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UNIVERSITY OF TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

MATH2005 – PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS I


MID-SEMESTER EXAMINATION – TEST #1
2016/2017 SEMESTER I

DATE: 18th October, 2016

TIME: 1:15 p.m. – 3:15 p.m. DURATION: 2 hours

Student Number ______________ Campus ________________________

Instructions to candidates
1. All questions must be attempted.
2. State the correct or most suitable response for each of the questions 1-66.
3. Question #67 requires short essay–type answers or computations.
4. Non-programmable scientific calculators are allowed.
5. This examination contributes 20% towards the overall grade for this course.

For each of the following questions select the most appropriate response:

1. The head of security at UTT is interested in finding out why students do not always wear their
identification badges. He goes to the general waiting area and interviews the twenty students he
encounters there. This set of 20 students represents

a. a stratified random sample


b. a random sample
c. a non-random sample
d. a simple random sample.

2. Wayne is collecting data on students’ heights and records these heights according to ‘Short’,
‘Medium Height’, ‘Tall’, and ‘Very Tall’. In this context, the variable ‘height’ is said to be

a. quantitative and continuous


b. qualitative and nominal
c. qualitative and dichotomous
d. qualitative and ordinal

3. Data collected over a period of 10 years on the number of violent crimes committed per year in a
particular region are summarized as follows:

Mean Trimmed Mean


122.0 121.8

This suggests that

a. the mean number of violent crimes has increased over the years.
b. there exist outlier values that affect the mean as being representative of the typical values in the
data set.
c. The data set is skewed.
d. Outliers may exist but do not affect the mean as being representative of the typical values in
the data set.

4. Indicate which of the below mentioned charts must be derived from a grouped frequency
distribution:

a. Box-and-Whisker plot
b. Simple Bar Chart
c. Pie Chart
d. Histogram

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For questions 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9, consider the information given in the table below:
(The column ‘Frequency’ is incomplete.)

Scores Frequency Cumulative Frequency


0-9 2 2
10-19 5
20-29 10
30-39 19
40-49 21

5. The data here is said to be

a. Grouped and discrete.


b. Grouped and continuous
c. Ungrouped and discrete
d. Ungrouped and continuous.

6. The number of data scores is

a. 49
b. 21
c. 57
d. 50

7. The median class interval is

a. 10-19
b. 20-29
c. 30-39
d. 40-49

8. The lower boundary of the class interval ‘40-49’ is

a. ‘30-39’
b. 39
c. 39.5
d. 40

9. When the mean score is determined from this distribution, it would always be

a. the same as the median


b. an approximate of the true but unknown mean
c. the same exact value that one would get if all the original data values were used instead
d. representative of the typical values in the data set

10. Which of these statements is characteristic of the median?

(a) It can be derived only from either quantitative or qualitative data sets.
(b) It is influenced by changes in the extreme values.
(c) It is not always an original data value.
(d) It is a measure of dispersion.

11. A distribution of values is represented on a histogram and the resulting shape is one that is
skewed to the right. Which of the following holds true?

(a) Mean < Median < Mode


(b) Mean < Mode < Median
(c) Mode < Median < Mean
(d) Mode < Mean < Median

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12. Consider the two Box-and-Whisker plots in the diagram below:

Boys

Girls

Which is true?

a. Both distributions are negatively skewed.


b. The boys’ scores have approximately the same spread as the girls’ scores.
c. The girls’ scores are less dispersed than that of the boys.
d. The quartile deviation of the girls is greater than that of the boys.

13. For any two events, A and B, if Pr(A‫׀‬B) = Pr(A), then

a. A and B are mutually exclusive


b. A and B are mutually independent
c. A and B are joint events
d. A and B are certain events

14. For a given experiment, with two events, A and B, P(A) = 0.8, P(B) = 0.6 and P(A and B) =
0.7. Therefore

a. P(A or B) = 1.4
b. P(A or B) = 0.7
c. P(A or B) = 0.48
d. A and B are mutually exclusive events

15. Which of these is NOT a measure of dispersion?

a. Lower quartile
b. Range
c. Standard deviation
d. Variance

16. Under what condition is the arithmetic mean NOT the preferred measure of central
tendency?

(a) When the mean, median and mode are approximately equal.
(b) When the distribution is symmetrical and uni-modal.
(c) When the trimmed mean is significantly different from the mean.
(d) When the data values are discrete.

17. Indicate which of the below mentioned charts must be derived from a grouped frequency
distribution

(a) Box-and-Whisker plot (b) Simple Bar Chart


(c) Pie chart (d) Histogram

18. Which of the following measures is least affected by outliers?

(a) The median (b) The range


(c) The standard deviation (d) The mean.

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19. The act of selecting a student at random from a class of 30 students and recording whether
he/she is a heavy smoker is an example of mutually exclusive events. True / False

20. Which of the following statements is true for the following data values?
7, 5, 6, 3, 8, 1, 12

(a) The mean, mode and median are all equal.


(b) Only the mean and median are equal.
(c) Only the mean and mode are equal.
(d) None of these.

21. Which of the following is false?

(a) The range is sensitive to changes in extreme values.


(b) The median uses two observations in its calculation.
(c) The sum of the deviations of the individual observations from the mean is always zero.
(d) The sum of the deviations of the individual observations from the median is always
different from zero.

Classify the output of each of the following according to primary or secondary data:

22. The Degree Options of students registered for UTT for the academic year 2011 / 2012
derived from records in the administrative department of UTT. Primary / Secondary

23. Using a telephone directory, then calling persons at random from it to interview them on
their views on West Indian cricket. Primary / Secondary

The following descriptions of data facts were collected. Classify each item according to
qualitative, quantitative, discrete or continuous data:

24. No. of cars in the car park Continuous / Discrete


25. Runs scored in a cricket match Ordinal / Discrete
26. Religious Persuasion Quantitative / Qualitative
27. Religion Quantitative / Qualitative
28. Birth Month Nominal / Ordinal
29. Observing students to determine whether or not they are wearing identification badges.
Primary / Secondary
30. Using a telephone directory to determine where telephone subscribers reside.
Primary / Secondary
31. Cash in hand per student in class Continuous / Discrete
32. Number of Siblings Continuous / Discrete
33. Height of Student in Class Continuous / Discrete

Indicate whether each of the statements below is True or False:

34. Inferential and inductive statistics are the same. True/False


35. If two events are NOT mutually exclusive then they must be mutually independent.
True/False
36. Calculating probabilities using the classical definition of probability assumes that the
outcomes for the implied experiment are equally likely. True/False
37. The act of selecting a student at random from a class of 30 students and recording whether
he/she is a heavy smoker is an example of a statistical experiment. True/False

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38. Two events may influence each other but their respective probabilities remain unaffected
when the other event occurs. We say that these events are mutually independent of each
other. True/False
39. A histogram differs from a simple bar chart in terms of the type of data each represents.
True/False
40. The median, like the quartile deviation, is a measure of dispersion. True/False
41. The median of an ungrouped data set is calculated as (n+1)/2. True/False
42. There is no absolute guarantee that the results from a sample will be representative of the
population from which it is taken. True/False
43. A Box-&-Whisker plot gives a general idea of the shape of the distribution of data values.
True/False

Fill in the blank space for each question below.

44. A survey in which observations are made on the entire population is called a
____________.

45. A _____________ is a diagram that displays all the data values in a distribution.

46. The most appropriate diagram used in displaying grouped, continuous data is a/an
____________.

47. If a distribution of values is skewed to the right then we expect the mean value to be
____________ than the median.

The Stem and Leaf output that corresponds to a set of test scores (out of 100) is as follows:

Stem-and-leaf of C1 N=?
Leaf Unit = 1.0

5 2 12589
16 3 00046667889
(16) 4 0112455555566778
18 5 0011289
11 6 1111233
4 7 003
1 8 7

Use this display to answer questions 48 through 61

48. How many data points form this set?


(a) 18 (b) 16 (c) 34 (d) 50

49. What is the lowest observation within the data set?


(a) 12 (b) 21 (c) 210 (d) 5

50. What is the highest observation within the data set?


(a) 187 (b) 87 (c) 870 (d) 18

51. What is the first quartile for this data set?


(a) 36 (b) 37 (c) 370 (d) 360

52. What is the third quartile for this data set?


(a) 500 (b) 58 (c) 580 (d) 50

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53. What is the median for this data set?
(a) 50 (b) 45 (c) 450 (d) 16

54. What is the width of the classes in this display?


(a) 9 (b) 5 (c) 10 (d) 19

55. What is the modal score?


(a) 5 (b) 16 (c) 61 (d) 45

56. What is the range of this data set?


(a) 66 (b) 660 (c) 34 (d) 6

57. What is the quartile deviation of this data set?


(a) 21 (b) 22 (c) 11 (d) 10.5

58. What is the last class interval of this distribution?


(a) 80 – 87 (b) 8 – 87 (c) 74 – 87 (d) 80 – 89

59. This data set has a uni-modal population. True / False

60. The distribution in this display is


(a) Positively skewed (b) Symmetric
(c) Negatively skewed (d) Neither of these

61. Imbedded in a stem and leaf diagram is/are


(a) a histogram (b) a frequency distribution
(c) a relative frequency distribution
(d) a cumulative frequency distribution

62. Which range encompasses three-fourths of the data described by this box-plot on the

right?

a. 20 to 40
b. 20 to 25
c. 20 to 30
d. 25 to 30
e. 25 to 40

63. Fifty percent of the data described by the box-plot above is below which value?

(a) 5
(b) 20
(c) 25
(d) 30
(e) 40

64. The median weight for a group of men is 65 kg; the mean is 75 kg. Based on your
knowledge of the mean and median would you expect the histogram for the group to look
most like (a), (b), or (c) below?

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65. The histogram you chose in the question above represents a distribution that is

(a) Skewed-to-the-left
(b) Uniform
(c) Skewed-to-the-right
(d) Symmetrical
(e) Bimodal

66. A percentile score of 40 indicates that a person

(a) answered 40% of the questions correctly on the test


(b) knows 40% of the material covered by the examination
(c) has earned a score equal to or better than 40 persons in his class
(d) has earned a score equal to or better than 40% of the persons in his class
(e) has earned a score of 40 on the test

67. A Port-of-Spain nightclub has the following data on the age and marital status of
2000 customers. We are going to select an individual at random from this group of
2000 customers.

Marital Status
Age | Single | Married
---------------------------------------------------------
Under 30 | 800 | 200
30 or more | 400 | 600
---------------------------------------------------------

a What is the probability that the person we choose is married and under the age of 30? (1)
b. What is the probability that the person we choose is married? (1)
c. What is the probability that the person we choose is 30 or older given that they are
single? (2)
d. What is the probability that the person we choose is either married or under 30? (2)
e. Are the events ‘single’ and ’30 or more’ independent events? Explain. (2)
f. Are the events ‘under 30’ and ‘single’ mutually exclusive events. Explain. (2)
END OF EXAMINATION

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