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Full Laboratory Report:

Name: Morgan Mooney

Student ID: 15343946

Group No. 16

Module MM203

Date Attended 04/10/16

Report Date 07/10/16

Plagiarism Statement:

I understand that the University regards breaches of academic integrity and plagiarism as grave and

serious.

I have read and understood the DCU Academic Integrity and Plagiarism Policy. I accept the penalties

that may be imposed should I engage in practice or practices that breach this policy.

I have identified and included the source of all facts, ideas, opinions, viewpoints of others in the

assignment references. Direct quotations from books, journal articles, internet sources, module text,

or any other source whatsoever are acknowledged and the sources cited are identified in the

assignment references.

I declare that those sections, which I now submit for assessment, that I have been required to write

individually, are entirely my own work and have not been taken from the work of others save and to

the extent that such work has been cited and acknowledged within the text of my work.

I declare that those sections, which I now submit for assessment, that I have been required to write

as part of a group, are entirely the work of my group and have not been taken from the work of

others save and to the extent that such work has been cited and acknowledged within the text.

I have read and understood the DCU library referencing guidelines (available at:

http://www.library.dcu.ie/LibraryGuides/Citing&ReferencingGuide/player.html) and/or

recommended in the assignment guidelines and/or programme documentation.

By submitting this material online I confirm that this assignment, or any part of it, has not been

previously submitted by me or any other person for assessment on this or any other course of study.

By submitting material for assessment online I confirm that I have read and understood the DCU

Academic Integrity and Plagiarism Policy (available at:

https://www4.dcu.ie/sites/default/files/registry/docs/IntegrityPlagiarism.pdf)

1

Introduction

A gear train is a system of gears that transmits motion from one shaft to another. Simplistic

configurable arrangements will be used to gain experience with these systems and the calculations

associated with them. Then will progress to do calculations of gear ratios for epicyclic gear systems.

Simple gear trains were firstly assembled in order to gain a good understanding of what a train gear

was and how to do calculations associated with them. This system consisted of two spur gears

mounted on a frame with the teeth of the gears interlocking so when one of the gears were turned

the other would turn in the opposite direction. The results of this experiment was dependent on the

number of teeth on the gears being used and this was what determined the rotation ratio and the

amount of revolutions the gears did.

The compound gear train consists of a system that has four or more gears in which two gears rotate

together on one shaft. In the experiment, two different arrangements of the gears where arranged

with four gears and two gears together on one shaft in the centre. The rotation ratio and the

amount of rotations that each gear did, depended on the arrangement of the gears and the number

of teeth per gear.

The epicyclic gear system was used in the final section of the experiment. Epicyclic gear systems

consists of two gears which are mounted so that the centre of one gear rotate around the centre of

the other. The two gears are connected in the centre by a carrier. The carrier rotates in order to

carry one gear (‘planet gear’) around the other (‘sun gear’). The results of this experiment was

dependant on the link and the direction in which the system was rotated.

These systems (epicyclic gear systems) are used when a large change in speed or power is needed

across a small distance. They have a large variety of applications including: clocks, car mirrors, toys,

gearhead motors, tractors.

There are many advantages to using these systems [1] including their compact size and low weight,

their high accuracy, high efficiency and their co-axial arrangement. These are some of the reasons

that these systems are so popular to use in engineering. However, they also have their

disadvantages too; they can be quite noisy, they are mainly grease lubricated and high bearing loads

can lead can lead to early wear in dead stud or sleeve bearing construction and thus can be difficult

in some applications.

Aims

The aims of this experiment are:

To calculate accurately the module of the gears supplied, and from that decide whether the

gears are metric or imperial.

Another aim is to determine whether or not there is a relationship between the tooth ratio

and the rotation ratio for both simple gear trains and compound gear trains

The aim of the last step of the experiment was to prove that the ratio between the link and

other components of an epicyclic gear system can be found using the 3 step approach.

The final aim of the experiment was to investigate whether or not the equipment and

procedure for this experiment are capable of meeting the other aims in this experiment.

2

Theory

The first procedure carried out in this experiment is the inspection of each of the four gears. The

module (in mm) of each gear is found using the following equation.

𝑀𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑙𝑒 =

𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑂𝑓 𝑇𝑒𝑒𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝐺𝑒𝑎𝑟

The module of the gears is used to determine whether they are metric or imperial gears.

Using the gear train apparatus provided, the next step of the experiment is to construct a simple

gear train using any two of the four gears. Once they are secured with wingnuts and there is good

meshing (using spacers and washers) between the gear and the pinion on the apparatus, the gear is

rotated for one revolution anti-clockwise. The direction and number revolutions of the pinion are

noted. This step was repeated for the other two gears.

By simplifying the Tooth ratio, the Rotation ratio can be found.

𝑇𝑒𝑒𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑔𝑒𝑎𝑟

𝑇𝑜𝑜𝑡ℎ 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 =

𝑇𝑒𝑒𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑃𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑜𝑛

Using the last two gears from the last test, another gear is inserted between the two as an idler gear.

A good meshing is ensured and the meshing points between the idler, gear and pinion is marked.

The gear is turned for one revolution anti-clockwise and the direction and rotation of the idler and

pinion are recorded. This is then repeated for the remaining gear.

Using the same formula as before, the Gear ratio is then calculated.

Following this, a compound gear train is set up. This system refers to a gear system where at least

two gears rotate together on the same shaft. For the first test, the two smaller gears are fixed

together with the smallest one on top to form the idler. The meshing is marked for both the input

and output gears. The input gear is rotated through one anti-clockwise revolution and the direction

and number of revolutions is noted for the other gears.

After this, the central compound idler is configured so that the larger gear is on top of the smaller

one. The input gear is rotated again and the previous observations repeated. The gear ratio for the

whole system is given using the formula. [2]

𝐺𝑒𝑎𝑟 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 =

(𝑃𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑜𝑛)(𝑈𝑝𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑔𝑒𝑎𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑙 𝑖𝑑𝑙𝑒𝑟)

Subsequently, the epicyclical gear system is analysed. This gear system consists of three gears – sun

gear, ring gear, planet gear and a carrier called a link. A mechanism behind the gear system allows

certain parts to be locked, whether it be the ring, the link or the sun. There are three possible

combinations of locking, ring lock (Sun and Link move), link lock (Sun and Ring move) and sun lock

(Ring and Link move). In this experiment, the number of teeth on the sun, ring and planet gears are

all counted before commencing. The direction of rotation of each gear is noted with the sun locked.

3

The meshing between the sun, planet and ring gears are marked. The system is then rotated one

whole revolution anti-clockwise, recording the number of revolutions of the planet and ring gears

and the link. The link is then fixed and the gears are rotated clockwise one revolution noting the

number of revolutions of the ring, sun and planet gears.

The Gear ratio for the sun and the link is then calculated by adding the two previous results

together.

[3]

Initial inspection:

Using a Verniers callipers, measure the diameter of each of the gears, and count the number of

teeth on each gear. Then by dividing the diameter by the number of teeth you can find the modulus

for each of the gears.

𝑀𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑙𝑒 =

𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑂𝑓 𝑇𝑒𝑒𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝐺𝑒𝑎𝑟

1 78.91 100 0.7891

2 64.76 80 0.8095

3 49.23 60 0.8205

4 33.14 40 0.8285

After comparing the modulus of each of the gears to the information in the tables about metric and

imperial gear sizes, it was deduced that all the gears were metric.

Select any two gears and fix them to the arm using the pivots provided, mark the mesh point on

both gears. Then rotate the gear anticlockwise one revolution while counting the number of

revolutions and the direction of the pinion. Repeat the process for the other set of remaining gears

again noting the relevant information. Use the appropriate formulas to calculate tooth ratio and

gear ratio.

𝑇𝑒𝑒𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑔𝑒𝑎𝑟

𝑇𝑜𝑜𝑡ℎ 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 =

𝑇𝑒𝑒𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑃𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑜𝑛

Assy Teeth Teeth Gear Rotation Pinion Rotation Tooth Ratio Rotation

gear Pinion Dir Revs Dir Revs Ratio

1 80 60 Anti- 1 Clock 1 1/3 80/60=4/3 4/3

Clock Wise

2 100 40 Anti- 1 Clock 2½ 100/40=5/2 5/2

Clock Wise

4

Simple Gear Train – Part 2:

Using the last pair of gears from part 1, insert a third gear as an ‘idler’ between the two gears and

ensure there is a good meshing between the gears, mark the mesh points and rotate the gear once

anticlockwise. Count the rotations of the final gear and pinion, replace the idler with the remaining

gear and repeat the experiment. Use the appropriate formulas to calculate tooth ratio and gear

ratio.

𝑇𝑒𝑒𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑔𝑒𝑎𝑟

𝑇𝑜𝑜𝑡ℎ 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 =

𝑇𝑒𝑒𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑃𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑜𝑛

gear pinion final gear Dir Rev Dir Rev Dir Rev Ratio Ratio

1 100 60 40 Anti- 1 Clock 7/3 Anti- 5/2 5/2 5/2

Clock Wise Clock

2 100 80 40 Anti- 1 Clock 5/3 Anti- 5/2 5/2 5/2

Clock Wise Clock

Adjust the gears from the previous experiment so that the idler is now replaced with the two smaller

gears joined together with a central pin, these two joined gears will now form the idler, which will be

placed between the fear and pinion. Place the idler such that the smaller gear is uppermost first,

rotate the input gear one revolution anticlockwise, as before note the direction and number of

rotations of the other gears. Rearrange the idler so that the larger gear is the uppermost and repeat

the experiment, once more recording the results. Determine the gear ratios between the input and

output gears from these observations.

𝐺𝑒𝑎𝑟 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 =

(𝑃𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑜𝑛)(𝑈𝑝𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑔𝑒𝑎𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑙 𝑖𝑑𝑙𝑒𝑟)

Assem Tooth ratio Tooth ratio Gear Compound Pinion Rev Ratio

bly Input:Compound Compound:Output Dir Rev Dir Rev Dir Rev Input:Output

1 100/40 60/80 Anti- 1 Clock 5/2 Anti- 15/8 10/3

Clock Wise Clock

2 100/60 40/80 Anti- 1 Clock 5/3 Anti- 2/3 10/3

Clock Wise Clock

Count the number of teeth on the ring, planet, and sun gears, rotate the whole system one

revolution anticlockwise and observe the direction and number of rotations of each of the gears.

Then fix the link and rotate the fixed gear one revolution clockwise, again observe the direction and

5

the number of rotations of each of the gears. Finally add the results to find the gear ratio between

the ring and the link

Rotate system 1 rev 1 3/2 0 1/3

anticlockwise

Fix Link and rotate -1 9/4 ½ 0

sun gear 1 rev

clockwise

Sum steps 1 & 2 0 24/7 ½ 1/3

Discussion

From the results in the first section of the experiment it is possible to calculate the modulus of the

gears and from the calculations determine whether the gears were metric or imperial. In the case of

the gears used in this experiment, the gears were metric.

From the second experiment it was proven that the tooth ratio and the rotation ratio are the same

when there is no idler used. The direction of rotation of the pinion is always opposite to that of the

gear. For the second part off the experiment upon insertion of the idler, it can be seen that, the idler

then allows the pinion to rotate in the same direction as the gear. Once again it is observed that the

tooth ratio and the rotation ratio is the same even after the addition of the idler. It is observed that

even after altering the size of the idler the rotation ratio remains unchanged.

For the experiment involving the use of the compound gears it is observed, that the compound gear

changes the rotation ratio and also the speed of the pinion. The changing of the compound gear

changes the number of rotations of the pinion. In the case of this experiment the larger the number

of teeth (ie. the teeth ratio) the larger the number of rotations of the pinion.

For the final experiment involving the Epicyclic gear system it was found that even when link was

fixed the sun still rotated the same amount. While in the case of both the ring and the planet the

number of revolutions of both increased upon the fixing of the link.

We found that the most significant source of measurement error was when the gears didn’t

perfectly mesh together and if they weren’t perfectly aligned. We solved these problems by pinning

the gears in place and using washers to make sure all the gears lay on the same level.

Another thing that might significantly affect the experiments is the differences in terms of the model

and practical setup. This is because in the model all the gears are perfectly aligned, while in the

practical setup, washers must be used to attempt to align the gears and it might not be possible to

ensure that they are balanced due to different thickness of the gears and washers.

Conclusions

After completing this experiment it was found that the equipment and the procedure for this

experiment was capable of meeting the other aims of this experiment in terms of getting results and

calculating data.

6

It was also found that there was a relationship between the tooth ratio and the rotation ratio for a

simple gear, the tooth ratio and the rotation ratio were the same even after the insertion of the

idler. While for the compound gear while there was a relationship between the tooth ratio and the

rotation ratio, they were not the same, for the compound gear it was found that as the tooth ratio

increased so too did the rotation ratio.

It was also found that the modulus of the gear could be calculated using the number of teeth and

the diameter of the gear, and from the result it was possible to calculate whether the gear was

metric or imperial.

Finally it was proven that the ratio between the link and other components of an epicyclic gear

system can be found using the 3 step approach and how the fixing of the link will have an effect on

all the readings except for the sun.

References

] https://gearmotorblog.wordpress.com/2013/05/07/planetary-gearmotors/. [Accessed 06

October 2016].

] 2016].

] https://loop.dcu.ie/pluginfile.php/1228608/mod_resource/content/1/MM203LabManual2016.p

df. [Accessed 5 October 2016].

] 2016].

] October 2016].

7

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