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Organ systems[Read-Only].pdf
Structural Hierarchy
Animal tissue types
• What is a tissue?
• A cooperative unit of many very similar
cells that perform a specific function.
• Examples
– Epithelial
– Connective
– Muscle
– Nervous
Tissues to organs
• An organ is
composed of
several tissue
• Ex. stomach
Organ systems
• Groups of several organs that work together
to perform vital body functions
• 12 major organ systems
Digestive system

• Ingests food, breaks it

down into small units,
absorbs the units,
eliminates unused
Respiratory system

• Lungs and breathing

tubes exchange gases
with the environment.
• The heart and blood
vessels supply
nutrients and oxygen
to the body and carry
away wastes and
carbon dioxide.
Lymphatic and
immune systems
• Supplements the
cardiovascular system
• A diffuse system of
cells and processes
that protect the body
from foreign invasion
• Makes up the
circulatory system
along with the
cardiovascular system
Excretory system

• Kidneys, bladder, and

urethra remove
nitrogen containing
wastes from the blood
and maintain osmotic
Endocrine system

• Endocrine glands
secrete hormones into
the blood that regulate
most other activities.
Reproductive system

• Different in males an
• Ovaries and testes
produce female and
male gametes, and
help in fertilization
and embryo
Nervous system
• The brain, spinal cord,
nerves, and sense
organs work together
with the endocrine
system to sense the
outside environment,
affect responses, and
coordinate body
Muscular system
• All skeletal muscles
provide movement as
they work with the
skeletal system
Skeletal system
• Bones and cartilage
provide support and
protection, and work
with the muscular
system to provide
Integumentary system
• Skin, hair and nails
protect the internal
body parts from
injury, infection,
temperature extremes,
and drying out.
Exchanges with the external
• Organisms cannot survive unless they exchange
materials with their environment
• Organ systems function to make the exchange of
nutrients and wastes with the external
environment possible in larger animals
Exchanges with the
external environment
• More complex
– large, many cell
layers, few in contact
with the external
– Exchange is achieved
by organ systems and
with the interstitial
– Fine branches in each
system circ, resp, dig.