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# DOUBLE PIPE HEAT EXCHANGER

Steady state conditions are achieved when the temperature distribution inside the system is
stable. Data set when time = 90s will be chosen as a representative for steady state
believing that the temperature will have reached a point of stability after 90s.
Qhot and Qcold calculation
Data obtained from experiment:
Cocurrent
Hot water flow rate = 100 L h-1
Cold water flow rate = 25 L h-1
TT1 = 44.8oC = 317.95 K
TT3 = 40.4 oC = 313.55 K
TT4 = 22.3oC = 295.45 K
TT6 = 33.1oC = 306.25 K

Specifications:
Flow = Co-current flow
Outer tube area = 0.0402 m2
Th in = 44.8C Th out = 40.4 C Tc in = 22.3 C Tc out = 32.9 C

## Hot water flowrate = 100 L/hr

Density = 990.39 kg/m3 (Himmelblau 2012)
Specific heat capacity of Thot average (42.6C) = 4180 J/kg K (Himmelblau 2012)

100 𝐿 1 ℎ𝑟 0.001 𝑚3
Volumetric flowrate, v = | 3600 𝑠 | = 2.78 x 10-5 m3/s
ℎ𝑟 1𝐿

## Mass flowrate, m = (2.78 x 10-5 m3/s) x ( 990.39 kg/m3) = 0.0275 kg/s

Calculating Qhot
qhot = mass flow rate x Cp x Thot
T = 44.8 C – 40.4 C = 4.3 C = 317.98K – 313.55K = 4.43K
Heat transfer rate, qhot = (0.0275 kg/s) x ( 4180 J/kg K ) x ( 4.43 K) = 509.27 J/s = 0.509 kJ/s
Calculating Qcold
Cold water flowrate = 25 L/hr
Density = 997.33 kg/m3 (Himmelblau 2012)
Specific heat capacity of Tcold average (27.6C) = 4180 J/kg K (Himmelblau 2012)
25 𝐿 1 ℎ𝑟 0.001 𝑚3
Volumetric flowrate, v = | 3600 𝑠 | = 6.94 x 10-6 m3/s
ℎ𝑟 1𝐿

Mass flowrate, m = (6.94 x 10-6 m3/s) x ( 997.33 kg/m3) = 6.92 x 10-3 kg/s
T =306.25 K - 295.45 K = 10.8K
Heat transfer rate, qcold = (6.92 x 10-3 kg/s) x ( 4180 J/kg K) x ( 10.8 K) = 312 J/s = 0.312 kJ/s

Efficiency
Efficiency = qcold/qhot x 100%
= 0.312 kJ/s / 0.509 kJ/s x 100%
= 61.3%
Error = qhot - qcold
= 0.509 kJ/s - 0.312 kJ/s
= 0.197 KJ/s

## %Error = Error/qhot x 100%

= 0.197 KJ/s /0.509 KJ/s x 100%
= 38.7%

Uexp calculation
q = Uexp x A x DTm
q is the average of qhot and qcold = 0.412 KJ/s
A is the area of outer tube = 0.0402 m2
Tm = TLMTD = T2-T1/Ln(T2/T1)
T2 = TT1 – TT4 = 22.5 K
T1 = TT3 – TT6 = 7.3 K
Tm = f TLMTD = 1 [22.5 K – 7.3 K/Ln(3.08)] = 13.51 K
f for standard Double Pipe Heat Exchanger is 1.0 (Leinhard and Leinhard, 2015)
q = Uexp x A x DTm
0.412 kJ/s = Uexp x 0.0402 m2 x 13.51 K => Uexp = 0.759 kW m-2 K-1
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