characteristics valve is to be installed should be considered. A typical system
(in addition to the control valves) includes a pump or com-
condtions, shutdown conditions should be considered in
pressor, which provides energy, and other types of reÞnery
selecting resilient seats. Steaming through a valve can damage
equipment, such as piping, exchangers, furnaces, and hand
or ruin a resilient seat. (See Figure 3.)
valves, which offer resistance to ßow. Note that the differen-
3.1.16 Control Valve Characteristics tial pressure between the pump head curve and the system
pressure drop curve is the amount of pressure available for
a. Control valve ßow characteristics are determined princi- the control valve. If no control valve were used, the ßow
pally by the design of the valve trim. The three inherent would always be at the rate indicated by the intersection of
characteristics available are quick opening, linear, and equal the two curves.
percentage, as shown in Figure 4. A modiÞed equal percent- d. The presence of reducers upstream and/or downstream of
age characteristics generally falling between linear and equal the valve will usually result in a reduction in capacity because
percentage characteristics is sometimes available. of the creation of an additional pressure drop in the system by
b. Positioners may use mechanical cams or be programmed these enlargements or contractions in series with the valve.
to provide other desired characteristics. Piping systems where both the inlet and outlet piping are
c. Installed characteristics often differ signiÞcantly from larger than the valve will result in an increased valve Cv
inherent characteristics if the pressure drop across the control requirement. Capacity correction factors that can be applied
valve varies with ßow. As a result, equal percentage plugs are to calculated Cv values are readily available from most manu-
generally used for ßow control applications because most of facturers for the various styles of valves.
the Òsystem pressure dropÓ is not across the control valve. e. In any ßow restriction, a portion of the pressure head of
Linear plugs are commonly used for applications where most the incoming ßuid is changed to velocity head, resulting in a
of the Òsystem pressure dropÓ occurs across the control valve. reduction in static pressure at the vena contracta. Refer to Fig-
ure 6. As the ßuid leaves the ßow restriction and assumes
3.1.17 Control Valve Types
downstream velocity, some portion of velocity head is recov-
TodayÕs control valves operate by one of two primary ered as pressure head. This process is termed pressure
motions: reciprocating (sliding stem) motion (see Figure 5A,) recovery. The degree of pressure recovery is dependent upon

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API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 553 5

Figure 5A and 5B—Sliding and Rotary Stem

the internal geometry of the ßow restriction. The pressure These can reduce or prevent cavitation. Some of these
excursion in liquid ßow results in a vena contracta pressure trims are subject to plugging in dirty services and should
lower than the downstream pressure. The vena contracta pres- be reviewed for suitability in each service.
sure may drop below the vapor pressure of the ßuid. As the 2. Valves with low-pressure recovery should be used to
pressure recovers it may stay below the vapor pressure (ßash- minimize or prevent cavitation. In some cases it may be
ing) or it may recover above the vapor pressure (cavitation). necessary to use special components, or stage the pres-
Flashing and cavitation are indications of partial or full sure reduction through the use of two or more valves,
choked ßow, which may affect sizing. or specially design elements in series.
f. Choked volumetic ßow occurs in gas or vapor service h. Flashing
when the ßuid velocity reaches the speed of sound at the vena 1. Flashing occurs where the downstream pressure is
contracta. With a constant inlet pressure, increasing the pres- less than the vapor pressure. See Figures 6 and 8.
sure drop no longer increases the ßow. This will affect the
valve sizing by limiting the pressure drop available for sizing.
Flow
Pressure recovery has the effect of achieving choked ßow at a
pressure drop that is less than would be predicted by the criti- P1 P2
cal pressure ratio. This can become a problem for valves with
high-pressure recovery, such as rotary valves. This necessi-
Restriction
tates the use of a larger valve or different valve style.
g. Cavitation Vena Contracta
--`,,``,,```,,,``,`,`,,,,,`,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

1. Cavitation is the generation of bubbles in the lowest


pressure portion of the valve, and then the subsequent col- P1
lapse of these bubbles. See Figure 6. The bubble collapse P2 (Cavitating)
Pressure

(implosion) releases an intense liquid jet which can


destroy a control valve in a short time. See Figure 7. It is
easily recognized by a characteristic sound Òlike rocks Pv
ßowing through the valve.Ó A single compound such as P2 (Flashing)
water is one of the most damaging ßuids. Hydrocarbon Pvc
mixtures can have various vapor pressures for different
components in the mixture, making it very difÞcult to pre- Distance
dict the onset or the severity of cavitation. Special
cavitation control trims are offered by manufacturers. Figure 6—Pressure Drop Through a Restriction

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6 REFINERY CONTROL VALVES

excess capacity at the high end and 10 to 20% below the


minimum required capacity at the low end.
2. A high rangeability is of little signiÞcance if the ser-
vice conditions for the valves in question do not require it.
The requirement for rangeability is to cover the maximum
and minimum ßow rates at the real ßowing conditions.
j. Manufacturers should analyze all valve speciÞcations for
cavitation, noise, or other detrimental factors, using the data
on the data sheets as a basis. Undesirable operating situations
should be brought to purchaserÕs attention, including noise or
cavitation severity. Manufacturers should propose possible
solutions to these problems within the design limits of the
type of valve covered by the speciÞcation or indicate that a
special design is required.

3.1.19 Noise
a. The predicted sound pressure level radiated from a control
valve is a complex determination, and the allowable noise
level in the installed location cannot be stated as one simple
number to be speciÞed in all circumstances. This is particu-
larly true where there are other noise sources in close
proximity, since they have an additive effect. The actual level
depends on a number of factors, such as atmospheric dis-
charge, physical location, proximity of other noise sources and
their magnitude, piping system conÞguration and wall thick-
ness, insulation on piping, presence of reßective sources, etc.
Figure 7—Cavitation Damage
b. Prediction of noise generated by a control valve is an inex-
Flashing, like cavitation, can cause physical damage act science. Prediction levels for a valve operation at
and decreased ßow capacity. Velocity is the major con- conditions speciÞed on the speciÞcation sheet can vary
cern. The outlet ßow increases velocity due to the ßuid widely using various manufacturersÕ methods.
changing from a liquid to a gaseous state. A larger con- c. To provide a basis for allowable noise level analysis, con-
trol valve body size with reduced trim and larger size trol valves calculated to generate excessive noise levels should
outlet piping is usually required to prevent choking and have alternate valves proposed that will not exceed 85 dBA at
excessive velocity problems. one meter downstream and one meter out from the pipe. For
2. Flashing damage is usually less severe than the atmospheric discharge vent control valves (or system), the
damage from cavitation. However, restricted piping noise level should not exceed 90 dBA at a point four meters
conÞgurations at the valve outlet can cause the ßashed down from the vent exhaust and at a downward angle of 45
vapor to cavitate and cause piping damage downstream degrees. No allowance should be taken for insulation or
of the control valve. Manufacturers should be consulted increased pipe wall thickness over that speciÞed in making
for recommendations. noise calculation, or in the valve or the noise reduction system.
--`,,``,,```,,,``,`,`,,,,,`,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

3. Outgassing of dissolved gases that have been d. The calculated continuous noise level should not exceed 85
absorbed by contacting (such as amine) is similar to dBA, measured where personnel may be continuously work-
ßashing, but the relative amount of gas released is ing. This may not be one meter downstream and one meter out
much harder to predict. The process engineer should be from the pipe. The Occupational Safety and Health Adminis-
consulted to obtain the correct outlet liquid and gas tration decreases the allowable time of exposure as the sound
ßow rates. level increases, and the user is referred to OSHA 1910.95 for
i. Rangeability speciÞc guidelines. It is the userÕs responsibility to determine
1. The rangeability of the control valve should be consid- if the sound level will meet OSHA requirements.
ered during valve selection. Control valves are available e. Noise levels above 85 dBA may be allowable where per-
with published Cv rangeability of 50 to 1 and even greater, sonnel are not working continuously.
at constant pressure drop, a condition that rarely exists in f. The maximum intermittent sound level should normally
actual practice. Typically, valves are sized with 10 to 20% be limited to 110 dBA.
g. In no case should the calculated sound level exceed 115 dBA due to possible mechanical failure.

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API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 553 7

Figure 8 — Typical Plug Damage from Flashing

h. Documented procedures and computer programs to esti- 3.2.2 Actuators are classiÞed as direct acting (an increase
mate control valve noise are available from leading in air loading extends the actuator stem) or reverse acting (an
manufacturers, and they should be used to determine whether increase in air loading retracts the actuator stem). Some actu-
noise is a consideration. However, noise prediction and miti- ators are Þeld reversible. They can be changed from direct to
gation is a specialized effort generally requiring the reverse acting with no additional parts. Most manufacturers
manufacturer recommendation for an effective design. publish tables that allow selection of actuator size based on
i. Valves with noise abatement or cavitation control trim with valve size, ßow direction, air action, pressure drop, packing
small passages tend to plug with debris, particularly during friction, and available air pressure.
startup, and should be protected with conical or T-type strain-
ers. See Figure 9. 3.2.3 Diaphragm Actuators

3.1.20 Body Integrity a. A spring diaphragm actuator is a single-acting actuator


where pressure is applied against a spring or springs. Upon
Hydrostatic testing of pressure-containing components is loss of air, the spring will move the valve to the desired fail-
required per ANSI B16.34. For special services, other non- ure position. Construction of a typical spring diaphragm
destructive tests are sometimes speciÞed. actuator is shown in Figure 10.
b. Traditionally, the spring diaphragm actuator stroked over
3.1.21 Valve Assembly
an input range of 3Ð15 psi. The frequent use of positioners
The valve, actuator, and associated accessories, regardless of and the requirements for tight shutoff have led to widespread
manufacturer(s), should be assembled, piped, aligned, tested, use of higher pressures, utilizing the available air supply.
and shipped as a unit by the valve manufacturer. Tests may
include hydrostatic, stroke test, leakage, or accessory calibration. 3.2.4 Piston Actuators

3.1.22 Nameplate a. Piston (or cylinder) pneumatic actuators are used for
control valves where high thrust is required. Single-acting
The valve should be supplied with a permanently attached piston actuators apply air pressure to one side of the piston
stainless steel tag, stamped with the manufacturerÕs standard against a spring or springs. Upon loss of air the spring will
data, and the tag or item number.
--`,,``,,```,,,``,`,`,,,,,`,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

move the valve to the desired failure position. Double-act-


ing piston actuators are considerably stiffer than single-
3.2 VALVE ACTUATORS
acting designs and can therefore be used to control higher
3.2.1 Pneumatic valve actuators, using air or gas, are pre- pressure drops. Double-acting piston actuators apply air to
ferred for most process control applications. Electric motor or both sides of the cylinder. Double-acting piston actuators
electrohydraulic operators may be considered for special without springs require an external volume tank and trip
applications, particularly when pneumatic power is not avail- system to achieve the desired failure position. Springs can
able. Electrohydraulic actuators are used where very high be added to double-acting piston actuators to provide the
thrust forces are required. air failure mode. See Figure 11.

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8 REFINERY CONTROL VALVES

Figure 9—Multistaged Trim

--`,,``,,```,,,``,`,`,,,,,`,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 553 9

Air Spring
Pushes Upper Travel Stop
Lifts
Down

Diaphragm Plate

--`,,``,,```,,,``,`,`,,,,,`,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Diaphragm Loading Pressure

O-Ring Seal O-Ring Seal

Diaphragm Rod
Spring

Spring Adjuster
Spring Seat
Stem Connector

Travel Indicator
Valve Stem Indicator Scale

Reverse Actuator O

Figure 10—Diaphragm Actuator

b. Linear type piston actuators are used for globe style con-
trol valves. They are also used for rotary valves with adapter S
linkage. Scotch yoke or rack-and-pinion type piston actuators
are normally used for on/off control, but may be used for reg-
ulatory control if control degradation is not critical.

3.2.5 Electrohydraulic Actuators

A variation of the piston actuator is the electrohydraulic,


actuator which uses an electric motor to drive a pump and
supply hydraulic pressure for the piston. For multiple valve
installations, electrohydraulic actuators may be supplied by a
common electric motor/pump skid. See Figure 12. Figure 11—Double-Acting Spring Return
Piston Actuator
3.2.6 Actuator Selection
3.2.6.2 Stroking speed requirements should be reviewed
3.2.6.1 Actuator selection guidelines are based on the and speciÞed for critical applications, such as compressor
assumption that the control valve will be required to operate anti-surge control, or where closing speed should be con-
against the maximum differential pressure speciÞed. Gener- trolled to prevent hydraulic water hammer.
ally, the worst case is to use the maximum upstream pressure
3.2.6.3 Valve failure position should be carefully analyzed
with the downstream pressure vented to atmosphere. Utiliz-
in the event that supply pressure or instrument signal is lost.
ing this condition for selection of the actuator ensures ade-
Generally, the valve should fail in the safe direction on loss of
quate power for maximum service conditions but can
power or signal.
dramatically affect operator size, particularly on larger valve
sizes. Actuators should be sized for the minimum air supply 3.2.6.4 The most reliable fail-safe action is achieved with
pressure available. an enclosed spring. If capacity tanks are required to provide

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10 REFINERY CONTROL VALVES

Coil Force Motor


Input
Signal

Air Bleed

Cylinder Feedback
Shutoff Cam
5 Volt AC Feedback Valves
Cycle Spring
Bias
Spring

Bypass
1/3 H.P. Valve
Electric
Motor

50 psig (3.4 Bar)

500 psig (34.5 Bar) Drain Off


Connection

--`,,``,,```,,,``,`,`,,,,,`,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
500 psig (34.5 Bar)

3-Section Pump
with Built-In
Relief Valves

Suction Filter

Figure 12— Electrohydraulic Actuator

reserve operating power, they should be sized to stroke the teresis should be addressed. The valve, actuator, and posi-
valve twice. Capacity tanks should be stamped and otherwise tioner should be evaluated as part of the entire loop to
conform to ASME Code guidelines (see Part U-1, Section determine loop performance.
VIII, Division 1, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code).
Capacity tanks should be designed with all necessary acces- 3.2.6.8 In general, the actuator materials of construction
sories to ensure the required valve action and failure position. should be the manufacturerÕs standard.

3.2.6.5 The actuator case should be rated for the maximum 3.2.6.9 Sliding stem actuators should be supplied with an
available pneumatic supply pressure. Filters or Þlter regula- indicator showing valve stem position. Rotary valve actuators
tors, if required, shall be supplied at the actuator inlet or the should have a travel indicator attached at the actuator end of
positioner inlet. the shaft, graduated in percent or degrees open.

3.2.6.6 The actuator should be sized to meet all control, 3.3 VALVE POSITIONER
shutoff, and valve leakage requirements. Shutoff capabili-
ties should be investigated at conditions of maximum dif- 3.3.1 Valve positioners should be speciÞed for all applica-
ferential pressure. tions except on/off service. The valve positioner compares the
valve stem position with the signal generated by the controller.
3.2.6.7 To improve control valve performance, the effects If the valve stem is incorrectly positioned, the positioner either
of low frequency response and excessive deadband and hys- increases or decreases the air pressure to the actuator until the

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API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 553 11

correct valve stem position is obtained. Pneumatic or electrop- ented downward. Three-way solenoid valves are used with
neumatic positioners are used to improve valve performance. spring return actuators and double-acting actuators with posi-
tioners. Four-way solenoid valves are used with double-act-
3.3.2 The following is a list of functions a positioner can
ing actuators with no spring and on/off double-acting spring
accomplish:
return valves. Solenoid valves should be speciÞed so that they
1. Provide for split range operation. do not require a minimum differential pressure across the
2. Reverse the valve action without changing the Òfail- valve to actuate.
safeÓ action of the spring in the actuator. (Note that this
may also be done with a reversing type relay.) 3.5.3 Valve trip solenoids should be installed in the actua-
3. Increase the thrust in spring diaphragm actuators. tor inlet tubing. When exhaust rate is critical, the solenoid
4. Modify the control valve ßow characteristic. valve Cv should be selected accordingly. A quick exhaust
valve, working in concert with a pilot solenoid valve, may be
5. Improve the resolution or sensitivity of the actuator
where high precision valve control is required. Precision required if the trip solenoid does not have sufÞcient venting
is enhanced by the availability of positioners with adjust- capacity. Quick exhaust valves have relatively large vent
able gain. capacity, with a Cv value at least ten times that of the typical
1/ " solenoid valve.
6. Reduce hysteresis. 4

3.3.3 Positioners should be installed using mounting plates 3.5.4 Control valves with solenoids and limit switches
or bosses provided for that purpose. The positioner should be should be speciÞed with 18" connecting leadwires or
mounted by the vendor, completely piped and aligned. The prewired to junction boxes. Low voltage and 120-volt wiring
positioner should be supplied with pressure gauges. should not be used in the same junction box.

3.3.4 Positioner bypasses should only be speciÞed with 3.5.5 DC voltage solenoids should be installed with a tran-
pneumatic positioners having the same or greater input signal sient voltage suppressor or diode mounted in parallel with the
and stroking range. Bypasses are not applicable with elec- solenoid coil. AC voltage solenoids should have a metal oxide
tropneumatic positioners or with piston actuators. varistor mounted with the solenoid coil.
3.3.5 Fast loops may require special tuning for best results.
3.6 TRANSDUCERS
3.3.6 Digital positioners further enhance valve perfor-
3.6.1 Electropneumatic transducers convert the electrical
mance, provide diagnostic information, and facilitate predic-
output signals from electronic controllers into pneumatic sig-
tive maintenance programs.
nals that may be used to operate diaphragm actuated control
3.4 HANDWHEELS valves or provide signals to pneumatic positioners. The use of
transducers with control valves is a common practice. Vibra-
3.4.1 Manual handwheel operators should be supplied only tion resistant transducers are required when mounted on con-
on speciÞc request by the owner, or where bypasses are not trol valves.
installed. Side-mounted, lockable, screw or gear drive manual
operators, continuously connected and operable through an 3.6.2 Electropneumatic positioners are available which
integral declutching mechanism, are preferred. See Figures convert electronic signals to pneumatic output without a sepa-
13A and 13B. rate transducer. Electropneumatic positioners are widely
accepted in lieu of separate devices.
3.4.2 Handwheels should be permanently marked to indi-
cate valve open and closed directions 3.7 BOOSTER RELAYS
3.4.3 When a handwheel is used for piston actuator, a cyl- Booster relays may be used to increase the speed of
inder bypass valve must be included. response of the control valve.
3.5 SWITCHES AND SOLENOIDS
4 Specific Criteria
3.5.1 Hermetically-sealed proximity switches are preferred
when independent ÒopenÓ or ÒclosedÓ indication of stem 4.1 GLOBE-STYLE VALVES
--`,,``,,```,,,``,`,`,,,,,`,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

position is required. See Figure 14.


4.1.1 Globe-style valves are preferred for high pressure
3.5.2 Solenoid valves should be rated for continuous duty drop applications, low ßow applications, or where cavitation,
with Class H high temperature encapsulated coils and be sat- ßashing, or noise are considerations. However, some rotary
isfactory for both NEMA 4 and NEMA 7 installations. The valve models having a characterized ball or eccentric rotary
valve vent port should be equipped with an insect screen ori- plug are suitable for these applications.

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12 REFINERY CONTROL VALVES

--`,,``,,```,,,``,`,`,,,,,`,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Figure 13A and 13B—Handwheels

Figure 14—Limit Switches

4.1.2 A globe-style valve that has a cast ßanged body and valves should be considered for coking service, where solids
that can be serviced while in the line is preferred. Split body are carried in suspension, for severe ßashing service, and where
valves are not recommended except in special service, such as the piping design can take advantage of the valve geometry.
HF acid.
4.1.4 The recommended minimum globe body size is one
4.1.3 Three-way and angle body valves may be considered inch when installed in lines one inch and larger. Valves
for special applications. Three-way valves can be used for pro- installed in lines smaller than one inch should be line sized.
portioning control of converging or diverging ßow. Angle body Valve sizes 11/4", 21/2", 31/2", and 5" are not recommended.

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API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 553 13

Packing Retainer
Disk
Packing Taper Pin
Thrust Washer
Shaft

Packing Box Nut


Shaft
Gland Flange Bearing

Packing Box Stud

Packing Follower

Shaft Bearing Body


Disk Stop
Thrust Washer

Figure 15—Butterfly Valve


4.1.5 Either integral or separable ßange bodies are accept- requiring tighter shutoff, and in high ßow, low pressure
able. Valves having integrally cast ßanges are generally used, drops services. Rotary-segmented ball valves should be
but separable ßanged valves are available. considered for highly viscous services and where greater

--`,,``,,```,,,``,`,`,,,,,`,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
ßow turndown ratios are required.
4.1.6 Control valve bodies shall have the ßow direction
permanently marked on the body. 4.2.2 Butterßy valves with lug bodies (see Figure 16) may
have threaded or unthreaded bolt holes. Wafer (unßanged)
4.1.7 Stem or post-guided, unbalanced trim is preferred for valves should have centering holes to ensure proper valve and
tight shutoff applications or for ßuids containing suspended gasket alignment. Long pattern valves having longer stud bolts
solids. Balanced, cage-guided trim is acceptable for applica- with greater exposure should be insulated for Þre protection.
tions in clean, nonslurry service.
4.2.3 Particular attention should be given to clearance
requirements of butterßy disks. Heavy-wall pipe or lined pipe
4.2 ROTARY STYLE VALVES
can interfere with disk rotation.
4.2.1 Cost considerations and certain process conditions 4.2.4 The valve shaft should normally be oriented in the
may favor the rotary style control valve. Eccentric disk horizontal plane. The valve disk or ball should be positively
valves (see Figure 15) are recommended in applications attached to the valve shaft.
4.2.5 The actuator end of the shaft should be splined to
minimize lost motion.
4.2.6 The shaft bearing should be designed to prevent the
guide bushing from rotating in the body.
4.2.7 Shaft material should be stainless steel for carbon
steel or stainless steel valves. Other trim parts should be stain-
less steel or better. The bearing material should not cause
galling of the bearing or the shaft.
4.2.8 A shaft retention device should be provided on the
nondriving end.

5 Installation
5.1 ACCESSIBILITY
5.1.1 All control valves should be installed so that they are
Figure 16—Lug Style Butterfly readily accessible for maintenance purposes and for operation

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14 REFINERY CONTROL VALVES

of a handwheel, if one is provided. They should generally be 5.3.3 Manifold Piping Arrangements
located at grade unless pressure head or other design condi-
a. The manifold piping should be arranged to provide ßexibil-
tions make such an arrangement impractical. When located
ity for removing control valves, particularly where ring-type
above grade, control valves should be installed so that they
joints are used. Flexibility of piping is also necessary to keep
are readily accessible from a permanent platform or walkway
excessive stresses from being induced in the body of the con-
with ample clearances for maintenance purposes. There
trol valve. Vents and drains should be provided as required to
should be sufÞcient clearance between the control valve actu-
service the control valve.
ator and the bypass line to allow removal of the actuator, bon-
b. The piping around control valves should be self-supporting
net, and plug. Preferred mounting is vertical.
or should be permanently supported so that when the control
5.2 LOCATION valve or block valve is removed the piping integrity remains.
c. Severe services may require special valve manifold
5.2.1 Where there is a choice of location, it is desirable to designs. Design should be reviewed by user and manufacturer.
have the control valve installed near the piece of operating
equipment that should be observed while on local manual 5.3.4 Swages
control. In these cases, it is also desirable to have indication a. Where a ßanged or ßangeless control valve smaller than
of the controlled variable readable from the control valve line size is used, swages are placed adjacent to the control
handwheel or the bypass valve. valve except where additional piping is required to permit
removal of the through bolts. Some users swage outside
5.2.2 Control valves used in process lines or fuel lines to
the valve manifold to use smaller block valves, but this
Þred heaters should be located on the sides of the heater away
reduces the ßexibility of being able to change to a larger
from the burners or at a sufÞcient distance from the heater,
control valve on-line.
with blocks and bleed valves, so that the line can be drained
and the control valves removed without danger of a ßashback. 6 Refinery Applications
An alternate method is to pipe the drain or bleed connection a
safe distance from the heater. 6.1 Following are some speciÞc reÞnery control valve ser-
vices with application notes and recommendations. The valves
5.2.3 High temperatures can cause premature failure of recommended represent the most economical solution to the
actuator or positioner soft goods and electrical or electronic given problem. These solutions have been proven in service.
components. Control valves should not be located adjacent to
6.2 Materials and packing suggested in these examples may
hot lines or equipment, or where temperature may be exces-
be modiÞed, based on vendors, suggestions and speciÞc
sive. Consult the manufacturerÕs literature for maximum per-
applications. Special environmental packing may be used
missible ambient temperature.
where required.
5.2.4 Electrical devices should be approved for use under 6.3 The user is cautioned to understand the signiÞcance of
the applicable electrical area classiÞcation. the recommendations and the limitations. It is more likely that
a given problem will resemble an example than actually
5.3 CONTROL VALVE MANIFOLDS
match it. Thus, the user must use caution.
5.3.1 General
6.4 BOILER FEEDWATER RECIRCULATION
The design of control valve manifolds varies widely. In appli-
6.4.1 Operating Conditions
cations where a process shutdown for the servicing of control
valves cannot be tolerated and the process can be safely oper- Maximum
ated manually, block and bypass valves should be provided. Flow (#/Hr) 100,000
P1(psig) 2250
5.3.2 Block and Bypass Valves P2 (psig) 0
a. Where the greatest ßexibility is to be provided for future T (¡F) 160Ð180
Fluid Boiler Feedwater
expansion, the block valves upstream and downstream of the
control valve should be line size. In situations where the con- 6.4.2 Valve Specification
trol valve is two sizes smaller than line size, the block valves
Special designs are required for this extremely severe
may be one size smaller than line size.
service.
b. For controllability, the bypass valve capacity should not be
signiÞcantly greater than the control valve capacity. It is not 6.4.3 Trim
unusual to make bypass valves smaller than the line size in Cavitation control design, hardened, reduced port. A down-
such cases. stream oriÞce plate, to reduce differential and cavitation, has
--`,,``,,```,,,``,`,`,,,,,`,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 553 15

been used for some installations. This will only help at higher cally sealed contacts. Stainless steel tubing and Þttings. No
valve openings. On/off valve control is sometimes used for copper or brass components allowed.
this reason. Soft seats are normally not acceptable. Class V
6.6.3 Trim
shutoff rating is required.
Stainless steel disk and shaft.
6.4.4 Sizing
Conventional, choked ßow. 6.6.4 Sizing
Conventional.
6.4.5 Notes
Consult with knowledgeable manufacturer for proven 6.6.5 Notes
designs. This is a safety application and requires NACE materials
(per speciÞcation) and high reliability components.
6.5 FEEDWATER TO WASTE HEAT BOILER
6.5.1 Operating Conditions 6.7 SULFUR VAPOR TO EDUCTOR
6.7.1 Operating Conditions
Normal
Flow (#/Hr) 10000 Normal Shutdown
P1(psig) 600 Flow (SCFH) 2000 0
P2 (psig) 55 P1 (psig) -0.6 0
T (¼F) 228 P2 (psig) -0.65 -0.7
Fluid Boiler Feedwater T (¼F) 300 300
Fluid Sweep Air from Sulfur Pit, SG = 1.0
6.5.2 Valve Specification
One-inch carbon steel angle body, special application for 6.7.2 Valve Specification
cavitating service, outlet expander with replaceable erosion Three-inch, line size, block valve, tight shut-off butterßy or
insert. Diaphragm actuator with positioner. plug valve. Fail closed actuator with solenoid pilot, limit
6.5.3 Trim switches at open and closed positions. Carbon steel body,
steam jacketed on/off service. NACE speciÞcation materials.
Hardened plug and seat.
No copper or brass components allowed.
6.5.4 Sizing
6.7.3 Trim
Conventional, choked.
Tight shut-off required.
6.5.5 Notes
6.7.4 Sizing
Mount valve close to boiler with expanded outlet to pre-
Conventional.
vent cavitation damage due to restricted piping.
6.7.5 Notes
6.6 SULFUR RECOVERY UNIT ACID GAS BLOCK
VALVE Line and valve are steam jacketed with 50 psig steam to
prevent sulfur buildup in valve.
6.6.1 Operating Conditions
6.8 LIQUID SULFUR TO STORAGE
Normal Shutoff
6.8.1 Operating Conditions
Flow (SCFH) 120,000 0
P1(psig) 12 14
Normal
P2 (psig) 11.8 0
Flow (GPM) 5
T (¡F) 120 120
P1(psig) 30
Fluid Acid Gas, MW = 37.1
P2 (psig) 20
T (¼F) 280
6.6.2 Valve Specification
Fluid Liquid Sulfur
Ten-inch, line size, high performance butterßy valve, Class
V leakage or better. Carbon steel body, NACE MR01-75 cer- 6.8.2 Valve Specification
tiÞed materials, double TFE packing required. On/off service,
fail closed on loss of air supply or electric power to solenoid Plug type valve with actuator and positioner. Carbon steel
pilot. Open and closed limit position switches with hermeti- body, restricted trim.
--`,,``,,```,,,``

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16 REFINERY CONTROL VALVES

6.8.3 Trim area (i.e., backwards). Trim solid alloy 6 plug, seat ring and
retainer, 440C or Alloy 6 bearings, Nitronic 50 shaft.
Special characterized plug, stainless steel plug and seat.
6.10.3 Sizing
6.8.4 Sizing
Conventional sizing for liquids, allowing for volume of Þnes.
Conventional.
6.10.4 Notes
6.8.5 Notes
Catalyst Þnes entrained in the slurry pose a severe erosion
Body and ßanges are steam jacketed, 50 psig steam. problem and reduced trim life. Consider the impingement
angle of the particles on the trim. For added resistance to ero-
6.9 HYDROFLUORIC ACID SERVICE sion, upgrade the body to 316 SS or chrome-moly material
6.9.1 Operating Conditions and the ball to ceramic. It may be advisable to purge the bear-
ings with clean oil.
Various ßows, pressures and temperatures.
Hydroßuoric acid (HF), toxic and corrosive. 6.11 FEED TO HYDROCRACKER FRACTIONATOR
(FLASHING)
6.9.2 Valve Specification
6.11.1 Operating Conditions
Carbon steel body (WCB) for moderate temperature ser-
vices. Initial corrosion of the surface creates a protective bar-
Normal
rier to limit further corrosion. Abrasion or water can remove
Flow (GPM) 1150
this barrier. Use Monel body for high temperature services
P1(psig) 586
above 300¡F (hot acid). Use Monel trim. Monel develops a
P2 (psig) 245
protective coating in service. It is necessary to allow adequate
T (¼F) 110
clearances at critical metal interfaces at the plug to guides, Pv (psia) 593
and seat to body, to allow for this buildup. Pc (psia) 480
6.9.3 Quality Control Line (inch) 3
Fluid Hydrocarbon Liquid
Because of the toxic nature of HF, the quality of the
foundry and valve manufacturer is important. VeriÞcation of 6.11.2 Valve Specification
materials is required. It is important to eliminate any water
Angle style globe valve with ßow down over the plug.
from the valve; thus, pressure testing with kerosene is often
speciÞed. Kerosene is less viscous than water and will be 6.11.3 Trim
more sensitive in Þnding casting defects and seat leakage. Hardened trim. A hardened liner in the valve outlet can be
Leak detecting paint may be speciÞed for ßanges; the orange replaced when worn.
paint turns green on exposure to HF. Refer to process licens-
ers for detailed valve requirements. 6.11.4 Sizing
Conventional, ßashing, choked ßow.
6.10 CAT CRACKER BOTTOMS SLURRY OIL
6.11.5 Notes
Hydrocarbon/oil slurry with 15% solids.
Downstream piping length and restrictions should be mini-
6.10.1 Operating Conditions mized. Note that anytime ßashing occurs, it is very possible
that cavitation may occur at any ßow disruption point in the
Normal downstream piping, such as valves, elbows, or thermowells.
Flow (GPM) 2042
P1(psig) 60 6.12 REFORMER HOT GAS BLOCK/BYPASS
P2 (psig) 15 (THREE-WAY BUTTERFLY)
T (¡F) 560
Line (inch) 6 6.12.1 Operating Conditions
Fluid Oil slurry, 15% catalyst Þnes with Minimum Maximum
0.010Ðto 0.015-inch particle size.
Flow (MSCFH) 800 1600
P1(psig) 285 (max) 285 (max)
6.10.2 Valve Specification
P2 (psig) 282 (block) 0 (bypass)
Carbon steel body, segmented or eccentric ball design with T (¼F) 1560 1560
shaft upstream and ßow exiting the valve across the seating Fluid High Temperature Hydrogen

--`,,``,,```,,,``,`,`,,,,,`,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 553 17

6.12.2 Valve Specification 6.13.4 Sizing


Butterßy, combination 20" block, 10" bypass, on tee. 10" There is no analytical method for sizing under these
bypass valve has Inconel 800 liner with refractory lining. Pis- extreme conditions.
ton actuator with high performance positioner. 347 SS body. 6.13.5 Notes
6.12.3 Trim This valve satisfactorily replaced a globe-style valve with
very short trim life.
Special two-piece bearing for high temperature service,
with tap for steam purge. 6.14 KO DRUM VENT TO HYDROTREATER FLARE
6.12.4 Sizing 6.14.1 Operating Conditions
Conventional.
Normal
6.12.5 Notes Flow (SCFH) 23,760
P1(psig) 11.0
Very special application. Consult with vendor. P2 (psig) 10.5
T (¼F) 115
6.13 REACTOR LETDOWN WITH EROSIVE SOLIDS Fluid Acid Gas
6.13.1 Operating Conditions
6.14.2 Valve Specification
Minimum Normal Maximum An eccentric butterßy valve with soft seating is the eco-
Flow (Inlet) 595 GPM 1386 GPM 1642 GPM nomical choice. Class VI shutoff is required; pressure drop
Flow (Outlet) is low, and required capacity is high. NACE materials with

--`,,``,,```,,,``,`,`,,,,,`,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
(GPM/SCFM) 570/140 1305/290 1580/346 carbon steel body stress relieved.
P1(psig) 1635 1571 1571
P2 (psig) 395 395 395 6.14.3 Trim
T (¼F) 820 820 814 317 SS disk, PTFE seal, PTFE lined 316 SS bearings,
Fluid Gas OilÑßuid characteristics outgassing, Nitronic 50 shaft.
ßashing, cavitation, low angle and high angle parti-
cle impingement, low pH. 6.14.4 Sizing
Viscosity 0.24 cp Conventional.
Vapor Press 395 psig
Crit Press 711 psig 6.14.5 Notes
Materials should conform to NACE requirements (per
Solids 3% consisting of clay, catalyst, silica, 90% < 10
speciÞcation), due to acid gas service.
microns
H2S 3000 ppm 6.15 ANTISURGE CONTROL VALVES
6.15.1 Centrifugal compressors and blowers may enter a
6.13.2 Valve Specification
condition called ÒsurgeÓ at low ßow rates if there is insufÞ-
ÒAnti-cokingÓ angle valve, 1500# ANSI, 347 SS, 4" x 6" cient mass ßow to maintain a stable discharge pressure.
sweep angle body, expanding venturi outlet, with extended Because surge causes sudden changes in the forces on mov-
bonnet, plug/guide purging system, piston actuator with high ing parts and bearings, it may damage or destroy the com-
performance positioner and valve position switch or transmit- pressor. The most common anti-surge control system directly
ter. Heat treatment is required for the valve body. or indirectly, measures, the ßow through the compressor and
Quality ControlÑ100 percent radiography of body and bon- opens a valve as required to maintain sufÞcient ßow to avoid
net; liquid dye penetrant inspection; mill test reports; hydro- an unstable pressure/ßow region. The valve should be sized,
static test report; Þnal visual inspection; and NACE materials. usually for several ßow and pressure conditions, to be sure it
can serve the full range of needs. It must respond quickly and
6.13.3 Trim accurately to prevent a damaging surge in the compressor.
11/2" port, modiÞed parabolic plug, massive plug guiding, 6.15.2 These valves typically generate high noise levels
outlet liner. Plug, seat ring, seat ring retainer are mixture of without noise abatement treatment. It is a business decision to
Inconel 718, TC Grade 701, Inconel 625 with cobalt chrome evaluate the frequency and duration that the valve will be
hard facing. required to open, along with the predicted noise level, before

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18 REFINERY CONTROL VALVES

specifying the degree of noise control required. An example 6.17.3 Trim


application is shown below.
Unbalanced 1.875-inch port, 316 SST plug with CoCr-A
6.16 HIGH VOLUME, LOW PRESSURE AIR on the plug seat and guide. Post guiding, with 17-4PH stain-
BLOWER ANTI-SURGE VALVE less steel bushing, 316 SST seat ring with CoCr-A seat, and
17-4PH seat ring retainer. ANSI Class IV shutoff.
6.16.1 Operating Conditions
6.17.4 Sizing
Minimum Normal Maximum Shutoff
Conventional. Check for excessive noise.
Flow (SCFH)15000 80000 125000 0
P1(psig) 16 13 12 16
P2 (psig) 0 0 0 0
6.18 PUMP RECIRCULATION VALVE
T (¼F) 270 270 270 270 6.18.1 Operating Conditions
Fluid Air
Minimum Normal Maximum
6.16.2 Valve Specification Q gpm (US) 1000 3200 7000
Four-inch high performance butterßy, for tight shutoff and P1 (psig) 422 400 306
wide rangeability. Piston actuator and high performance posi- dP (psid) 372 350 256
Fluid Crude Oil with 10Ð12% solids.
tioner; specify stroke time based on estimated time constant
SG 0.8 0.87 0.87
of blower with discharge piping. Complete with silencer and
Pv (psia) 3.00 3.00 3.00
heavy wall pipe between valve and silencer. Vendor should Vis 3.00 3.00 3.00
estimate noise with and without silencer and recommend
installation details. Carbon steel body PTFE packing. 6.18.2 Valve Specifications
6.16.3 Trim Globe-style control valve with ANSI Class 300# 8 x 6 inch
WCC carbon steel body, Teßon packing, actuator, and posi-
Carbon steel disk, stainless steel shaft.
tioner for throttling service.
6.16.4 Sizing
6.18.3 Trim
Conventional, choked.
Stem-guided 7-inch port, unbalanced construction, 416
6.16.5 Notes stainless steel valve plug, and 410 stainless steel seat ring are
selections with high hardness to combat erosive ßow; precipi-
This form of anti-surge valve vents to the atmosphere
tation hardened 17-4PH cage. ANSI Class IV shutoff.
instead of recycling the discharge to compressor suction. The
butterßy valve provides considerable cost savings over the 6.18.4 Sizing
low-noise globe style valve. User should specify acceptable
noise level, usually 85 dBA. Stroking speed response is criti- Standard liquid sizing is adequate here for an initial evalua-
cal for this application. tion. However, special procedures may be required to account
for solids present in ßowstream; beware of underestimating
6.17 CRUDE OIL PROCESSING UNIT THROTTLING / ßow coefÞcient with standard liquid sizing equations. Sizing
STEAM TO PRE-HEAT EXCHANGER should consider the erosive nature of the solids present in the
ßow stream; the equal percentage characteristic is preferred
6.17.1 Operating Conditions to position the operating conditions at an intermediate travel
Normal
to avoid the high velocity ßow of low travel conditions. The
Qs lb/h 250
equal percentage characteristic will also provide relatively
P1 psig 130 uniform control loop stability over the expected range of
dP psid 125 operating conditions, compensating for the installed gain
T Satur (¼F ) 356 effects of the pump curve. The 8 x 6 globe valve has the outlet
T (¼F) 450 area required and pressure recovery characteristics that may
Fluid Steam avoid choked conditions in a conventional ball valve while
maintaining the ability to operate at higher travels.
6.17.2 Valve Specification
6.19 CRUDE OIL PROCESSING UNIT HEAVY
Post-guided sliding stem control valve, 2" globe valve ßow BOTTOMS (HIGH TEMPERATURE TAR)
up, ANSI Class 300# WCB carbon steel body with graphite
packing; actuator with positioner. 6.19.1 Operating Conditions

--`,,``,,```,,,``,`,`,,,,,`,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 553 19

Normal Maximum self ßushing valve with actuator and positioner for throttling
Q gpm (US) 285 340 control.
P1 (psig) 250 250
6.20.3 Trim
dP (psid) 20 25
T(¡F) 800 800 Full 3-inch port with unbalanced, post-guided, equal per-
Fluid Crude unit heavy bottoms; high temperature of centage 316 stainless steel plug with CoCr-A plug seat and
1000 (¡F) approximately erosive ßow with ÒstickyÓ particu- guide. 17-4PH stainless steel seat ring retainer and 17-4PH
lates. stainless steel guide bushing. ANSI Class IV shutoff.
SG 0.762 0.762
Pv (psia) 0.500 0.500 6.20.4 Sizing

6.19.2 Valve Specification Conventional.

Eccentric rotary valve, ANSI Class 300# 3-inch C5 body, 6.21 CRUDE PROCESSING UNIT—THROTTLING/
graphite fugitive emission packing, actuator and positioner for HOT OIL
throttling service. C5 chrome-moly body provides enhanced
6.21.1 Operating Conditions
hardness characteristics with higher ANSI pressure/tempera-
ture ratings. Reverse ßow (ßow passes plug, then seal) ball
Normal Maximum
valve preferred to maximize valve body life and divert high
Q gpm (US) 314 350
velocity erosive ßow downstream. ANSI Class IV shutoff.
P1 (psig) 85 85
6.19.3 Trim dP (psid) 20 20
T (¡F) 600 600
Reverse ßow full port trim conÞguration consisting of 17- Fluid Intermediate temperature hot oil
4PH stainless steel seat ring retainer, Alloy 6 (Stellite 6) seal, SG 0.85 0.85
and Stellite 6 valve plug with equal percentage characteristic. Pv (psia) 3.00 3.00
Reverse ßow conÞgurations will minimize high velocity ßow
across the rotary plug, seal, and inner valve body surfaces, 6.21.2 Valve Specifications
helping maintain shutoff speciÞed and optimal body life. 17-
4PH shaft and Stellite 6 bearing will provide high tempera- Sliding stem globe style control valve with ANSI Class
ture strength, as well as desirable corrosion and galling resis- 300# 4-inch chrome-moly body, graphite packing, and exten-
tance. The 17-4PH/Alloy 6 shaft/bearing combination will sion bonnet. Flow down restricted port cage-guided balanced
minimize valve friction which would be caused by excessive trim with actuator and positioner for throttling control.
ßuid particle buildup in the bearing areas. 6.21.3 Trim
6.19.4 Sizing Restricted port, balanced, cage-guided trim with 316
stainless steel valve plug with CoCr-A plug seat and guide.
Conventional.
17-4PH stainless steel equal percent cage with Alloy 6
6.20 CRUDE OIL PROCESSING UNIT— (Stellite 6) seat ring and 316 stainless steel strain-hardened
THROTTLING/WASH OIL stem. ANSI Class II leakage.

6.20.1 Operating Conditions 6.21.4 Sizing


Conventional.
Normal Maximum
Q gpm (US) 285 340 6.22 SPRAY WATER TO DESUPERHEATER
P1 (psig) 25 25 (UTILITIES)
dP (psid) 20 20
T (¡F) 600 600 6.22.1 Operating Conditions
Fluid Intermediate temperature wash oil
--`,,``,,```,,,``,`,`,,,,,`,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

SG 0.762 0.762 Normal Maximum


Pv (psia) 0.500 0.500 Flow:gpm 0.37 0.75
P1(psig) 400 400
6.20.2 Valve Specifications dp (psid) 183 133
Temperature (¡F) 200 200
Sliding stem globe style control valve with ANSI Class Fluid Water
300# 3-inch chrome-moly body, graphite packing. Flow-up SG 0.96 0.96

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20 REFINERY CONTROL VALVES

6.22.2 Valve Specification close action, pneumatic positioner, and electro-pneumatic


transducer with small-volume and self-operated regulator.
One-inch globe style top-guided single port unbalanced
ßow up design valve. Body construction WCB 300 RF 6.24.3 Trim
with actuator and positioner for throttling control.
17-4PH cage, 416 SST seat ring, 316 SST stem.
6.22.3 Trim
6.24.4 Sizing
Trim 316 SST seat and stem with 316 SST Alloy 6-plug
tip. Conventional.

6.22.4 Sizing 6.25 HOT SEPARATOR LIQUID TO HOT FLASH


DRUM (POWER RECOVERY TURBINE
Conventional. BYPASS)—HYDROCRACKER

6.23 EXCHANGER HGO BYPASS—FCC 6.25.1 Operating Conditions

6.23.1 Operating Conditions Normal


Flow-Inlet (gpm) 2008
Normal Maximum Flow-Outlet (gpm) 1645
Q (barrel/day) 20,000 20,000 Flow-Outlet (scfm) 6250
P1 (psig) 140 140 P1 (psig) 2435
dP (psid) 5.00 1.00 P2 (psig) 360
T (¼F) 650 650 T-Inlet (¡F) 550
Fluid Heavy Gas Oil T-Outlet (¡F) 545
SG 0.73 0.73 Pv (psia) 2449.7
Pv (psia) 3.00 3.00 Pc (psia)-(pseudo) 286.0
SG (liquid Inlet) 0.538
6.23.2 Valve Specification SG (liquid Outlet) 0.627

--`,,``,,```,,,``,`,`,,,,,`,,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Eight-inch three-way globe valve with diverging ßow Mol Wt (Vapor) 23.580
and throttling applications. Carbon steel body. Actuator Fluid Hydrogen Liquid with trace H2S
with fail down option and pneumatic positioner.
6.25.2 Valve Specification
6.23.3 Trim 3" x 4", 1500 RF, angle-style axial ßow multi-step valve. 21/4
Stainless steel seat ring, plug, and strain-hardened stem. percent Cr, 1 percent Mo body, NACE conformance body and
trim. Class V shutoff required.
6.23.4 Sizing
6.25.3 Trim
Conventional.
Expanding labyrinth plug with top and bottom balanced
6.24 GAS OIL RECIRCULATION—CAUSTIC piston guide. Hardened trim.
HYDROTREATER (CHD)
6.25.4 Sizing
6.24.1 Operating Conditions
The calculated Cv for this ßashing service is determined by
adding the calculated Cv for liquid and the vapor at the outlet
Minimum Normal Maximum
conditions of the valve. Process simulation is required to cal-
Q (bpd) 25,000 45,000 70,000
culate the amount of vapor ßashed. The ISA sizing equations
P1 (psig) 1050 1050 1050
are inaccurate for this ßashing application. ManufacturersÕ
dP (psid) 1000 1000 1000
control valve sizing programs which calculate ßashing only
T (¡F) 400 400 400
on the basis of single compound streams cannot be used for
Fluid Gas Oil
Pv (psia) 3.00 3.00 3.00
this sizing calculation.
SG 0.85 0.85 0.85 6.25.5 Notes
Inlet piping must be sized to minimize potential of ßashing
6.24.2 Valve Specification
at the valve inlet. Outlet piping shall be sized to avoid poten-
Four-inch globe valve with ßow down and tight shut-off. tial for cavitation occurring downstream of valve. Valve
Carbon steel body, double TFE packing. Actuator with fail installation with the body and actuator in the horizontal plane

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API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 553 21

simpliÞes piping and equipment layout. Trim style must be 7.1 VALVE TYPE
trash tolerant.
Valve type is dependent upon the distance from the leak
6.26 COLD SEPARATOR SOUR WATER— source. Any valve in the Þre zone should be Þre-safe. A gate
HYDROCRACKER valve, metal-seated ball valve, or high-performance butterßy
valve is considered to be Þre-safe. The valve selected should
6.26.1 Operating Conditions have been tested to API Spec 6FA, Fire Test for Valves, or an
equivalent standard test.
Normal
Flow-Inlet (gpm) 86.0
Flow-Outlet (gpm) 81.5 7.2 DEFINITIONS
Flow-Outlet (scfm) 320
P1 (psig) 2404 7.2.1 Emergency Block Valves
P2 (psig) 354
Emergency block valves are designed to control a hazard-
T-Inlet (¡F) 122
T-Outlet(¡F) 115 ous incident. These are valves for emergency isolation and
Pv (psia) 512 are designed to stop the uncontrolled release of ßammable or
Pc (psia)-(pseudo) 1300 toxic materials. These valves should be Þre-safe rated valves
SG (liquid Inlet) 0.960 if they are within the Þre zone. The valves may be referred to
SG (liquid Outlet) 0.973 as Types A, B, C, and D.
Mol Wt (Vapor) 34.020
Fluid
Water with 2.36 mole % H2S and 7.2.2 Determination of Fire Zone
trace hydrocarbon
This is the area which is unsafe to enter during an emer-
6.26.2 Valve Specification gency situation. Distances are included as example only
refer to plant standards for actual distances. The area is
11/2", 1500 RF, angle-style high resistance multi-step axial
ßow valve. Carbon steel body, NACE conformance body and considered to be within a 25-foot radius minimum sur-
trim. Class V shutoff required. rounding the leak source.

6.26.3 Trim 7.3 TYPES OF EVBs

Series of equal capacity stages with last stage expansion. 7.3.1 Type A Valve
Relatively large ßow passages and trim shearing action allow
long service life and reduced potential for clogging which can A manually operated Þre-safe block valve installed at the
occur with other multistage trim styles. Hardened trim. equipment. This type of valve is installed when, in the event
of a leak, ignition is not expected
6.26.4 Sizing
The calculated Cv for this ßashing service is determined by 7.3.2 Type B Valve

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adding the calculated Cv for liquid and the vapor at the outlet This Þre-safe block valve should be installed at a minimum
conditions of the valve. Process simulation is required to cal- of 25 feet from the leak source when ignition is expected. The
culate the amount of H2S ßashed. ManufacturersÕ control
Type B valve is manually operated and is limited to sizes up
valve sizing programs which calculate ßashing only on the
to and including 8 inches, and pressure classes through 300#.
basis of single compound streams cannot be used for this siz-
For reasons of access, the valve should be accessible via a
ing calculation.
platform with stairways or not be installed higher than 15 feet
6.26.5 Notes above grade.

Outlet piping shall be sized to avoid potential for cavitation 7.3.3 Type C Valve
occurring downstream of valve. Valve installation with the
body and actuator in the horizontal plane simpliÞes piping The Type C valve is a power-operated Type B valve. The
and equipment layout. Trim style must be trash tolerant. valve must be power-operated if larger than 8 inches or
because a pressure class higher than 300# is required. The
7 Emergency Block Valves valve should be installed a minimum of 25 feet (outside of the
An emergency block valve (EBV) is used as a means of power zone) from the leak source and no higher than 15 feet
isolating ßammable or toxic substances in the event of a leak above grade. The controls should be at the valve in an acces-
or Þre. sible location.

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22 REFINERY CONTROL VALVES

7.3.4 Type D Valve 7.5 ACTUATOR SELECTION


This is an EBV with remote controls. There is no restric- 7.5.1 Electric Motor Actuator
tion as to where the valve may be located, but the controls
should be a minimum of 40 feet from the leak source and 7.5.1.1 This is the Þrst choice for a gate valve. Because the
should be out of the Þre zone. An EBV installed at an eleva- electric motor will fail stationary upon power loss, any valve of
tion greater than 15 feet above grade will also come under this type which is in the Þre zone must have its actuator Þre-
this category. Both the actuator and that portion of the control proofed. Also, that portion of the control cable which is in the
cable and tubing which is in the Þre zone should be Þre- Þre zone should be Þreproofed. Fire/rated cable is an option.
proofed or designed to operate without failure during Þre 7.5.1.2 For EBV service, it is more important to close the
conditions. Specify that the conduit/tubing/cable supports are valve than to protect the actuator motor. Therefore, the fol-
required to be Þreproofed. lowing wiring precautions should be observed:
7.4 EBV GENERAL INSTILLATION GUIDELINES a. The closing torque switch should be bypassed and the
7.4.1 Compressors valve should close to make closed position limit switch.
b. The control circuit fuse should be bypassed.
7.4.1.1 EBVs are typically required for all compressors
c. The thermal overloads should be bypassed.
200 HP or larger handling ßammable or toxic materials.
d. Any thermistor in the motor windings should be bypassed.
7.4.1.2 An EBV is required in all suction and discharge
lines. 7.5.1.3 For motor actuated valves, the actuator-to-valve
adapter should be able to withstand the stall torque of the
7.4.1.3 An EBV is required between stages and interstage motor operator.
equipment if the interstage equipment holds greater than
1000 gallons of liquid. 7.5.2 Pneumatic Actuator
7.4.2 Pumps 7.5.2.1 This is the Þrst choice for quarter-turn valves.
7.4.2.1 An EBV is typically required for pumps having Fail-safe here refers to fail closed in the event of instru-
seals where the upstream vessel contains greater than 2000 ment air failure.
gallons of light ends or hydrocarbons above the auto ignition
point or above 600¡F. 7.5.2.2 Fail-to-Safety in a Fire

7.4.2.2 An EBV is required where the upstream vessel This valve is remotely operable under normal circum-
contains greater than 4000 gallons of liquid hydrocarbons. stances, but the actuator is sacriÞced in the event of a Þre. A
spring-return piston actuator on top of a metal-seated ball
7.4.3 Vessels valve is recommended. The pneumatic tubing connected to
the open port of the actuator should be sunlight-resistant
7.4.3.1 An EBV is required for vessels containing light polyethylene tubing and be wrapped around the actuator.
ends or toxic material. Alternately, a fusable plug can be used. When the valve is
7.4.3.2 An EBV is required for vessels containing liquids involved in a Þre, the tubing will melt and the valve will
heavier than light ends, but above the ßash point. close. The valve will remain closed despite involvment in the
Þre. No ÞreprooÞng is necessary.
7.4.4 Heaters
7.5.2.3 Operable During a Fire
7.4.4.1 An EBV is required for each fuel gas or oil line to
Þred heaters and boilers. A double block and bleed arrange- This actuator should be hard-piped (no soft tubing) and
ment with a single or multiple valves is often used. Reopen- should be Þreproofed. A spring-closed actuator or a double-
ing after a trip requires a manual reset which permits acting piston actuator with a fail-safe trip valve with two
relatching only after all safety interlock parameters have been check valves in series and air bottle may be used.
satisÞed. Refer to API RP 556, Manual on Installation of
Instruments and Control Systems for Fired Heaters and 7.5.2.4 Actuator to Valve Adaptation
Steam Generators.
For pneumatic actuated valves, the adapter should be able
7.4.4.2 An EBV is required for each feed line to a Þred to withstand the maximum torque generated by the actuator
heater that contains ßammable ßuid. The EBV should be with the maximum design air pressure applied to the piston.
located outside the Þrewall or Þrezone, which contains the The adapter must also be made of materials that will with-
heater. stand a Þre until the valve can be closed.
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API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 553 23

7.6 FIREPROOFING cess pressure from 0.0 psig to 110 percent of the relief valve
set pressure, and must hold the valve closed at 110 percent of
7.6.1 FireprooÞng must withstand a 2000¼F petroleum Þre the relief valve set pressure. Quick exhaust valves for rapid
while keeping all internal electrical controls and wiring below depressuring of the actuator may be speciÞed for on/off valves.
2000¼F for a period of at least twenty minutes. The Þreproof-
ing should be able to withstand a sustained water stream from 8.2.3 For mechanical integrity, the minimum body size
a Þre hose. The ÞreprooÞng should be weatherproof and sun- and rating should be 2-inch 300# ANSI ßanged, with
light resistant. Refer to API Publication 2218, FireprooÞng reduced trim as required.
Practices in Petroleum and Petrochemical Processing Plants.
8.2.4 Valve plug should be a single seated metal seat with
quick opening or linear trim characteristic, with process pres-
8 Vapor Depressuring Valves sure tending to open the valve. Top or cage-guiding is accept-
8.1 GENERAL able. Soft-seated trim should not be used.

8.1.1 Vapor depressuring systems are often installed on 8.2.5 The depressuring valve and actuator combination
large volume hydrocarbon systems, especially those operat- should achieve a Class V shutoff.
ing at higher pressures. They are used to prevent upset condi-
tions from actuating safety relief valves or to automatically 9 Hydraulic Slide Valve Actuators
depressure the equipment in emergency conditions, espe-
9.1 GENERAL
cially in case of Þre. If there is a Þre around a vessel contain-
ing both liquid and vapor, the unwetted portion of the vessel 9.1.1 This section details requirements for hydraulic type
will probably reach a temperature at which the strength of the slide valve actuators with a dedicated hydraulic unit for each
material will be reduced. In this case, the relief valve would valve where the hydraulic unit is separate from the valve actu-
not protect against vessel rupture, whereas a vapor depressur- ator. Central hydraulic units that are used to power multiple
ing system could reduce the pressure to a safe level. A vapor valves are sometimes used. Some newer designs have an inte-
depressuring system should be provided for process equip- gral hydraulic unit, which is mounted right on each slide
ment within a designated Þre area where, as a result of Þre valve actuator. Other large continuous duty valves may use
exposure, the internal pressure would exceed 100 psig or 50% these actuators.
of design pressure, whichever is lower.
9.1.2 Each slide valve can have a totally independent
8.1.2 Emergency vapor depressuring facilities should con- hydraulic and control system. The following minimum com-
sist of locally and remotely operated, manually and/or auto- ponents should be included at or near each valve:
matically controlled depressuring valves discharging into a
closed system. a. A slide valve actuator consisting of high pressure hydrau-
lic cylinders, manual operator, adapter plates to mount the
8.1.3 Depressuring valves should be sized in accordance actuator to the valve bonnets, a position feedback sensor, and
with API RP 521 for conditions of Þre exposure, density any locally required manifolding, tubing, or valving.
change, and liquid ßash, assuming that depressuring starts at b. A hydraulics skid containing all required hydraulic supply
the normal operating pressure or at the set point of the auto- system components and positioning controls. This includes
matic pressure controller. The valves should be sized to the hydraulic oil reservoir, hydraulic pumps and drivers, Þl-
depressure the system within 15 minutes to 100 psig or 50% ters, manifolding, valving and interconnecting tubing, servo
of design pressure, whichever is lower, unless this depressur- valves, high pressure accumulators, pump controls, positioner
ing rate would subject equipment to unacceptably low tem- electronics, pressure gauges and miscellaneous other
peratures. Low temperature materials may be required for the instrumentation.
depressuring valve and its outlet piping.
9.2 HYDRAULIC POWER UNIT (HPU)
8.2 DEPRESSURING VALVES AND ACTUATOR
REQUIREMENTS 9.2.1 The hydraulic ßuid should be a nonßammable syn-
thetic or natural type hydraulic oil suitable for use in high
8.2.1 Control valves may be used for depressuring service. pressure, high performance hydraulic systems and ambient
Some users specify two-position on/off valves only, while temperature range.
others may use throttling valves with pressure control pilots
and positioners. 9.2.2 The entire hydraulic system should be constructed of
300 series stainless steel. The reservoir should be equipped
8.2.2 Depressuring valves should be equipped with pneu- with vent and vacuum breaker valves set at no more than 2
matic actuators with a spring for positive action on air failure. psig positive and 0.3 psig negative pressure, or as required by
Actuator should be designed to open the valve with any pro- the reservoir design. The reservoir should be provided with

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24 REFINERY CONTROL VALVES

additional inlets and outlets as required for Þlling and venting required. In addition, a local manual hydraulic hand pump
operations. Vents should be provided with Þlters to prevent oil or standby hydraulic accumulator backup hydraulic system
contamination. Some users blanket the reservoir with nitro- is required. Any manual operation should actuate dry con-
gen or provide a desiccant type drier on the vent to prevent tacts for remote alarm indication.
moisture and dirt contamination of the hydraulic oil.
9.3.4 All systems should be self-contained. Single block
9.2.3 Each hydraulic power unit should be equipped with manifolds with a minimum of interconnecting tubing are pre-
dual pumps and drivers. Pumps should be variable stroke pos- ferred. Connections to the valve actuator cylinders should be
itive displacement types and be equipped with internal relief ßexible braided hose.
valves. Each pump on each HPU should be of identical con-
9.3.5 The positioner system must lock the slide valve in
struction. One pump should be driven by a constant speed
place and activate an alarm contact upon any of the following
electric motor. The second pump is usually speciÞed to be
conditions:
driven by an air motor, or can be powered by an isolated elec-
trical feeder. Drivers should be sized to provide design a. Loss of feedback.
hydraulic oil ßow at the hydraulic oil relief pressure. The b. Loss of control signal.
motor starter for the electric motor driven pump is usually c. Loss of power.
supplied as part of the hydraulic unit. d. Electronics failure.
e. Excessive servo position deviation error.
9.2.4 The hydraulic power unit must include a pump con-
trol system which will automatically start the spare pump, 9.3.6 The positioner should be electronic type and accept a
designated by a switch on the HPU front panel, if the hydrau- 4Ð20 ma DC control signal. The slide valve will be closed at 4
lic supply pressure drops below a pre-set pressure. Alarm ma and open at 20 ma. All wiring should be run with appro-
contacts indicating that the spare pump is running are priate high temperature wiring, or routed to avoid high tem-
required. perature areas.
9.2.5 If coolers are required, dual coolers with a dual 3- 9.3.7 Electronic valve stem position feedback should be
way switching valve should be provided. Coolers should be provided to the positioner. Magneto-restrictive or LVDT tech-
installed on the hydraulic oil return stream. If air coolers are nology is preferred over slidewire or potentiometer tech-
used, they should not require any type of forced air cooling. niques. The positioner system should also transmit a 4Ð20 ma
signal proportional to the valve stem position to the reÞnery
9.2.6 The HPU should include high pressure oil accumula-
control system.
tors with sufÞcient capacity to provide for two complete valve
strokes (full open to full closed, or vice versa, is one stroke). 9.3.8 It is desirable to be able to calibrate the position feed-
Accumulators shall be designed such that they can be back system without stroking the slide valve.
recharged and maintained/removed online without shutdown.
9.3.9 The hydraulic supply and positioner systems must
9.2.7 The HPU should include all required interconnecting include outputs for remote indication of diagnostic alarms

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manifolding, tubing, valving, etc. Dual high pressure hydrau- (see 9.4.13 for complete list).
lic oil Þlters with valving necessary to allow switching of Þl-
ters and change-out of Þlter elements should be provided. All 9.4 INSTRUMENTATION REQUIRED
tubing Þttings should be O-ring seal SAE hydraulic type Þt- 9.4.1 Pump discharge pressure gauge on HPU gauge board.
tings. Compression Þttings are not recommended.
9.4.2 Pump discharge pressure switch with circuit to auto-
9.3 SLIDE VALVE POSITIONER SYSTEMS matically start the standby pump.
9.3.1 Each slide valve actuator should be provided with a 9.4.3 Pump suction pressure gauge on the HPU gauge
positioning system complete with a local Þeld panel. board.
9.3.2 Each system should have dual inlet Þlters for hydrau- 9.4.4 Vacuum breaker on oil reservoir.
lic ßuid. These Þlters should be switchable so that Þlter ele-
9.4.5 Rotameter for nitrogen purge to oil reservoir.
ments may be changed while on-stream.
9.4.6 Oil reservoir instruments:
9.3.3 For manual operation of the slide valves, each
actuator system should include a mechanical handwheel a. Level sight gauge.
and the capability to readily bypass the hydraulic system. b. Temperature indicator.
The design must permit removal of the hydraulic cylinder c. High temperature switch.
while the valve remains on handwheel control. A local d. Low level switch.
hydraulic manual ÒOpen-Stop-CloseÓ control is also e. Low-low level switch to stop pumps.

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API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 553 25

9.4.7 Pressure gauge on HPU gauge board for Þltered high 3. Spare hydraulic pump running*.
pressure hydraulic ßuid for distribution. 4. Low accumulator pressure*.
9.4.8 Accumulator(s) pressure gauge. 5. Positioner purge failure (if used).
b. Positioner Common Failure Alarm.
9.4.9 Temperature indicator on cooling water return from
1. Positioner in local mode.
hydraulic ßuid heat exchangers.
2. Loss of control signal.
9.4.10 Accumulator low pressure switch. 3. Loss of feedback signal.
9.4.11 Purge instruments (rotameter and pressure switch) 4. Loss of power.
for electrical boxes as required. 5. Excessive servo error.
9.4.12 Selector switch for determining primary hydraulic 6. Loss of positioner power.
pump. The no-selected pump automatically becomes the 7. Low-low reservoir level*.
Òstand-by.Ó 8. Low-low hydraulic supply pressure*.
* Only one set of alarms if a common HPU is used. If ded-
9.4.13 Alarms icated HPUs are used, alarms are required for each HPU.
9.4.13.1 The package must include all required process
switches and an alarm indication system to advise the opera- 9.5 PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS
tor of abnormal conditions. Alarms may be indicated at the
9.5.1 Linearity of stroke and the transmitted position signal
positioner Þeld panels and hydraulic unit (if these are sepa-
versus the input control signal should be within ± 0.25 per-
rated) using LEDs, pilot lights, or alarm annunciators. Alarms
cent full stroke.
should be included for each slide valve actuator for:
9.5.2 Tracking error (setpoint deviation) should be ± 2 per-
a. Low reservoir level*.
cent maximum.
b. High reservoir temperature*.
c. Spare pump running*. 9.5.3 Adjustable stroking speeds should be provided.
d. Low-low reservoir level*.
e. Low-low hydraulic pressure*. 9.5.4 Stability of movement at constant position control
f. Low accumulator pressure. signal input should not exceed 0.1 percent of full stroke
g. Positioner in local mode. (cyclical, peak to peak).
h. Loss of control signal.
i. Loss of feedback signal. 9.6 ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS
j. Excessive servo error.
9.6.1 Area ClassiÞcation: Minimum Class 1, Division 2,
k. Loss of power.
Group D. The electrical equipment must be suitable for the
l. Electronics purge failure (if used).
area electrical classiÞcation.
* Only one set of alarms required if a common HPU is
used. Locate at HPU skid.
9.7 TESTING AND INSPECTION
9.4.13.2 Provide dry Form C contacts to indicate posi-
tioner common trouble and positioner failure alarms to the 9.7.1 A factory functional acceptance test, demonstrating that
reÞnery control system. the entire system performs properly, is highly recommended.

9.4.13.3 The following alarm groups should be provided 9.8 SLIDE VALVE ACTUATOR SERVICE
for each slide valve:
9.8.1 Following is an example of a typical slide valve/actu-
a. Positioner Common Trouble Alarm. ator data sheet:
1. Low reservoir level*.
2. High reservoir temperature*.

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26 REFINERY CONTROL VALVES

Location: Regenerator
Valve Size: 36"
Stroke Including Overlap: 23"
Controlling Stroke: 191/8"
Welded or Flanged: Welded
Hot or Cold Wall Valve: Hot
Jacking Conn. on Body: Yes
Lip Seals Provided: Yes
Purges: Bonnet
OriÞce Opening: 292 sq inches
OriÞce Shape: Bonnet
Actuator Type: Hydraulic
Operating Modes: Auto/Manual
Input Control Signal: 4Ð20 ma.
Local Control: Yes
Cylinder ID: 14"
Stroke Travel Time: 30 seconds
Handwheel: Yes
Air Motor: No
Positioner Type: Electronic
Position Indicator: Yes
Limit Switches: No
250 psig or 2000 psig in high
Hydraulic System Pressure:
pressure service
Hydraulic Fluid: Hydraulic Synthetics
Multiple or Local System: Multiple
Filter Location: Hydraulic Skid
Filter Elements: Supply: 3 micron, high beta
Return: 50 micron
Accumulator Capacity:
Backup # of Strokes:

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