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What is Database?

 Database – a shared collection of logically related data, and

description of this data, designed to meet the information needs of an


 Database Management System (DBMS) – a software system that

enables users to define, create, maintain, and control access to the

Different Kinds of Database Software Kinds of File-Based System

 Traditional File-Based System
- manual file is set up to hold all external and internal
correspondence relating to a project, product, employee, or client, such
files are labeled and stored in cabinets
- for security, cabinets have locks or may be located in secure areas
of the building
 File-Based System
- collection of application programs that perform services for the
end-users such as the production of reports
- an early attempt to computerize the manual filing system
- was developed in response to the needs of industry for more
efficient data access

Actors on the Scene Actors on the Scene

 Database Administrators (DBA) – administers database environment
such as database itself and DBMS and related software. DBA is
responsible for authorizing access to the dbase, for coordinating and
monitoring its use, and for acquiring software and hardware resources

- accountable for problems such as breach of security or poor system

response time

 Database Designers – responsible for identifying the data to be stored

in the dbase and for choosing appropriate structures to represent and
store this data


DBA Responsibilities DBA Responsibilities

 Installation, configuration and upgrading of Database software and
 Database tuning and performance monitoring.
related products.
 Setup and maintain documentation and standards.
 Establish and maintain sound backup and recovery policies and
procedures.  Plan growth and changes (capacity planning).

 Take care of the Database design and implementation.  Work as part of a team and provide 7×24 supports when required.

 Implement and maintain database security (create and maintain users  Do general technical trouble shooting and give consultation to

and roles, assign privileges). development teams.

Actors on the Scene Functions of DBMS

 End-users – people whose jobs require access to the dbase for  Data Storage Management: It provides a mechanism for management

querying, updating, and generating reports of permanent storage of the data.

 System analysts – determine the requirements of end-users and

develop specifications for canned transactions (using standard types  Data Manipulation Management: A DBMS furnishes users with the
of queries and updates) ability to retrieve, update and delete existing data in the database.

 Application programmers – implement these specifications as

programs, then they test, debug, document and maintain the canned
 Data Dictionary/System Catalog Management: The DBMS provides a
data dictionary or system catalog function in which descriptions of
data items are stored and which is accessible to users.

Functions of DBMS Functions of DBMS

 Authorization / Security Management: The DBMS protects the
database against unauthorized access, either international or
 Concurrency Control Service: Since DBMSs support sharing of data
accidental. It furnishes mechanism to ensure that only authorized
among multiple users, they must provide a mechanism for managing
users an access the database.
concurrent access to the database. DBMSs ensure that the database
 Backup and Recovery Management: The DBMS provides mechanisms kept in consistent state and that integrity of the data is preserved.
for backing up data periodically and recovering from different types
of failures. This prevents the loss of data.


Uses of Database What is Relation?

 Was first proposed by E. F. Codd
 Controlling redundancy  a relation is a table with
columns and rows
 Restricting unauthorized access
 relations are used to hold
 Providing multiple user interfaces information about the objects
to be represented in the
 Providing back-up and recovery database
 Relational Model – is based on
 Effective and efficient management of data the mathematical concept of a
relation, which is physically
 Data sharing and storage
represented as a table
 Attributes – a named column of
a relation

What is Relation Relational Keys

 Tuple – is a row of a  Primary key – a key that is
selected to identify tuples
 Degree – the degree of
a relation is the uniquely with the relation
number of attributes it
contains  Foreign key – an attribute,

 Cardinality – the or set of attributes with

cardinality of a one relation that matches
relation is the number
of tuples it contains the key of the other tables.