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Volcanic cones

Are among the simplest volcaniclandforms. They are built by ejecta

from a volcanicvent, piling up around the vent in the shape of
a conewith a central crater. Volcanic cones are of different types,
depending upon the nature and size of the fragments ejected during
the eruption.

Vents, of course, are the locations from which lava flows

and pyroclastic material are erupted. Their forms and orientations can
be used to determine many characteristics of the eruptionwith which
they were associated. There are two main endmembers in a spectrum
of pyroclastic vents in Hawai'i, spatter vents and cinder cones. Their
differences are due mostly to the gas content of the magma that is
erupted. Additionally, there are satellitic shields formed during
eruptions without fountaining and tuff cones formed
during phreatomagmaticeruptions.
As a dike approaches the surface, it generates a zone of tension at the
surface. This tension is usually manifested as a pair of cracks with the
ground with the area in between often lower than the surrounding
elevation (see below). The first phase of a Hawaiian eruption is usually
characterized by breaking to the surface of a dike along one of the two
fractures resulting in a line of erupting vents commonly called a
"curtain of fire" (e.g. Macdonald 1972). After a few hours or few days
most parts of the fissure stop erupting and activity is concentrated at
one or more separate vents (e.g. Bruce & Huppert 1989). It is these
vent locations that usually persist long enough (hours to weeks and
sometimes years) to produce significant near-vent constructs. The
change from long continuous erupting fissures to one or a few vents
must be remembered when mapping eruptive fissures in remote
sensing data and relating them to dike dimensions: The near-surface
part of the dike is almost certainly longer than any line of near-vent
constructs (see discussion in Munro 1992).

A magma chamber is a large pool of liquid rock beneath the surface of

the Earth. The molten rock, or magma, in such a chamber is under great
pressure, and, given enough time, that pressure can gradually fracture
the rock around it,[clarification needed][citation needed] creating a way for the
magma to move upward. If it finds its way to the surface, then the
result will be a volcanic eruption; consequently, many volcanoes are
situated over magma chambers. These chambers are hard to detect
deep within the Earth, and therefore most of those known are close to
the surface, commonly between 1 km and 10 km down.
A volcano crater is a circular depression around a volcanic vent. This is
where the lava, ash and rock erupt out of a volcano. In most situations,
the volcano crater is located at the top of the volcano. Think of a classic
cone-shaped volcano, with steep sides and a slightly flattened top.

A caldera is a large cauldron-like hollow that forms following the

evacuation of a magma chamber/reservoir. When large volumes of
magma are erupted over a short time, structural support for the crust
above the magma chamber is lost. The ground surface then collapses
downward into the partially emptied magma chamber, leaving a
massive depression at the surface (from one to dozens of kilometers in
diameter). Although sometimes described as a crater, the feature is
actually a type of sinkhole, as it is formed through subsidence and
collapse rather than an explosion or impact. Only seven known caldera-
forming collapses have occurred since the start of the 20th century,
most recently at Bárðarbunga volcano in Iceland
"Lava flow" redirects here. For the programming anti-pattern, see Lava
flow (programming). For other uses, see Lava (disambiguation).
10-metre-high (33 ft) fountain of pāhoehoe lava, Hawaii, United States
Lava flow during a rift eruption at Krafla, Iceland in 1984
Lava is molten rock generated by geothermal energy and expelled
through fractures in planetary crust or in an eruption, usually at
temperatures from 700 to 1,200 °C (1,292 to 2,192 °F). The structures
resulting from subsequent solidification and cooling are also sometimes
described as lava. The molten rock is formed in the interior of
some planets, including Earth, and some of their satellites, though such
material located below the crust is referred to by other terms.
A lava flow is a moving outpouring of lava created during a non-
explosive effusive eruption. When it has stopped moving, lava solidifies
to form igneous rock. The term lava flow is commonly shortened
to lava. Although lava can be up to 100,000 times more viscous than
water, lava can flow great distances before cooling and solidifying
because of its thixotropic and shear thinning properties.[1][2]
Explosive eruptions produce a mixture of volcanic ash and other
fragments called tephra, rather than lava flows. The word lavacomes
from Italian, and is probably derived from the Latin word labes which
means a fall or slide.[3][4] The first use in connection with
extruded magma (molten rock below the Earth's surface) was
apparently in a short account written by Francesco Serao on the
eruption of Vesuvius between May 14 and June 4, 1737.[5] Serao
described "a flow of fiery lava" as an analogy to the flow of water and
mud down the flanks of the volcano following heavy rain

Dikes are imaginable as the veins of a volcano, the pathways of rising

magma. A dike is called a -usually more or less vertical- flat, sheet-like
magma body that cuts unconformingly through older rocks or
sediments. ... The point where a dike reaches the surface and erupts
lava can be called a vent

In geology, a sill is a tabular sheet intrusion that has intruded between

older layers of sedimentary rock, beds of volcanic lava or tuff, or along
the direction of foliation in metamorphic rock. A sill is a concordant
intrusive sheet, meaning that a sill does not cut across preexisting rock
When a volcano erupts, it's spewing forth lava, ash and hot rock. ...
The volcano conduit is the pipe that carries this magma from the
magma chamber, up through the crust and through the volcano itself
until it reaches the surface

A lateral eruption, also called a flank eruption or lateral blast if

explosive, is avolcanic eruption that takes place on the flanks of
a volcano instead of at the summit. Lateral eruptions are typical at rift
zones where a volcano is breaking apart.

Volcano Summit. Volcano Summit is a large volcanic cavern found deep

inside and near the crater of Eldin Volcano in Skyward Sword. As
described by Ledd the Mogma, it is too hot for a normal traveler to

Lava - Molten rock that erupts from a volcano that solidifies as it cools.
Crater - Mouth of a volcano - surrounds avolcanic vent. Throat -
Entrance of a volcano. The part of the conduit that ejects lava
and volcanic ash.

Volcanic ash is formed during explosive volcanic eruptions when

dissolved gases in magma expand and escape violently into the
atmosphere. The force of the escaping gas shatters the magma and
propels it into the atmosphere where it solidifies into fragments of
volcanic rock and glass

Volcanic Bombs. Volcanic bomb is a pyroclast which was semi-molten

(viscous) while ejected from a volcanic vent and is therefore shaped
while in flight. A mass of molten rock (tephra) larger than 64 mm (2.5
inches) in diameter, formed when a volcano ejects viscous fragments of
lava during an eruption
A pyroclastic flow (also known as a pyroclasticdensity current or
a pyroclastic cloud) is a fast-moving current of hot gas
and volcanic matter (collectively known as tephra) that moves away
from a volcano about 100 km/h (62 mph) on average but is capable of
reaching speeds up to 700 km/h (430 mph).

The Minoan eruption of Thera, also referred to as the Thera

eruption, Santorini eruption, or Late Bronze Age eruption, was a
major catastrophic volcanic eruption with a Volcanic Explosivity
Index (VEI) of 6 or 7 and a dense-rock equivalent (DRE) of
60 km3(14 cu mi),[1][2] Dated to the mid-second millennium BCE,[3] the
eruption was one of the largest volcanic events on Earth in recorded
history.[4][5][6] It devastated the island of Thera (now called Santorini),
including the Minoan settlement at Akrotiri and communities and
agricultural areas on nearby islands and the coast of Crete with a
related earthquake and tsunami.

Lahars have several possible causes: Snow and glaciers can be melted
by lava and/or pyroclastic surges during an eruption. Lava gushes out of
open vents and can mix with wet soil, mud and/or snow on the slope of
the volcano making a very viscous, high energy lahar.