Anda di halaman 1dari 2

Chapter 1 Nature of Inquiry and Research

Section 1 Overview of Quantitative Research

Quantitative Research - systematic empirical investigation of social phenomena using tools of mathematics and
statistics.

FEATURES OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

1. Measurement and quantitative research

2. Empiricism and Positivism: The philosophies of quantitative research

3. Scientific method in the social sciences

TYPES OF QUANTITIVE RESEARCH

1. Descriptive Research - investigating, measuring, and describing one or more aspects or characteristics

2. Correlational Research - relationship between two or more characteristics

3. Casual-comparative Research - compares one or more measurable characteristics to find the similarities and
differences

4. Experimental Research - actively manipulate conditions or inputs to observe the outcomes

STRENGTHS OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

1. Easier to draw generalizable conclusion

2. Easier to replicate

3. Generally consistent across disciplines

4. Easier to summarize, describe, process, and analyze large volume of information

5. Better for projects where objectivity is desired

WEAKNESSES OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

1. Some are often difficult or impossible to measure

2. Emphasis on generalizability and trends hinders the deeper examination of nuanced factors

3. Context and other information that provide a richer understanding of observed trends and patterns can get lost in
the measurement and macroexamination of data.

4. Omission of data can easily lead to the misinterpretation of results.

5. Some tools may yield limited or even inaccurate information due to human nature.

Section 2 The Importance of Quantitative Research Across Fields


1. Politics, Governance, and Public Administration

2. Business, Management, and Economics

3. Environment and Development Studies

4. Education, Sociology, and Psychology

Section 3 The Uses of Variables in Quantitative Research

Variables - central idea in quantitative research

FOUR TYPES OF OPERATIONAL VARIABLES

1. Independent variables

2. Dependent variables

3. Intervening variables

4. Antecedent variables

MEASURING VARIABLES

Statistical
Data

Categorical Numerical
Data Data

Nominal Interval

Ordinal Ratio

USES OF VARIABLES IN QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

1. Classifying

2. Measuring

3. Explaining

4. Assessing Relationships