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Dedication

1 We would like to dedicate this to our family, friends and all the people who helped us in making

this report and especially the students who are a victim of stress due to the semester system.
Acknowledgement
This report wouldn’t have been possible without the help of many people. We are thankful to

everyone and especially our respectable teacher Ma’am Raheela Tariq for helping us with the

topic and guiding us along the way and also the group members Heba Munir, Abdur Rahim

Malik, Abdul Rehman Paracha and Anam Javed who were a part of this and also all the students

who helped us in the survey report and helped us achieve our goal.
Team Members

 Heba Munir (13L-4727)

(Questions, Survey, Information Collection on Topic)

 Anam Javed (13L-4729)

(Questions, Survey, Information Collection on Topic)

 Abdur Rahim Malik (13L-4811)

(Questions, Survey, Statistical)

 Abul Rehman Paracha (13L-4780)

(Questions, Survey, Binding)

Presented to

Mrs Raheela Tariq


Abstract

The main goal of the survey was to find out if semester system in universities causes stress and

other health issues in students resulting in many problems in them. The effects of semester

system on the health of the students as well as the psyche of the students were carefully

analyzed. The report included many questions which were helpful for us to conclude an end

result which was the steps taken in order to reduce the stress in the students.

The survey was conducted amongst 26 females and 24 males between the ages 18-24. The results

were calculated and then analyzed and the conclusion was made accordingly.
Summary of the Topic

We conducted a closed ended survey on the topic “Does semester system stress causes Insomnia

and health issues in the students?” The stress and the tension caused by semester system in the

students is increasing a lot lately. A lot of students when come into the semester system from the

annual system face a lot of problems and many difficulties in the start and some have the

problems throughout the system. The semester system stress causes many health issues as well as

psychological problems amongst the students. Health problems also arise due to this stress.

Semester system is an effective way of learning as the burden of work is divided to some extent,

but it is a major cause of stress as the students have difficulty adjusting in the semester system.

Anxiety, stress, tension and many other health issues are witnessed in the students studying in

semester system.

Our hypothesis was “the students studying in semester system suffer from insomnia and many

other health issues”. While making the questioner we kept the fact in mind that we need to cover

all the areas affected by semester system. The survey was conducted and our hypothesis was

corrected when the results were calculated and the results were positive and in our favor as the

semester system stress not only caused health problems but also caused stress and tension.

Almost 62% of the students were under stress due to semester system and it was a positive

response too.
Survey Method

The most important objective of the survey is to choose an appropriate survey method even

before selecting a topic. A lot of things must be kept in mind while doing so. The advantages and

disadvantages of a suitable survey method must also be kept in mind. The survey method is such

which helps us to analyze our topic accordingly.

Population Issues:

The most important step in the survey is targeting the appropriate population of people for

questioning regarding the survey. The population should be easy to find and also easily

accessible.

 For the sampling it is important to target a specific community of people who are affected

by the effects of the certain cause in one way of another. While doing the research the

specific group of people is questioned regarding the topic. The list of the people is made

and contact is made with them either through the questioners personally, or through

interview or through mail surveys.

 It is important for the group of people to be questioned be educated as in the respondent

should be able to read the questions present in the questioner and should be able to give

an appropriate answer to it. At times the words used in the questioners are difficult that is

tough vocabulary words are used which might be difficult to read for some people. The

population to be targeted should be literate and should be educated enough to give the

answers to the questions.


 We belong to that community of people who are multilingual that is they speak more than
one language. Every other society has people who speak more than their mother tongue

language. Many countries are bilingual, but it comprises of communities of people who

are multilingual. The language used in the questioners should also be kept under

consideration. The question here arises if the questioners of different languages should be

provided or not? If the questioner is translated in another language in this process much

of the important information might be affected and might not stay in its original form or

might not even stay intact.

 It is important for the people to be questioned be engaged and involved in the topic
regarding which they are providing answers. It is very important for the people to

cooperate and the respondent to understand the context easily. There is a group of people

or some part of the population which is involved in activities that are illegal and

unacceptable.

 In some cases the geographical restrictions are a hindrance. The people whom you want
to question might be dispersed to different locations and you can go with interviewing

them or mailing them the questions. As its difficult to interact with them directly.
Sampling Issues

The sample is the actual group you will have to contact in some way. There are several important

sampling issues you need to consider when doing survey research.

What data is available?

What info do you have about your sample? Do you know their current addresses? Their phone numbers?

Are your contact lists up to date?

Can respondents be found?

Can your respondents be located easily? Some people are very busy. Some travel a lot. Some work the

night shift. Even if you have an accurate phone or address, you may not able to locate or make contact

with your sample.

Can all members of population be sampled?

If you have an incomplete list of the population you may not be able to sample every member of the

population. List of various groups are extremely hard to keep up to date.

Are response rates likely to be a problem?

Even if you are to solve all of the other population and sampling problem, you still have to deal with the

issue of response rates. Some members of your sample will simply refuse to respond. Others have the best

of intensions, but can’t seem to find the time to send in your questionnaires by the due date.
Who is the respondent?

A respondent varies in every survey as the topic is the main thing that judges the respondent included in

the survey. It’s either the youth of the nation or in some cases the family members or the head of the

family. It is important for our respondent to be interested in helping us and providing us with the

information which we want. Many problems arise in this process.

Can all the members of population be sampled?

Usually, the population is too large for the researcher to attempt to survey all of its members. A

small, but carefully chosen sample can be used to represent the population. The sample reflects

the characteristics of the population from which it is drawn.

Sampling Methods:

Sampling methods are classified as either probability or nonprobability. In probability samples,

each member of the population has a known non-zero probability of being selected. Probability

methods include random sampling, systematic sampling, and stratified sampling. In

nonprobability sampling, members are selected from the population in some nonrandom manner.

These include convenience sampling, judgment sampling, quota sampling, and snowball

sampling. The advantage of probability sampling is that sampling error can be calculated.

Sampling error is the degree to which a sample might differ from the population. When inferring

to the population, results are reported plus or minus the sampling error. In nonprobability

sampling, the degree to which the sample differs from the population remains unknown.
 Random sampling is the purest form of probability sampling. Each member of the

population has an equal and known chance of being selected. When there are very large

populations, it is often difficult or impossible to identify every member of the population,

so the pool of available subjects becomes biased.

 Systematic sampling is often used instead of random sampling. It is also called an Nth

name selection technique. After the required sample size has been calculated, every Nth

record is selected from a list of population members. As long as the list does not contain

any hidden order, this sampling method is as good as the random sampling method. Its

only advantage over the random sampling technique is simplicity. Systematic sampling is

frequently used to select a specified number of records from a computer file.

 Stratified sampling is commonly used probability method that is superior to random

sampling because it reduces sampling error. A stratum is a subset of the population that

share at least one common characteristic. Examples of stratums might be males and

females, or managers and non-managers. The researcher first identifies the relevant

stratums and their actual representation in the population. Random sampling is then used

to select a sufficient number of subjects from each stratum. "Sufficient" refers to a sample

size large enough for us to be reasonably confident that the stratum represents the

population. Stratified sampling is often used when one or more of the stratums in the

population have a low incidence relative to the other stratums.


 Convenience sampling is used in exploratory research where the researcher is interested

in getting an inexpensive approximation of the truth. As the name implies, the sample is

selected because they are convenient. This nonprobability method is often used during

preliminary research efforts to get a gross estimate of the results, without incurring the

cost or time required to select a random sample.

 Judgment sampling is a common nonprobability method. The researcher selects the

sample based on judgment. This is usually and extension of convenience sampling. For

example, a researcher may decide to draw the entire sample from one "representative"

city, even though the population includes all cities. When using this method, the

researcher must be confident that the chosen sample is truly representative of the entire

population.

 Quota sampling is the nonprobability equivalent of stratified sampling. Like stratified

sampling, the researcher first identifies the stratums and their proportions as they are

represented in the population. Then convenience or judgment sampling is used to select

the required number of subjects from each stratum. This differs from stratified sampling,

where the stratums are filled by random sampling.


Question design

It is important to design questions very carefully. A poorly designed questionnaire render

meaningless. There are many factors to consider, some are as follows

 Make items clear (don’t assume the person you are questioning knows the term you

are using)

 Avoid double-barreled questions (make sure the questions asks only one clear thing)

 Respondent must be competent to answer (don’t ask questions that respondent wont

accurately be able to answer)

 Questions should be relevant (don’t ask questions on topics that the respondent don’t

care about or haven’t thought about)

 Short items are best (so that they may be read, understood and answered quickly).

 Avoid negative items (if you ask whether librarians should be paid more, it will

confuse respondents).

 Avoid biased items and terms (be sensitive to the effect of your wordings on

respondents).
Methodology:
The topic chosen for survey was semester system stress causes insomnia and health issues in
students. The purpose of the survey was the confirmation of the fact that semester system for
the students coming from annual system setup is tough and it causes insomnia and many other
health issues.

Objective of Survey:
It was to find if semester system caused stressed in the students and if it was the main reason
of all the health issues in the students.

Hypothesis:
Yes, semester system stress causes insomnia and other health issues in the students.

Alternative Hypothesis:
No, semester system stress does not cause insomnia and other health issues in students.

Data Collection Method:


The questioners made were used in order to find the result of our topic. All the questions were
composed in such a way as to find if semester system stress caused insomnia and other health
issues in the students.

Sampling:

The samples were collected from both male and female students aged between 18-24 Lahore.

Data Collection:

The questioners were distributed amongst the students and the results were analyzed and on
the basis of that the conclusion was made.
Conclusion

Our sample contained 52% female and 48% male out of 100% that is 26 females and 24

males.

The results showed that 62% of the students say that semester system stress causes Insomnia

and other health issues whereas only 38% of the students disagreed to it.

It can be seen that the students who come from the background of annual system are more under

stress rather the students coming from semester system. If the students are provided with a clear

guideline they can act upon the can easily achieve their goal and the chances of them being

stressed are less. The semester system stress not only causes Insomnia, but also other health

problems affecting the psyche of the students leading towards many other issues too.
Discussion

Our topic was “Does semester system stress causes Insomnia and other health issues in the

students?” The topic was related to health psychology. The survey was done in different

institutes including Kinnaird College Lahore (KC) , Government College Lahore (GCU) , Lahore

University of Management Sciences (LUMS) and FAST as well. We had 25 questions which

were distributed amongst 50 students of age 18-24. Questions were fixed ended and the

respondent had to reply either yes or no.

According to all the calculations and the statistical analysis the fact was made obvious that the

semester system stress causes not only Insomnia but other health issues as well. The hypothesis

was true for 62% of the total sample i.e. this percentage of the students is under stress and is also

facing many other psychological issues. This is the ratio of the people who are having problem in

the semester system and 38% think semester system is better than annual system whereas 62%

think that annual system is better than semester system.

One of the most important things is that the ratio of the students under stress is greater than the

ratio of the students not under stress.