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Green Energy and Technology

More information about this series at http://www.springer.com/series/8059


Francisco Gonzalez-Longatt
José Luis Rueda Torres
Editors

Advanced Smart Grid


Functionalities Based
on PowerFactory

123
Editors
Francisco Gonzalez-Longatt José Luis Rueda Torres
Loughborough Department of Electrical Sustainable Energy
UK Delft University of Technology
Delft, Zuid-Holland
The Netherlands

ISSN 1865-3529 ISSN 1865-3537 (electronic)


Green Energy and Technology
ISBN 978-3-319-50531-2 ISBN 978-3-319-50532-9 (eBook)
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-50532-9
Library of Congress Control Number: 2017958729

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018, corrected publication 2018


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Foreword

Since the publication of the first book on PowerFactory applications in power


systems in 2014, a number of aspects related to the increased integration of
renewables have become even more relevant. The further increase in inverter-based
infeed means a subsequent rise in the need to manage its challenging aspects and
phenomena of interaction, control and stability. The definition of appropriate grid
code requireme nts to ensure stable and reliable power system operation, consid-
ering an increased number of players, market rules and uncertainties, as well as the
drastically increasing complexity of system operation tasks, demands sophisticated
and flexible software tools that are highly applicable to the engineering
requirements.
Due to rapid developments in power systems, specific requirements of advanced
software functions and features of the future are difficult to predict and implement,
especially considering software design, quality-based implementation and testing,
as well as backwards compatibility. The design and development of PowerFactory
software have always focused on functional integration, modelling precision, strong
numeric algorithms and in particular, overall flexibility featuring state-of-the-art
applications. To this end, substantial input and requirement definitions are received
via the PowerFactory user based on the utility sector and industry and from uni-
versities and research institutes.
The level of flexibility provided by PowerFactory is demonstrated in this new
application book on advanced smart grid functions, covering a wide range of highly
relevant topics. The various contributions deliver creative engineering solutions and
showcase the broad range of applications that can be covered on a sophisticated
technical level. Such contributions also encourage continuing confident utilisation
of PowerFactory by a large and growing user community to tackle today’s power
engineering tasks. In addition, this book provides further motivation to the
PowerFactory development team to incorporate advanced functionality and opti-
mise software efficiency and performance.

v
vi Foreword

We thank all authors who have contributed to this new book, initiated by
Francisco Gonzalez-Longat and José Luis Rueda Torres, for sharing their valuable
PowerFactory experiences and solutions. We are confident that these contributions
will greatly help to improve and develop further modern and sustainable power
systems.

Tübingen, Germany Dr.-Ing. Martin Schmieg


October 2017 Chairman of Advisory Board DIgSILENT GmbH
The original version of the book was
revised: ESM files have been included.
The erratum to this book is available at
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-50532-15

vii
Contents

1 Introduction to Smart Grid Functionalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1


Francisco Gonzalez-Longatt and José Luis Rueda Torres
2 Python Scripting for DIgSILENT PowerFactory: Leveraging the
Python API for Scenario Manipulation and Analysis of Large
Datasets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Claudio David López and José Luis Rueda Torres
3 Smart Network Planning—Pareto Optimal Phase Balancing for
LV Networks via Monte-Carlo Simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Benoît Bletterie, Roman Bolgaryn and Serdar Kadam
4 Co-simulation with DIgSILENT PowerFactory and MATLAB:
Optimal Integration of Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Distribution
Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
J. Garcia-Villalobos, I. Zamora, M. Marinelli, P. Eguia
and J. I. San Martin
5 Probabilistic Load-Flow Using Analysis Using DPL Scripting
Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Francisco Gonzalez-Longatt, S. Alhejaj, A. Marano-Marcolini
and José Luis Rueda Torres
6 Dynamic Stability Improvement of Islanded Power Plant by
Smart Power Management System: Implementation of PMS
Logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Hamid Khoshkhoo and Ali Parizad
7 Determining Wide-Area Signals and Locations of Regulating
Devices to Damp Inter-Area Oscillations Through
Eigenvalue Sensitivity Analysis Using DIgSILENT
Programming Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Horacio Silva-Saravia, Yajun Wang and Héctor Pulgar-Painemal

ix
x Contents

8 Dynamic Stability Improvement of Islanded Power Plant by


Smart Power Management System—Principles, Descriptions and
Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Ali Parizad and Hamid Khoshkhoo
9 Wide-Area Measurement, Monitoring and Control: PMU-Based
Distributed Wide-Area Damping Control Design Based on
Heuristic Optimisation Using DIgSILENT PowerFactory . . . . . . . . 211
Amin Mohammadpour Shotorbani, Sajad Madadi
and Behnam Mohammadi-Ivatloo
10 Optimal PMU Placement Framework Under Observability
Redundancy and Contingency—An Evolutionary Algorithm
Using DIgSILENT Programming Language Module . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Mohsen Zare, Rasoul Azizipanah-Abarghooee, Mostafa Malekpour
and Vladimir Terzija
11 Implementation of Slow Coherency Based Controlled Islanding
Using DIgSILENT PowerFactory and MATLAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
I. Tyuryukanov, M. Naglič, M. Popov and
M. A. M. M. van der Meijden
12 Peer-to-Peer (P2P) MATLAB–PowerFactory Communication:
Optimal Placement and Setting of Power System Stabilizer . . . . . . 301
Andrei Stativă and Francisco Gonzalez-Longatt
13 Implementation of the Single Machine Equivalent (SIME)
Method for Transient Stability Assessment in DIgSILENT
PowerFactory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
Jaime Cepeda, Paúl Salazar, Diego Echeverría and Hugo Arcos
14 Generic DSL-Based Modeling and Control of Wind Turbine
Type 4 for EMT Simulations in DIgSILENT PowerFactory . . . . . . 355
Abdul W. Korai, Elyas Rakhshani, José Luis Rueda Torres
and István Erlich
Erratum to: Advanced Smart Grid Functionalities Based
on PowerFactory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E1
Francisco Gonzalez-Longatt and José Luis Rueda Torres
Introduction

Looking beyond 2050, the challenges for reliable and secure operation and planning
of sustainable electricity networks will dramatically increase. The drivers of those
challenges include the combined effects of transnational grids and higher market
pressures, the transformation of generation technologies to meet environmental
targets and changes in anticipated future use of electricity. The major change to the
way we supply and use energy; building a smarter grid lie at the heart of these
changes. In particular, the ability to accommodate significant volumes of decen-
tralised and highly variable renewable generation requires that the network
infrastructure must be upgraded to enable smart operation. The reliable and
sophisticated solutions to the foreseen issues of the future networks are creating
dynamically intelligent application/solutions to be deployed during the incremental
process of building the smarter grid. Also, the boundaries between transmission and
distribution, which have been fundamental to the way the power industry and its
engineering support societies have been organised, will become vague and ulti-
mately disappear. For all the reasons above, there is a clear need to rethink the way
we actually operate the power systems in order to meet the economic, technical and
security requirements of future smart grids.
Classical approaches to power system planning such as “predict and provide”
(the mid-1980s) and “react and provide” (the mid-1990s) are not good enough to
face the most basic challenges created by smarter grids. Advanced smart grid
functionalities will be deployed in order to increase efficiency, safety, reliability and
quality of the future energy networks, transforming the current electricity grids into
a fully interactive (customers/operators) service network, developing bulk and
dispersed energy storage options and removing obstacles to the massive-scale
deployment and effective integration of distributed and renewable energy sources.
The smart grid needs more powerful computing platforms (centralised and
dispersed) to handle large-scale data analytic tasks and supports complicated
real-time applications.
Sophisticated simulation packages are required by the smarter grids, and new
functionalities are required from them: capability to collect data from smart metres
and sensors in near real time; integrate with live weather data, geographical

xi
xii Introduction

location; perform a predictive analysis on the aggregated data; and provide decision
support for integrating storage, renewable energy sources and transportation sys-
tems. DIgSILENT has set standards and trends in power system modelling, analysis
and simulation for more than 25 years; and PowerFactory 2017 offers major fea-
tures required by advanced smart grid functionalities: calculation functions,
extensions to the data model and data management system.
Scientists who research and teach electricity power systems and smart grids,
professionals at electric utilities, consultancy companies, etc., all of them require
taking advantage of the most advanced capabilities provided by the power system
simulation packages, DIgSILENT PowerFactory.
Also, there is a lack of knowledge on practical/theoretical principles of advanced
smart grid functionalities, especially on regarding “how to” apply modern power
systems software on their implementation.
This book consolidates some of the most promising advanced smart grid func-
tionalities and a comprehensive set of guidelines for its implementation/evaluation
using DIgSILENT PowerFactory.
The book covers the most important aspects of advanced smart grid function-
alities, including special aspects of modelling as well as simulation and analysis,
e.g. wide-area monitoring, visualisation and control. Key advanced features of
modelling and automation of calculations using PowerFactory are presented, e.g.
use of DIgSILENT Simulation Language (DSL) and DIgSILENT Programming
Language (DPL) for design and simulation of wide-area/smart grid/intelligent
control schemes, use of PowerFactory for model identification and dynamic
equivalencing and use of an interface with third-party software for solving problems
of optimisation in operation/planning of smart grids.
Besides, realistic examples are specially designed to illustrate the application of
PowerFactory on the analysis of the specific phenomenon. Step-by-step procedure
is used to explain “How to” employ PowerFactory, and concise theoretical dis-
cussions are used to empathise physical understanding of the phenomenon. One
important contribution of this book is to make publically available in a website all
projects, models and script developed in this book. Those files will allow the reader
to follow step by step the examples and be capable of reproducing results. Models
and scripts developed in this book can be adapted and modified by the reader to
extend its use to other cases and problems.
Chapter 1 is dedicated to present an introduction about the DIgSILENT
PowerFactory, the most important aspects of advanced smart grid functionalities,
including special aspects of modelling as well as simulation and analysis, e.g.
wide-area monitoring, visualisation and control; dynamic capability rating,
real-time load measurement and management, interfaces and co-simulation for
modelling and simulation of hybrid systems. Chapter 2 illustrates the synergic
relationship that can be established between DIgSILENT PowerFactory and a set of
Python libraries for data analysis using the Python API, and the examples of static
and dynamic simulations using the Python API and PowerFactory are presented.
Chapter 3 presents the development of a user-defined tool to minimise the
voltage unbalance caused by unsymmetrical loads and generators. The tool
Introduction xiii

provides the user with a set of switching actions to improve the power distribution
over the three phases.
Chapter 4 presents a co-simulation framework developed to test optimal control
methods for root-mean-square (RMS) simulations on DIgSILENT PowerFactory.
As an example, the implementation of a smart charging control for plug-in electric
vehicles in electric distribution networks is explained. The co-simulation frame-
work used digexfun interface, allowing DIgSILENT PowerFactory to send and
receive data from other mathematical software APIs such as MATLAB.
Chapter 5 is dedicated to present the development of a DIgSILENT
PowerFactory script language (DPL) implementation of a DPL script to perform
probabilistic power flow (PLF) using Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) to consider
the variability of the stochastic variables in the power system during the assessment
of the steady-state performance.
Chapter 6 shows the capability of DIgSILENT PowerFactory to simulate smart
grid functionalities; DIgSILENT Programming Language (DPL) is used to model
Power Management System (PMS) Logic in automatically detecting of islanding
condition as well as executing load/generation shedding in an islanded system to
prevent instability. Indeed, this modelling gives the possibility to check the impact
of considered PMS logic under different operating conditions on the stability of the
system.
Chapter 7 introduces the concept of eigenvalue sensitivity to analyse the
installation location and feedback signals of damping regulating devices using
DIgSILENT Programming Language. A state-space representation of the linearised
system is estimated by dynamic simulations and used to provide two indices based
on mode controllability and mode observability.
Chapter 8 presents the main details of a PMS configuration, and its major
functions are explained. The impact of the PMS on system stability is analysed
through detailed dynamic simulations in DIgSILENT PowerFactory. The chapter
presents the details of the DIgSILENT Simulation Language (DSL) modelling
of the PMS and the models of turbine governor, excitation system and signals.
Chapter 9 presents the design of a wide-area damping control (WADC) using a
power system stabiliser (PSS) and remote PMU data from the wide-area mea-
surement system (WAMS).
Chapter 10 is focused on the demonstration of capabilities of DIgSILENT
PowerFactory software for solving the problem of optimal PMU placement in
power networks. The optimal placement has been viewed from the perspective of
satisfying the observability requirement of power system state estimator. Optimal
placement of PMU is formulated as a practical design task, considering some
technical challenges like complete network observability, enough redundancy and
the concept of zero injection buses under PMU and tie-line critical contingencies.
Furthermore, the meta-heuristic techniques by evolutionary computations are pro-
grammed as an optimisation toolbox in DIgSILENT Programming Language
(DPL). A distinctive characteristic of the presented module is that the evolutionary
algorithm is only coded in DPL without using the time-consuming process of
xiv Introduction

interlinking DIgSILENT PowerFactory with another software package like


MATLAB.
Chapter 11 illustrates a basic intentional controlled islanding (ICI) algorithm
implemented in PowerFactory. It utilises the slow coherency theory and constrained
graph partitioning to promote transient stability and create islands with a reasonable
power balance. The algorithm is also capable of excluding specified network
branches from the search space. The implementation is based on the coupling of
Python and MATLAB programme codes.
Chapter 12 presents the peer-to-peer MATLAB–PowerFactory communication.
The method is extremely simple file sharing approach to couple MATLAB and
PowerFactory, and it is used to solve an optimisation problem. An illustrative
two-area power system is modelled using PowerFactory, and an optimisation
algorithm is implemented in MATLAB.
Chapter 13 addresses key aspects concerning the implementation of Single
Machine Equivalent (SIME) by using DIgSILENT Programming Language (DPL).
An exemplary application on a well-known benchmark power system is then pre-
sented and discussed to highlight the feasibility and effectiveness of the imple-
mentation in DIgSILENT PowerFactory environment.
In Chap. 14, a new wind turbine (WT) as well as a VSC–HVDC control concept
is presented, which determines the converter reference voltage directly without the
need of an underlying current controller. Additionally, alternative options for fre-
quency support by the HVDC terminals that can be incorporated into the active
power control channel are presented. The implementation steps performed by using
DSL programming are presented for the case of EMT simulations.
We would like to thank all authors and invited reviewers of the individual
chapters for their continuous and valuable support in the different stages of the
preparation of this book.
We make the maximum effort to make the book a useful source of information
on the use of PowerFactory and, at the same time, provide the basis for discussion
among readers and users with diverse expertise and backgrounds.

Francisco Gonzalez-Longatt
José Luis Rueda Torres